Migration and Care Labour: Theory, Policy and Politics

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Bridget Anderson | Zolberg Institute on Migration and Mobility

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Book [text, volume] , Online - Google Books. Updated papers from a conference held in in Oxford. Includes bibliographical references and index. In this lecture, I will present care migration as a phenomenon in which migration, care and gender regimes are intertwined. I argue that where a market gains the upper hand and care is considered as a fictitious commodity Polanyi , this will have serious unwanted effects for the development of society and its reproduction.

She has a long-standing record of research in the field of gender, migration, care, and intersectionality studies and has carried out research projects in various locations in Europe. Her publications include 18 books and more than articles in journals and books published in six languages. Thursday, January 31, Ester Gallo University of Trento :.

This paper explores religion in the construction of gendered work identities and experiences among migrant women and men employed in Italian households as elderly care providers. In the eyes of the employers, the employees should hold specific skills but also be able to demonstrate an ethics of conduct and righteousness. While the role of Christian and especially Catholic religious networks have been examined as a source of transnational mobility within the International Division of Reproductive Labour IDRL , less attention has been paid to unravel the role of religion in daily work relations and in the social construction of gendered identity through the provision of paid care.

We explore the role of Christianity in the way Italian employers and their migrant employees conceptualise and experience care services. The analysis develops at three different and interrelated levels. Firstly, we consider the training provided by parishes in order to infuse migrants with moral norms oriented towards their future care responsibilities.

Secondly, we map the extent to which, and the different ways in which shared Christian belonging on the one hand, and religious difference on the other, come to constitute important criteria adopted by employers in recruiting, managing and supervising care workers within the domestic sphere. We compare how the same criteria play out differently in the context of male and female migrant potential employees.

We compare Catholic and Protestant Evangelical employees across gender and generation lines. The analysis suggests that religion constitutes a key element in the forging of a professional ethics of paid care work. However, shared Christian belonging constitutes a more significant key element in relation to the acceptance of migrant men, in comparison with migrant women.

Further, differences emerge between Catholic and Evangelical employees. While the former strategically play the card of common Catholicism with their Italian employers to pursue strategies of social mobility, the latter emphasise their evangelical mission in providing good care and infusing secularised Italian families with renewed ethical and religious values.

Who Needs Migrant Workers?: Labour shortages, immigration, and public policy

Interdependencies Among Nurses from Kerala in Germany. The international connectivity of the Catholic Church increased in the s in the wake of the second Vatican Council, and with the help of local priests, many young Christian women from Kerala were recruited to go to Germany and be trained as nurses. The gender norms and religious practices, which they experienced and learned in Kerala, transformed throughout the migratory process.

The young women created their own transnational identity in the context of a new heteronormativity and their job environments. Some of those young women returned to Kerala during or after their training, to have an arranged marriage, others got to know their German, Indian or other partners during that time. In the course of these developments the self-understanding of the nurses was formed, while the catholic Christian values provided a basis. On the basis of biographical Interviews and narratives this talk will present some of the identity positionings of some nurses from an anthropological and religious studies perspective to analyze what role religion plays within the lives of these nurses and their embodiment of care-migration-gender interdependencies.

Currently, his other research interests are the retreat culture of the Syro-Malabar Church in Kerala, Ayurveda in India and Germany and Decolonial theories and methods. Tanja Ahlin University of Amsterdam :. In Kerala, South India, becoming a nurse is a migration strategy for women, and recently also men, especially those of Syrian Christian background. Since s, Keralite nurses have been migrating for work in the Gulf countries, the United States of America, the United Kingdom, Australia, and elsewhere, for long periods of time or even in search of permanent residence abroad.

But what has been happening with care for their elderly parents who remain in Kerala? In this presentation, I look in particular at how this care is gendered by examining how daughters, sons and their spouses enact elder care in different ways. I argue that employment abroad and the use of ICTs to keep in touch with family members at a distance contribute to a particular gender dynamics whereby women may become primary carers for their own parents.

In her work, she combines anthropology and science and technology studies STS. Nausikaa Schirilla Katholische Hochschule Freiburg :. Karakayali Ungleiche Positionierungen aufgrund der Herkunft werden wahrgenommen und internationale Machtstrukturen benannt. Birgit Dahlke HU Berlin :. PD Dr. Autorinnen aus der DDR -inoffiziell publiziert. Pflegearbeiterinnen aus Osteuropa in deutschen Privathaushalten. Grenzen der Rechtsdurchsetzung und Regulierungsdilemmata. Dies hat verschiedene Ursachen. Ein besonderer Schwerpunkt liegt dabei auf den Wirkungen der sogenannten A1-Bescheinigung sowie auf der besonderen Lage migrantischer Hausangestellter.

Die soziale Isolation von migrantischen Pflegearbeiterinnen im Privathaushalt macht auch die Rechtsdurchsetzung besonders schwierig. Der Leistungsumfang ist deutlich weiter und die Professionalisierung der Pflegearbeit in ein ausdifferenziertes Berufsfeld fortgeschrittener. Self-organization Impossible? Aus einer poststrukturalistischen Perspektive werden dazu diskursive Ordnungen bzw.

Mithilfe dieser diskursanalytisch-aufgedeckten und -rekonstruierten Wissensordnungen lassen sich Aussagen. Angaben zur Verortung:.

Who needs migrant workers? Controversies in international labour migration

Agency wird hierbei aus einer poststrukturalistisch-feministischen Perspektive konzeptionalisiert und Macht damit als diskursive Praxis und Handlungspotential verstanden, welche sich in der Etablierung, dem Ausschluss oder der Abwertung bestimmter Deutungen zeigt. Ausgehend von den methodologischen Grundannahmen der Dekonstruktion werden verschiedene Wissensordnungen diskursanalytisch ausgewertet und kritisch analysiert.

Network Building and Ethnic Divides. Organizing for collective action is a remarkably difficult task for domestic workers. Situated at the point where the most vulnerable ends of different axes of stratification such as gender, class, and ethnicity converge, domestic workers assume a subordinate position in society, characterized by low socio-economic status and scarce political power.

Furthermore, the atypical working conditions of this labor sector make it highly difficult for domestic workers to be seen and to see themselves as subjects deserving of labor rights. While both selected countries — Uruguay and Paraguay — share many geographical and demographic features, the way domestic workers organized and the results they achieved differ considerably.

My hypothesis is that we can understand such different paths by analyzing the inequality relations in which domestic workers are immersed, and specifically, the way these are perceived and given meaning in the local context.


In particular, how and whether ethnicity is addressed seems to have an important impact on the success of the organizations. Her research — in areas including political systems, social policies, inequalities, social movements and labor relations — has focused on Paraguay and Latin America. This presentation takes biographical-narrative interviews with registered family home-based childminders in France and West- Germany with migrant experience into consideration.

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Thereby, those actors are considered who enable mothers and fathers to go to work within the scope of outsourcing domestic housework and day care duties. It is evident that the socio-political provisions intended to resolve the care issue are doubly enmeshed, since the framework conditions of the working mothers determine those of the migrant childminders, and vice-versa. In France and Germany, there is a high level of demand for care. However, out of a comparative perspective, the state framework conditions differ widely. Based on my PhD-project I conducted within the last five years I will elaborate on how care policies, professionalization trends and interdependent concepts of motherhood emerge from new care emergencies.

New trends of valuing informal experience gained within a field which is at the same time public and private have productive impacts on opportunities for female occupation. The main actors are women. The more the identity constructions of care givers and care takers differ from each other the more dependent they become from each other. In France, it is generally the case that two highly opposing concepts of motherhood - the working mother and the childminder who professionalizes motherhood at home - encounter each other.

In Germany, the identity of the mother who gives up her child into care is more contradictory. For the migrant childminders in Germany, setting boundaries and working on a professionalized basis demanded more strategies. In addition, there is an insufficient provision to cover the specific need of elderly migrants. Furthermore, migrants struggle on a daily basis with the health system, for example high-threshold counselling services Anderson Or they face legal barriers, like an uncertain residence status Geiger, Razum A further major problem in Germany is that migrants face higher risks of becoming ill, disabled or dying earlier than other groups in society Bauer et al.

Parasites and Beasts of Burden: Rethinking the Politics of Migration

Although the information above is generally well known and it exists some research, there are a number of neglected or hidden issues, which needs to be highlighted in this talk. Gender and migration:. Nursing and migration:. These can be seen in a stereotypical care that is not orientated to the individual. Because of the lack of research the nursing profession do not pay sufficient attention to the situation. Migrants as care provider:.

However, is this just a shifting of responsibility? Society at large and the nursing profession in particular should take responsibility by addressing them. This perspective should be appropriate for every care worker in reflection of their own as well as the culture of the patient. Stuttgart: Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Verlag Hans Huber, Bern, Weinheim: Beltz Juventa, Hinz, Sandra : Alt werden in der Fremde.

Zur Lebenssituation von alleinstehenden Migrantinnen im Alter. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag. In: Migration und Soziale Arbeit, 4, Miriam Tariba Richter works in the field of nursing science and social work at Hamburg University of Applied Sciences where she is Professor for nursing science with a special focus on gender and migration. This paper investigates the work experiences and identify re-formation processes of a group of West African immigrant care workers in the United States of America.

Previous scholarship on the migration of care workers has focused a great deal on women migrants as domestic and child care workers Parrenas, ; Hochschild, ; Hondagneu-Sotelo, It has been noted that further research should broaden the focus of investigation from reproductive labor in the home to other forms of labor along the skill continuum of care occupations, with an emphasis on care work in institutional settings Yeates, Scholars have also elucidated how gender shapes the experiences of immigrant men and women implicated in care work Hussein and Christensen, ; Hussein, Ismail and Manthorpe, ; Scrinzi The burgeoning scholarship on care work in home and institutional settings has presented the general view of less privileged, or downwardly mobile, subordinate, ethnic minority caregivers from poorer countries, who cater to the care giving needs of more privileged recipients in wealthy countries, often imagined to be middle class and white.

Very little attention has been paid to well-educated and middle-class black immigrants who attend to the care needs of mostly poor, ethnic minority populations in the United States.

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This paper attends to this lacuna in the literature on migration, gender and carework, by investigating the experiences of men and women immigrants with excellent pre-migration English language skills and middle class backgrounds, from five countries in West Africa, who become care workers upon migration to the United States. In doing so, this paper extends the focus on gender which has been central to the literature on care work and migration, to show how pre-migration class status, and post-migration classed identities, are salient forces in the experiences of African immigrant men and women care workers in the US.

Ira Raja University of Delhi :. Numerous sociological studies have been devoted to an understanding of the diverse ways in which the mode and capacity for giving and receiving care by elderly people is impacted by the phenomenon of migration. While remittance as a currency of care has received some attention in this context, my paper will draw more closely on the lens of materiality to examine how objects, and the places and spaces in which people live, might compensate for the care deficit for which migration is typically responsible.

Theory, Policy and Politics

Through close readings of three short stories from Oriya, Bangla and Hindi, this paper will explore the complex symbolism of cherished personal possessions and gifts in negotiating identity, security, memories, and interpersonal relations over distances of time and space. While the attachment to personal possessions is frequently understood as anchoring a stable sense of self across time, for the older people in the three stories discussed in this paper, the meaning of objects is more ambivalent.

Even as these relationships grant a continuity of identity, they may also be read as symptomatic of an anxiety about a selfhood that is not anchored in a network of familiar familial relationships which accord a normative centrality to the ageing parent in the fabled bosom of the extended family. She has published a number of articles in the area of aging in literature in International peer reviewed journals.

Besides the infrastructure of Social services that some countries provide, where Social Workers assist Care Workers in case of need, Care Workers have also been self-organizing in order to assist and support each other.

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