American Geophysical Union. We apply a measure from fractal geometry to time series of airborne observations of ozone and meteorol. The Hurst exponent measure demonstrates that the lower stratospheric ozone, wind and temp. As a result, we suggest that ozone and horizontal windspeed behave as random, self-affine fractals, that vertical wind speed behaves antipersistently and that horizontal wind direction and temp. The persistent variables are candidates for multifractality. Public Library of Science. Confinement of mols. The cellular plasma membrane, which is the outermost membrane that surrounds the entire cell, was considered to be a continuous two-dimensional liq.

In this article, we give a theor. By performing simulations based on a lattice-based model of diffusion and reaction, we found that in the presence of membrane partitioning, bimol. We characterized the time between reaction bursts and the burst amplitude as a function of the model parameters, and discussed the biol. EDP Sciences.

The large-scale organization of complex networks, both natural and artificial, has shown the existence of highly heterogeneous patterns of organization. Such patterns typically involve scale-free degree distributions and small-world, modular architectures. One example is provided by chem. The chem. Here we present novel data anal. Our work reveals that Earth's atm. Instead, the other astrophys. The implications for large-scale regulation of the planetary dynamics are outlined.

Elsevier Ltd. The authors review recent evidence illustrating the fundamental difference between cytoplasmic and test tube biochem. Simulations of biochem. Consequently, the conventional equations for biochem. The authors present a modification to fractal-like kinetics following the Zipf-Mandelbrot distribution which will enable the modeling and anal. Proteins are traditionally identified on the basis of their individual actions as catalysts, signaling mols. But our post-genomic view is expanding the protein's role into an element in a network of protein-protein interactions as well, in which it has a contextual or cellular function within functional modules.

Here we provide quant. E , 78 , doi: DOI: Atomistic Methods in Fluid Simulation Philos. Kadau, Kai; Barber, John L. Royal Society. Atomistic methods, such as mol. The more fundamental nature of such methods, which exhibit nonlinear transport effects and small-scale fluctuations, extends their modeling accuracy to a significantly wider range of scales and regimes than the more traditional Navier-Stokes-based continuum fluid-simulation techniques. In this paper, we describe the current state of the art in atomistic fluid simulation, from both a theor. Finally, we suggest possible avenues of future research in the field.

The Fractal Form of Proteins Phys. National Academy of Sciences. The anomalous behavior may, in principle, stem from various factors affecting the energy landscape under which a protein vibrates. Investigating the origins of such unconventional dynamics, the authors focus on the structure-dynamics interplay and introduce a stochastic approach to the vibrational dynamics of proteins.

The authors use diffusion, a method sensitive to the structural features of the protein fold and them alone, to probe protein structure. Conducting a large-scale study of diffusion on over Protein Data Bank structures the authors find it to be anomalous, an indication of a fractal-like structure. Taking advantage of known and newly derived relations between vibrational dynamics and diffusion, the authors demonstrate the equivalence of these findings to the existence of structurally originated anomalies in the vibrational dynamics of proteins.

The authors conclude that these anomalies are a direct result of the fractal-like structure of proteins.

The duality between diffusion and vibrational dynamics allows us to make, on a single-mol. The time dependent vibrational mean square displacement of an amino acid is predicted to be subdiffusive. The thermal variance in the instantaneous distance between amino acids is shown to grow as a power law of the equil. Mean first passage time anal. E , 83 , Art No Mutual information function, which is an alternative to correlation function for symbolic sequences, and a symbolic spectrum are calcd.

It is obsd. It is suggested that the existence of the repetitive patterns in the sequence is mainly responsible for the obsd. A possible connection between this long-range correlation and those in music notes is also briefly discussed. A new method of quantifying correlations in symbolic sequences is applied to DNA nucleotides. Spectral d. Ensemble avs. Peng, C. DNA sequences have been analyzed using models, such as an n-step Markov chain, that incorporate the possibility of short-range nucleotide correlations.

The authors propose here a method for studying the stochastic properties of nucleotide sequences by constructing a map of the nucleotide sequence onto a walk, which they term a DNA walk. Then the mapping is used to provide a quant. Thus, the authors uncover in the nucleotide sequence a remarkably long-range power law correlation that implies a new scale-invariant property of DNA. Such long-range correlations were found in intron-contg. These monolayers show indistinguishable surface behavior, with similar compositional phase coexistence through all the compression isotherm on several subphase conditions.

The domains were obsd. Their thickness was measured ellipsometrically. Under mol. These properties are the hallmark of fractal objects. The fractality extends at least three orders of magnitudes, from the micrometer to the millimeter range, the fractal dimension being about 1. Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

A review with 40 refs. Our understanding of cell structure and function derives from applications of a variety of phys. We know that ion transport through membranes arises from a diversity of interrelated and interactive phys. Among these phenomena common to all cellular structure and function include metab. This review focuses on the unique information contained in fluctuations in elec. Collin, D. These transitions often occur under nonequil. But fluctuation theorems allow us to relate the work along nonequil. They have been shown to be applicable to single-mol.

Here we show that the Crooks fluctuation theorem can be used to det. We use optical tweezers to measure repeatedly the mech. The resultant work distributions are then analyzed according to the theorem and allow us to det. Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation , 2 nd ed. Dobson, Christopher M.

Barney; Tuck, Adrian F. Aerosol particles in the atm. The latter property is explicable by an inverted micelle model. The aerosol sizes with significant atm. We propose that large populations of such aerosols could have afforded an environment, by means of their ability to conc. We also suggest that aerosols could have been precursors to life, since it is generally agreed that the common ancestor of terrestrial life was a single-celled organism.

## A semi-empirical model of the energy balance closure in the surface layer

The early steps in some of these initial transformations should be accessible to exptl. Is Isotropic Turbulence Relevant in the Atmosphere? Three-and 2-dimensional model results were averaged to det. Zonal, hemispheric and global means of the rates of gas reactions show large deviations between some terms causing errors in 2- and 1-dimensional model calcns. Correlated measurements of atm. Nonlinear correlations, arising from dynamic phenomena, are either ignored or inadequately represented. The sources of error come from inadequacies in the formulation of 1- and 2-dimensional models, rather than from uncertainties in the input data, and have not been included in published error analyses.

The Middle Way Proc. Laughlin, R. Mesoscopic organization in soft, hard, and biol. Particular attention is paid to the possibility that as-yet-undiscovered organizing principles might be at work at the mesoscopic scale, intermediate between at. The search for the existence and universality of such rules, the proof or disproof of organizing principles appropriate to the mesoscopic domain, is called the middle way. Fluids , 27 , DOI: A mol. Evolution over a single breakdown and regeneration cycle is compared to computational fluid dynamics simulations.

The mol.

The impact of grid resoln. The kinetic energy spectra show that a range of scales are present in the mol. The subgrid velocity of the mols. The importance of sub-grid scales, relevance of the Kolmogorov length-scale, and implications of mol. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. The principle of maximum entropy production MEP seeks to better understand a large variety of the Earth's environmental and ecological systems by postulating that processes far from thermodynamic equilibrium will 'adapt to steady states at which they dissipate energy and produce entropy at the maximum possible rate'.

Our aim in this 'outside view', invited by Axel Kleidon, is to focus on what we think is an outstanding challenge for MEP and for irreversible thermodynamics in general: making specific predictions about the relative contribution of individual processes to entropy production. Using studies that compared entropy production in the atmosphere of a dry versus humid Earth, we show that two systems might have the same entropy production rate but very different internal dynamics of dissipation.

Using the results of several of the papers in this special issue and a thought experiment, we show that components of life-containing systems can evolve to either lower or raise the entropy production rate. Our analysis makes explicit fundamental questions for MEP that should be brought into focus: can MEP predict not just the overall state of entropy production of a system but also the details of the sub-systems of dissipaters within the system?

Which fluxes of the system are those that are most likely to be maximized? How it is possible for MEP theory to be so domain-neutral that it can claim to apply equally to both purely physical-chemical systems and also systems governed by the 'laws' of biological evolution? We conclude that the principle of MEP needs to take on the issue of exactly how entropy is produced. Chapter 16, pp — Remote Sensing , 32 , — DOI: Thermodynamics and Recognition of Alien Biospheres Proc.

London, Ser. B , , — DOI: A review is presented with 22 refs. Life on an alien planet may be deduced by certain of its thermodn. Information on surface features such as clouds, oceans, the albedo, the emmissivity, and distribution of temps. The Ostwald ripening of bubbles is studied by mol. Many bubbles appear after depressurizing a system that is initially maintained in the pure-liq.

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The self-similarity of the bubble-size distribution function predicted by Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner theory is directly confirmed. The total no. As the initial temp. Royal Society of Chemistry. We show that spontaneous division of atm. This class of atm. Fully-coated particles have been suggested to have played a role in the origin of cell-based life.

The possibility of their spontaneous division has important implications for atm. Atmospheric Processing of Organic Aerosols J. We suggest a chem. This model is stimulated by recent field measurements showing that org. The proposed model org. The org. We propose a chem. The net result of an org. Consequently, processed org. Radiative transfer may be affected directly by the chromophores left on the surface of the aerosol after chem.

Among them is a curve of the percent org. We speculate that biomass burning will produce a similar coating of surfactants derived from land sources. It fills a great gap in texts available for teaching any basic course in volcanology. No other book I know of has the depth and breadth of Volcanism I have shared Volcanism with my colleagues to their significant benefit, and I am more convinced of its value for a broad range of Earth and planetary scientists.

Undoubtedly, I will use Volcanism for my upcoming courses in volcanology. I will never hesitate to recommend it to others. Many geoscientists from very different subdisciplines will benefit from adding the book to their personal libraries. Schmincke has done us all a great service by undertaking the grueling task of writing the book — and it is much better that he alone wrote it.

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And, with more than colour illustrations, including a huge number of really excellent new diagrams, cutaway models and maps, plus a rich glossary and references, this book is accessible to anyone with an interest in the subject. Yet scientists are still learning a great deal because of photographs that either capture those processes in action or show us the critical factors left behind in the rock record. Volcanism by Hans-Ulrich Schmincke has photos of the best quality I have ever seen in a text on the subject.

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In addition, the schematic figures in their wide range of styles are clear, colorful, and simplified to emphasize the most important factors while including all significant features. No other book I know of has the depth and breadth of Volcanism. I was disappointed that the text did not arrive on my desk until last August, when it was too late for me to choose it for my course in volcanology.

Schmincke is a volcanologist who, in , first published papers on sedimentary rocks of volcanic origin, the direction traveled by lava flows millions of years ago, and the structures preserved in explosive ignimbrites, or pumice-flow deposits, that reveal important details of their formation. Such contributions have been recognized with his receipt of several international awards and clearly give him a strong base for writing the book.

The group of scientists who are struggling with their goals to reduce or mitigate the hazards of the eruptions of tomorrow need to learn more about the options of technology, instrumentation, and methodology that are currently available. More than million people live near the more than known active volcanoes and are constantly facing serious threats of eruptions. An extremely energetic earthquake caused the horrific tsunamis of Account Options Sign in. Top charts. New arrivals. By the late nineteenth century, engineers and experimental scientists generally knew how radio waves behaved, and by scientists were able to manipulate them to transmit messages across long distances.

What no one could understand, however, was why radio waves followed the curvature of the Earth. In Probing the Sky with Radio Waves, Chen-Pang Yeang documents this monumental discovery and the advances in radio ionospheric propagation research that occurred in its aftermath.

Yeang illustrates how the discovery of the ionosphere transformed atmospheric science from what had been primarily an observational endeavor into an experimental science. This book will be warmly welcomed by scholars of astronomy, atmospheric science, geoscience, military and institutional history, and the history and philosophy of science and technology, as well as by radio amateurs and electrical engineers interested in historical perspectives on their craft.

Reviews Review Policy. Published on. Original pages. Best For. Web, Tablet. Content Protection. Flag as inappropriate. It syncs automatically with your account and allows you to read online or offline wherever you are. Please follow the detailed Help center instructions to transfer the files to supported eReaders. More related to atmospheric physics. See more. Harald Falck-Ytter. The colorful light of the aurora borealis appears in the sparsely populated polar regions of the North, during the long winter nights. Little is known about this ethereal occurrence, which gives dazzling displays of ghostly light and movement.

Knut Stamnes. This book is dedicated to the formulation and solution of forward and inverse problems related to coupled media, and provides examples of how to solve concrete problems in environmental remote sensing of coupled atmosphere-surface systems. The authors discuss radiative transfer in coupled media such as the atmosphere-ocean system with Lambertian as well non-Lambertian reflecting surfaces at the lower boundary. The spectral range from the ultraviolet to the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum is considered, as are multi-spectral as well as hyperspectral remote sensing, while solutions of the forward problem for unpolarized and polarized radiation are discussed in detail.

Yong Zhu. There are large-scale fluid systems in the gravity field, such as the Earth's atmosphere and oceans, which posses some features different from those of classical thermodynamic systems. The lower explanatory power of the statistical model for the case of free convection can be explained by the Taylor hypothesis underlying EC measurements, which is violated when the background wind becomes negligible. For sensible heat, R uw follows a similar pattern as the friction velocity, albeit with secondary importance.

For latent heat R uw is also contributing to the more unstable cases. The difference between latent and sensible heat is not pronounced, with the exception of R uw. Since our final goal is to derive a universal model for , we applied the regression analysis with the whole dataset of all the cases on the level 20 m. However, both R 2 and the adjusted R 2 are relatively low, around 0. In the surface layer, we find a different parameterization than Huang et al. First of all, the imbalance ratio is naturally lower near the surface. It is however possible to retain the same functional shape for the fit in the surface layer as in the mixed layer.

Remarkably, in the surface layer, the latent heat flux has lower imbalance ratios than the sensible heat flux, in contrast to the mixed layer. This larger underestimation of the sensible heat flux is in accordance with the findings with several other studies [ 54 — 56 ]. The dependence of the latent heat imbalance ratio on the Bowen ratio appears to be constricted to the surface layer, because our simulation data in the mixed layer for the same number of cases follows the results of Huang et al.

In addition, the storage flux should be taken into account in the mixed layer as well, by normalizing with respect to the surface flux instead of the spatial covariance at that height. For a particular measurement interval we thus derive the following formulae for the residual sensible heat flux and the total sensible heat flux with H m being the measured sensible heat flux , under homogeneous conditions: 15 The same formulae with E traded for H apply for the latent heat flux.

However, for the latent heat flux the correction factor has to be applied with more restraint, because the fit with respect stability works considerably less good than for sensible heat.

For a scalar such as water vapor, entrainment at the top of the boundary layer affects the scalar transport, which may explain why the latent heat flux imbalance is higher than the sensible flux imbalance in the mixed layer, but it is unclear to what extent this may affect the behavior of the fluxes in the surface layer. We also stress that these formulae 15 — 16 do not allow the partitioning of the residual into a storage flux, flux-divergence or advection by the mean flow, it only quantifies the total residual. The fact that unstable conditions lead to a larger flux imbalance, aligns well with the findings of Li et al.

For unstable conditions, the downdrafts are stronger and cover a larger area. The latent and the sensible heat flux behave similarly when deriving a statistical model between the reduced flux imbalance ratio and local turbulence variables. When separating the different stabilities, the major contribution for the less unstable cases comes from the friction velocity and the major contribution to the unstable cases comes from the kurtosis of the vertical velocity. An important question is whether this parameterization is limited to homogeneous surfaces.

Due to the large spread in the probability distributions when considering the positional variation for homogeneous terrain see Fig 4 , we believe that our correction formulae might also hold in heterogeneous terrain on average, provided the turbulent structures are not pinned to a particular position, i. However, the simulations of De Roo and Mauder [ 19 ] under free convection conditions and for distinct heterogeneity show that the flux underestimation of virtual eddy-covariance towers indeed depends on the location of the measurement with respect to the boundaries of a warm or cold patch under more unstable conditions or when the contrast in surface heating is large.

This parameterization is therefore not applicable under such conditions. Moreover, the dependence of the flux imbalance on the measurement height is probably still underestimated near the surface due to the limited grid resolution of our LES, despite the vertical nesting. Therefore, this parameterization is limited to heights above 10 m. In addition, due to the limited range of Bowen ratios covered by our simulations, we suggest to apply these parameterizations only for Bowen ratios between 0. As such, the scheme of Mauder et al.

This correction assigns more residual to the sensible heat than the Bowen ratio preserving correction of Mauder et al. This requires independent high-quality measurements of the energy fluxes and the best possible data for the height of the atmospheric boundary layer at the measurement site. We have derived a parameterization for the near-surface energy imbalance, and we have shed light on the processes and potential drivers of large-scale organized transport as a result of secondary circulations. This parameterization for correcting the eddy-covariance fluxes is particularly useful when not all other non-turbulent terms of the surface energy balance are not or at least not easily measurable with sufficient accuracy, e.

Remarkably, we found that the sensible heat flux shows a larger underestimation in the surface layer than the latent heat flux, while the underestimation is very similar between both fluxes higher up in the mixed layer. Since eddy-covariance measurements are typically conducted in the surface layer, we conclude that a simple energy balance closure adjustment by conserving the Bowen ration cannot be supported. Therefore, we proposed different coefficients for the parameterizations of the spatially averaged sensible and latent heat flux imbalances.

This means that the spatially averaged imbalance increases with increasing instability, and that the variability of the local imbalance also increases with increasing instability, both between different time intervals and between different towers, as these are just different sub-samples of the overall turbulence field. However, no functional relationship was derived here for those additional variables because we considered their statistical correlations to be not strong enough unless they are classified by stability.

A remaining question is the precise mechanism how the local turbulence characteristics influence the local energy balance. Perhaps one way to shed more light on this is how the variance in the spatial distribution for the imbalance ratio is related to the averaged turbulence characteristics. Finally, based on our simulation results, we propose a method to correct eddy-covariance measurements of the sensible and the latent heat flux.

We thank the two anonymous reviewers for their comments, which helped to improve the quality of the paper. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract It has been hypothesized that the energy balance closure problem of single-tower eddy-covariance measurements is linked to large-scale turbulent transport. LES set-up We ran a suite of nine different cases with varying stability and a variable Bowen ratio, with periodic lateral boundary conditions and homogeneous surface conditions. Download: PPT. Table 1. Parameters characterizing the simulated atmosphere for each simulation.

Data analysis We employ two procedures to derive the turbulent fluxes. The spatial covariance is only well-defined for an area average over the whole horizontal domain and it is related to the Reynolds flux by 2 We investigate the residual for the latent and sensible heat flux separately, and the total residual is found by the sum of both when expressed in energy units. Statistical model Using the virtual towers from the LES time series output, we compute the correlations between the reduced flux balance ratios for sensible heat and latent heat, i. Results General characteristics of the simulations Before we turn to the dependence of the imbalance on stability and height, we discuss the general behavior of the different cases.

Fig 1. Fig 2. Area-averaged spatial covariances dashed lines and temporal covariances solid lines for the different stabilities, with data up to m from the fine grid, and normalized by the surface fluxes. Horizontal and vertical distribution of the imbalance for one particular case We take a closer look at the spatial variation of the imbalance ratio for the strongly unstable case Fig 3. Fig 3. Horizontal cross sections for the SU case, at 20 m height, for the last hour of time-averaged data.

Fig 4. Probability density functions showing the horizontal variability of the Reynolds flux scaled by the surface flux at different height levels. Dependence on atmospheric stability As the first step in the quantification of I E and I E in the surface layer, we investigate the stability dependence of the area-averaged flux imbalance. Fig 5. The influence of measurement height on the imbalance After division by the stability dependence, the next step is to fit the vertical dependence of the remaining imbalance.

Fig 6. Vertical dependence of the horizontally averaged imbalance ratio for different stabilities divided by the stability fit, with vertical values up to m. The local influence on large eddy transport To investigate the remaining local variability in the flux measurements, we consider the reduced flux imbalance at every point, where the stability and the height dependence have been divided out, e. Fig 7. Two-dimensional joint-probability density plots for six variables with reduced imbalance ratio for sensible heat and latent heat, respectively; i.

Regression analysis for the reduced flux imbalance In the final section we attempt to derive a statistical model for the reduced flux imbalance, based on local turbulence statistics. Fig 8. Relative importance of factors in the regression model for the latent heat flux a and the sensible heat flux b. Discussion In the surface layer, we find a different parameterization than Huang et al.

For a particular measurement interval we thus derive the following formulae for the residual sensible heat flux and the total sensible heat flux with H m being the measured sensible heat flux , under homogeneous conditions: 15 16 The same formulae with E traded for H apply for the latent heat flux. Conclusions We have derived a parameterization for the near-surface energy imbalance, and we have shed light on the processes and potential drivers of large-scale organized transport as a result of secondary circulations.

Supporting information. S1 Text. Source code of the PALM model, including additional user-defined code, used for running the simulations for this study. S2 Text. Settings of the high-performance computing cluster where the results were produced. S1 Dataset. Parameter files with data set that specifies the model output. References 1. Buoyant Convection in Geophysical Flows.

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Springer Netherlands; Parameterization of the atmospheric boundary layer: A view from just above the inversion. Bull Am Meteorol Soc. View Article Google Scholar 4. Evaluating parameterizations of aerodynamic resistance to heat transfer using field measurements. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci. View Article Google Scholar 5. Boundary-Layer Meteorol. Springer Netherlands; ; — Foken T. Ecol Appl. View Article Google Scholar 7. Agric For Meteorol. Elsevier B. View Article Google Scholar 8. View Article Google Scholar 9.

View Article Google Scholar Orlanski I. A rational subdivision of scales for atmospheric processes. Scale analysis of airborne flux measurements over heterogeneous terrain in a boreal ecosystem.

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J Geophys Res Atmos. A re-evaluation of long-term flux measurement techniques, Part I: Averaging and coordinate rotation. Mahrt L. Flux sampling errors for aircraft and towers. J Atmos Ocean Technol. Mesoscale eddies contribute to near-surface turbulent exchange: evidence from field measurements. J Appl Meteorol Climatol. LES study of the energy imbalance problem with eddy covariance fluxes.

Impact of surface heterogeneity on energy imbalance. J Meteorol Soc Japan. Secondary circulations at a solitary forest surrounded by semi-arid shrubland and its impact on eddy-covariance measurements. Wang W. The influence of topography on single-tower-based carbon flux measurements under unstable conditions: a modeling perspective. Theor Appl Climatol.