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As soil microorganisms decompose organic matter, affects nutrient cycling, microbes play a major role in soil fertility and primary production. Soil microbial biomass which is useful for studying the harmful effects of toxic metals at the cellular level is mainly made up of bacteria and fungi. The toxic effect of potentially toxic elements depends on the number of metals bioaccumulated by absorption, migration, and transformation.
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Adverse effects of higher concentration of toxic metals on microorganisms may be due to inactivation of enzyme activity center; electron-donating groups such as mercapto protein, nucleic acid base and phosphate combination, accumulation of toxic metals more than the ability of organisms to bear resulting in biological disease and death; inhibition in the formation of metallothionein or metalloprotein. A number of studies have shown that the higher number of metallothionein in cells induces the anti-apoptotic effects, and a decrease in the number of metallothionein increases the susceptibility to apoptotic cell death.
Soil microbes are the main participant of all the soil biochemical processes. Soil biochemical processes are the tools for maintaining soil quality; formation of soil organic matter; decomposition of harmful substances; formation of soil structure and biochemical cycles. Contamination of soils by toxic metals decreases soil microbial properties such as soil respiration, enzymatic activities. Soil microbial properties depend on soil pH, organic matter and other chemical properties. Severe potentially toxic element pollution can inhibit soil microbial activity and seriously threaten the soil ecosystem function.
A number of workers [ 30 , 31 , 32 , 33 ] have reported that potentially toxic elements particularly cadmium, copper, and zinc can disrupt the microbiological equilibrium of soil. Disturbances of the biological balance of soil caused by the excess of potentially toxic elements might be attributed to the disruption of physiological functions, denaturation of proteins and destruction of cellular membranes of soil microorganisms [ 34 , 35 , 36 ].
Potentially toxic elements immobilize soil bacteria, while microbial metabolites enhanced the mobility of potentially toxic elements [ 37 , 38 , 39 ]. Potentially toxic elements in different quantities and forms in soils cause changes in the counts of microorganisms, microbial biomass and microbial activity [ 33 , 40 , 41 , 42 , 43 ] via inhibiting microbial community diversity, particularly that of fungal groups i.
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Potentially toxic elements create abiotic stresses [ 37 , 38 ] by inducing disorders in the metabolism of the microorganism. Tolerant species of microbes demonstrate higher resistance to stress factors than sensitive ones [ 45 ]. Tolerance of potentially toxic elements is associated with [ 46 , 47 , 48 ]: 1 specific transport of metal ions in the cytoplasmic membrane; 2 synthesis and excretion to the environment chelating compounds, which bind and transport ions dissolved in the environment; 3 sorption of ions onto mucosal surfaces and the binding by biopolymers of the wall and membrane complex; 4 the presence of plasmids in a bacterial cell, which enables it to acquire resistance to toxic elements.
Bansal and Mishra [ 52 ] reported that there was a significant increase in the bacterial and fungal population and decrease in actinomycetes population in sewage irrigated soils. Kouchou [ 53 ] during their studies found that potentially toxic elements contamination in alkaline soils has a negative effect on actinomycetes and fungi soil populations, while a positive effect on the total aerobic heterotrophic bacterial population.
They also inferred that the effect of potentially toxic elements on microbial population of the soil is dependent on several factors related to soil environment and soil physicochemical characteristics. Contamination of soil by Pb influences soil chemical properties and number of some genera of bacteria.
The number of heavy metal-resistant bacteria at genus level viz. Bacillus , Streptococcus , and Arthrobacter is highly correlated with the amount of Pb. There was a negative correlation between soil organic matter and available Pb and total Pb. The total relative abundance of Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, and Planctomycetes was negatively correlated with total Pb.
Both the microbial community composition and physicochemical properties of soil are influenced by the amount of Pb. Workers [ 52 , 55 ] found that nitrifying bacteria, symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and Azotobacter spp. Potentially toxic elements produce a stronger effect on Azotobacter cells than organotrophic bacteria mainly because richer communities of microbes are more resistant to potentially toxic elements than single species and genera [ 51 , 56 ].
Few researchers [ 57 ] found that crops can moderate the influence of potentially toxic elements on soil microbes, crops improve the microbiological activity of the soil, mainly owing to substances secreted by roots. Potentially toxic elements when accumulated in soil beyond their permissible limit they firstly influence the quality and quantity of soil bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and other microbial population.
Potentially toxic element contamination in soil not only produces different microbial community patterns but also change the chemical and biological properties of the soil. In the soils which are polluted by potentially toxic elements for a long time, those soil microorganisms which can specifically be adapted exist. The efficiency of microbial populations in organic mineralization is inversely correlated with the soil organic carbon content, an indicator of the impact of potentially toxic element pollution. Microbial communities in soils are very important as they are helpful in nutrient cycling, plant symbiosis, and the detoxification of noxious chemicals used to control plant pests and plant growth [ 58 ].
When metal enriched sewage sludge is added to soils microbial biomass leads to a decrease in functional diversity [ 59 ] and changes in microbial community structure [ 60 ]. However, metal exposure may also lead to the development of metal-tolerant microbial population [ 61 ].
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Potentially toxic elements affect the microbial activity and microbial community structure. The negative effect of studied potentially toxic elements on culturable heterotrophic bacteria was more than actinomycetes and fungi. The relative abundance of specific bacterial taxa including, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes, and Probacteria is affected by potentially toxic elements pollution.
Acidobacteria Gp and Proteobacteria thiobacillus bacteria had more links between nodes and more positive interactions among microbes in CL- and CH-networks were positively correlated with cadmium concentration while Longilinea , Gp2 and Gp4, had fewer network links and more negative interactions in CL and CH-networks where negatively correlated with Cd [ 63 ]. There was the only positive correlation in between the members of the phyla Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota, class Thermoprotei and order Thermoplasmatales and Cd metal and had more network interactions in CH-networks.
At the genus level, there was a significant difference in the relative abundances of heavy-metal-resistant bacteria such as Bacillus , Streptococcus , and Arthrobacter. The abundance of main bacteria phyla was highly correlated with total Pb. The relative abundance of Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, and Planctomycetes was negatively correlated with total Pb. Lead influences both the microbial community composition and physicochemical properties of soil.
The biological activity of soils is an essential parameter of their ecological status. The potentially toxic elements present in the soil due to anthropogenic activities disturb the normal functioning of soil biota and, hence, the entire soil system. As the concentration of potentially toxic elements increases, the activity of most enzymes is significantly reduced and may be caused directly by the interaction between the enzyme and the potentially toxic elements, which is not associated with a reduction in microbes.
Potentially toxic elements influence the enzymatic activity, by destroying the spatial structure of the active groups of the enzyme, by inhibiting the growth and reproduction of microorganisms which reduces the synthesis and metabolism of the microbial enzymes. Soil microbes and soil enzymatic activities are significantly correlated. Some enzymes secreted by microorganisms participate in soil ecosystems and energy together. Potentially toxic elements in enzymes play a triple function: catalytic, structural and regulatory. Zinc is an integral part of the number of enzymes and number of intracellular enzymes viz.
When potentially toxic elements are present in excess the natural functions of metals are distorted.
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The decrease in enzymatic activity by arsenic may be due to: 1 by interacting with the enzyme-substrate complex; 2 by denaturing the enzyme protein, or; 3 interacting with the active protein groups. The influence of potentially toxic elements on soil enzyme activity depends on pH, nutrient form and amount, potentially toxic element concentration and availability, enzyme type, etc. There was a negative but non-significant correlation between Zn content and dehydrogenase activity; Cd content and hydrogen peroxidase and urease activities.
This study demonstrates the capacity of some potentially toxic element contaminated soils to enzymatically function well under seemingly restrictive conditions. In contrast, urease was more tolerant to Zn. Yu and Cheng [ 66 ] during their studies found that addition of Cu, Cd, and Pb firstly enhanced urease activity and thereafter it declines, while with the increased concentration of Zn the activity of urease declines. In addition to Cu the catalase enzymatic activity initially enhanced and thereafter decreases, the catalase activity continuously decreases with the addition of Cd, Pb, and Zn.
Addition of Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn in soil results in a decrease in microbial biological carbon content. Soil chemical properties depend on soil pH which affects the availability of soil nutrients and form of potentially toxic elements. The amount of plant available organic matter is also influenced by the concentration of potentially toxic elements.
Organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, total nitrogen, phosphorous, calcium, potassium, sodium were positively significantly correlated with soil chromium, zinc and lead content, while no significant correlation with copper and nickel content. Sharma and Raju [ 80 ] reported that soil pH is positively correlated with potentially toxic elements content. Soil moisture content is positively correlated with potentially toxic elements content except for Cu and Cr. They also reported that there was no specific correlation between potentially toxic elements content and soil water holding capacity.