Supporting Research Writing. Roles and Challenges in Multilingual Settings

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Your points will be added to your account once your order is shipped. Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book! Supporting Research Writing explores the range of services designed to facilitate academic writing and publication in English by non-native English-speaking NNES authors. It analyses the realities of offering services such as education, translation, editing and writing, and then considers the challenges and benefits that result when these boundaries are consciously blurred.

It thus provides an opportunity for readers to reflect on their professional roles and the services that will best serve their clients' needs. A recurring theme is, therefore, the interaction between language professional and client-author. The book offers insights into the opportunities and challenges presented by considering ourselves first and foremost as writing support professionals, differing in our primary approach through teaching, translating, editing, writing, or a combination of those but with a common goal.

This view has major consequences for the training of professionals who support English-language publication by NNES academics and scientists. Supporting Research Writing will therefore be a stimulus to professional development for those who support English-language publication in real-life contexts and an important resource for those entering the profession. Takes a holistic approach to writing support and reveals how it is best conceived as a spectrum of overlapping and interrelated professional activities Stresses the importance of understanding the real-world needs of authors in their quest to publish Provides insights into the approaches used by experienced practitioners across Europe.

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    However, studying in a different country also creates adaptation issues and tensions. A number of studies have examined the professional, cultural, social and language-related benefits and challenges of the Erasmus mobility program, and some highlight written communication is one of the important areas where difficulties arise Klimova , but little is known as yet about the ways in which students and higher education institutions negotiate these challenges.

    We will draw on information on university websites and a qualitative study including 10 semi-structured interviews with incoming and outgoing Erasmus students from our university, as well as open-ended questionnaires sent out to teachers and writing centre staff in several countries across Europe. Our results suggest that many of the solutions to writing-related difficulties have been hands-on, immediate responses to practical teaching situations, rather than coherent institutional, national or European policies. While many of these can be immediately effective and provide many positive examples of how to deal with writing in a multicultural setting, our findings also suggest that there might be issues of equity, power relations and reciprocity involved in such exchanges.

    When adapting their courses to an international class, instructors should be aware of these challenges that extend beyond the curriculum. References European Commission. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences , Given that translation can be a common textual borrowing behavior among L2 learners in academic discourse, investigating learner employment of this strategy in terms of its distribution patterns would contribute to a better understanding of cross-linguistic textual borrowing behavior.

    Based on Weigle and Parker's textual borrowing analytical framework, this study categorizes translation in textual borrowing along length of the borrowed string and degree of modification in the borrowed string. The former is sub-categorized into the translations of a word, a phrase and a clause.

    The latter is sub-categorized into modified translation and non-modified translation. Modified translation consists of explicit modification and implicit modification. Focusing on ten graduate students majoring in linguistics from a key university in eastern China, this study describes and explains the way the students cite research literatures in Chinese through translation for a course paper written in English. Based on analyses of written texts, the study finds that first, one fifth of the total words In terms of the acknowledgement of translated texts, about one tenth More specifically, clause translation and non-modified translation are most frequent types in both attributed and unattributed translation.

    This exploratory study shows translation as a cross-linguistic textual borrowing behavior can take on various forms. It can also potentially provide a sight to future studies concerning cross-linguistic textual borrowing behaviors in other languages. We explore this via a bibliographical analysis of the Special Issue of the Journal of Academic Writing, addressing the following questions: What intellectual traditions are being drawn upon by contributors to the journal? Who is citing whom? How does this relate to the institutional positioning of contributors?

    After this initial presentation, participants will be invited to consider and discuss how these findings relate to their own specific teaching and research contexts. Does this model offer a useful mechanism for evaluating research, or privilege a certain way of knowing that precludes other modes of enquiry?

    What pedagogical impact does published research have on the teaching of student writing in a complex world of hybridised, digitised writing in an increasingly intercultural context?

    Supporting Research Writing: Roles and Challenges in Multilingual Settings

    Does the privileging of certain types of research in academic journals have an impact on the ability of academic writing professionals to negotiate their identities within varying institutional contexts? Digital learning and teaching includes, of course, the familiarisation of students and teachers with the newest technologies and methods. A goal of our blended learning workshop "Academic Writing Partnerships" is to enable students to use digital genres i.

    Our understanding of digital genres is based on Swales three-level model of genre: they serve a communicative purpose, and are realized through a move structure and through rhetorical strategies. We understand digital to refer to [online or computer-based? Based on collaborative blended learning Bruffee , Braukhoff our workshop Academic Writing Partnerships combines traditional classroom learning and online work. Students use digital genres such as emails and ether pads to work collaboratively. They get peer feedback and use information websites to complete their writing assignments.

    During our presentation, we want to show examples of the digital texts students create in working towards their final writing project. We use these examples to explain how students might develop their writing skills by using digital genres. Finally, we to discuss how lecturers could adapt the concept of Academic Writing Partnerships to their own teaching practice. The texts that engineers produce address a wide range of audiences, purposes, and communication channels, and they must function in various online and offline contexts. ComCom is a Blended Learning course which aims to reflect the real-life communicative tasks awaiting our engineering students in their future workplaces.

    In terms of preparation for an increasingly digital workplace, ComCom. How do I ask for feedback that is truly useful to me? We want our students to be able to present information in convincing ways to different audiences. E-portfolios provide an easy way for students to combine textual elements with audio visual materials and create web-pages that are both informative and appealing even to a non-expert audience. As ComCom is a relatively new concept at our university, we would very much welcome an opportunity to present this course to a group of peers and have an exchange of experience regarding classes of a similar nature.

    We have further developed an existing teaching concept of an interdisciplinary academic writing course in a blended learning format to give students more opportunities to combine the general conventions of academic writing that we teach with their own experiences in their subject. After a presence day the students have to work on a number of tasks in the digital learning environment Ilias.

    We use forums to present the tasks so that students can write their answers directly to our threads or upload documents. Each participant can immediately see everything they have written or uploaded, so they can interact and comment on their fellow students' posts. In this teaching practice presentation, I will present two examples of the tasks. The first task is to become aware of one's own ideas of academic language and style. Students have to write a short text on an everyday topic and read two texts from others and comment on how they correspond to an academic style. The second task deals with the functions of references in academic texts such as supporting the own argument or defining a concept.

    After matching examples to selected functions, students discuss which functions are important in their own writing. I will show how students have dealt with these tasks in the digital forum and how they have discussed general und subject specific conventions of academic writing. Overall, we found that the students in this format were more intensively engaged with the course content than before. The aim of the presentation is a discussion of student learning in a digital environment: How do they use a forum for discussions and how can this contribute to them becoming aware of subject-specific writing conventions?

    The presentation will thus exemplify the possibilities and disadvantages of a blended learning format in an academic writing class. Students increasingly encounter data and its representations in academic and non-academic contexts--in their courses in the sciences, social sciences, and digital humanities and in their daily lives as citizens, consumers, and networked individuals. Their ability to understand, question, and use the data they encounter, and to create and represent data themselves, is a kind of literacy that can be developed in academic writing courses, where the goal is not to produce data scientists but rather to build critical thinking about data and an awareness of its fundamentally rhetorical character.

    Indeed, the intersection of academic writing and critical data studies e. This presentation describes two teaching practices that introduce students to data literacy, including the creation, analysis, and representation of data. Students have responded very positively to learning about data, identity, and design via this exercise working with small, mundane, personal datasets. The second teaching practice, planned for a future course, asks students to create narratives from larger existing datasets e.

    This project should engage students by asking them to work with data on a topic of consequence to them; closely reading that data in order to elicit the stories it tells and omits; and representing those stories in text and image. These teaching practices offer two analytical entry points to data literacy as they ask students to produce, analyze, and communicate with data. Attendees will leave with two specific student projects focused on data literacy that they can integrate into their academic writing classes, as well as other approaches to data literacy that will hopefully emerge during the discussion.

    Since the early s, Writing Studies scholarship in North America has studied the value of multidisciplinarity to introduce first-year writing students to the interplay between disciplinary content and conventions. At the same time, it has interrogated the role scholars from language-focused disciplines e. At the George Washington University, the University Writing Program UWP has built a program that thrives on multidisciplinary connections within its divisions and in outreach to the wider curriculum. This symposium foregrounds the work of the UWP and the English for Academic Purposes EAP program to teach students newly encountering disciplinary writing, to support writing instruction across the university, and to shape a culture of writing practice across disciplines.

    The UWP is the largest instructional unit at our university. The closely allied EAP Program teaches academic writing to international students, preparing them for the academic literacy expectations of U. This symposium features directors who have been instrumental in designing an award-winning academic writing program, discussing critical and pedagogical developments and arguing the benefits of multidisciplinary faculty to sequence a coherent university writing curriculum.

    What is the role that research genres play in Higher Education? Through this keynote I will discuss these issues looking at the contradictions underlying the intersection between the academic and professional writing that characterises research writing inside the academia and reflect on some answers and their associated consequences, according to recent empirical evidence. I will first address the situation of research-related writing genres in Higher Education. Then, I will focus on challenges that both students and teachers face when they deal with these genres, and finally, I will discuss some pedagogical proposals that proved useful to help students to develop their researcher voice and sense of authorship, as well as to dialogue with other voices of their disciplinary, cultural or social communities.

    These challenges are amplified when, as in the US context, students from underrepresented groups, including multilingual immigrant and international students, are increasingly recruited and welcomed for graduate study. Whatever their identities when they enter graduate study, writing professionals are tasked with supporting the complex, challenging process of academic and disciplinary identity formation, and need to explore strategies for doing so. Leaders will frame the conversation with vignettes of identity-related issues faced by diverse writers along with successful strategies before moving to open discussion.

    Questions include:. How can we foster hybrid genres, etc. How can we gain that support? A report by the World Economic Forum estimates that in , creativity will be the third most sought after skill by employers. Despite this, creativity as a skill in its own right continues to receive insufficient attention within higher education. Academic writing provides an excellent vehicle to remedy this; the process of writing an essay is inherently creative, though this is often neglected as we focus on structure and form.

    This workshop aims to investigate how we as academic writing teachers can help students understand, explore and develop their own creative process. Short presentation outlining a working definition of creativity and barriers to teaching it. Participants will engage in five activities in small groups. Each activity introduces a different stage of the creative process, all chosen for their direct benefit to writing. At this stage activities are not writing based, but designed to present the concepts in isolation. In the same groups participants will be given a short set of questions which ask them to reflect on their own experience of teaching academic writing in relation to the creative stages presented and suggest approaches that could fit each of them.

    They may like to suggest other stages of the creative process here also. The presenter will share their own approaches to helping students draw the link between academic writing and the creative skills presented and elicit feedback from groups. All suggestions will be collected and distributed among participants following the session, hopefully stimulating further discussion and sharing. At Chalmers University of Technology, writing pedagogy intersects with many disciplinary writing tasks. In this particular course, summary tasks aim to foster the writing skills and language proficiency of L2 students to prepare them in their studies in English at Chalmers.

    This teaching intervention gives intermediate English students three summary tasks, each based on notes the students have taken during a talk — the first talk given by an expert within the discipline they are studying and the other two by their course peers, thus in disciplines less familiar to them. Through this process-oriented approach, the students establish a self-awareness of the communication errors in their writing and other possible ones that could occur. This presentation examines the scaffolding of the summary tasks as well as the progression of writing skills and language proficiency of students through a couple of examples.

    Would such an analysis confirm that students are making the progress that appears to be happening? ENG is a compulsory course for all students in English medium instruction programs. It used to have a content focusing on sustainability and business ethics through which students used to learn how to write an argumentative essay.

    However, based on the low success rates and the comments from course evaluation forms by both the students and instructors, a need to make some changes in the writing genre of the course became apparent. The literature shows that academic writing is defined by flexible and adaptable conventions rather than rules. In addition, Allen et al. Thus, argumentative essay writing genre based on highly-structured rules has been replaced with critical respond writing genre since it is considered to provide students with more flexibility and practicality.

    The new version of the course has been delivered in Academic year. Accordingly, the students who failed the course in Academic year twice and who took ENG in Fall semester have been chosen as the subject group of the study. The research has been conducted through both qualitative and quantitative research methods. For the quantitative part of the study, randomly chosen students among these students have been individually interviewed and the data gained from them have been analyzed. The Academic Writing Centre at Higher School of Economics provides language services to support Russian academics in publishing their research in English.

    In order to provide targeted support, the Centre has to have a detailed profile of its clients, who differ in previous language training background, particular language needs, and discipline fields. They use a different from English argumentation paradigm, transferring own cultural academic conventions. These may be the barriers that prevent Russian researchers from publishing their papers in English-medium journals. Positive exposure to English correlates with the level of learning autonomy.

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    The design of the module as a needs analysis instrument can be used by other course designers working with multi-lingual authors in the area of writing for publication. It will propose that they offer a challenge to the hegemony of the essay in this context; a challenge which is founded on the notion of regenring English, and an understanding of text as social semiotic resource. Patterns of perceptions emerged from a grounded analysis of the questionnaire data, interpretations of which will be discussed in the presentation.

    The findings of this research have informed strategic pedagogic discussions at the universities involved, some of the results of which decisions to use alternatives to essays will also be presented. References Biggs, M. London: Bloomsbury. English, F. London and New York: Continuum. Thomas, P. Journal of Writing in Creative Practice. In some European Countries, such as Portugal, the access to some professional activities depends on having a master degree. In such cases, the achievement of that degree usually implies a training period in a professional context, which serves as the basis for the construction of the master dissertation.

    This dissertation is then the result of a complex process at the intersection of two different contexts and cultures, the academic and the professional worlds. This intersection affects the dissertation construction from the beginning, with implications at many different levels. Taking into account the importance of this issue and the inherent hybridization of academic genres it implies, our presentation aims at describing how master students cope with this process, how they combine the academic and the professional perspectives in the construction of their master dissertation.

    In order to achieve our goal, we developed an exploratory case study, analysing the interview of an Engineering student, who had just finished her dissertation focused on her work as a trainee engineer in a factory. We also analysed the dissertation, previously discussed and approved at the University, in order to see how the academic and professional contexts interact and the effects of this interaction on the dissertation construction process and on the features of the text produced. The analyses of both the interview and the dissertation show that different aspects are affected in this intersection of the academic and professional perspectives: supervision, activities, timing, methodologies, as well as the writing process and the characteristics of the text which has to convey different aspects and patterns in the description of a reality that goes beyond the academic universe.

    It can help novice writers understand regularities, symbolic choices and practices within communities and systems of activity that vary through time Bazerman, and therefore it can promote critical awareness and heightened sensitivity for writing variation, a key feature in skilled and effective writers Devitt, Central to academic writing instruction is intertextuality: including, appropriating and assessing knowledge, sources and authorized disciplinary voices while building and negotiating a self, authorial voice Hyland, This exploratory research aims to contrast intertextuality patterns in 10 undergraduate History major dissertations written in Spanish between creation of the first national History Department and expansion of Higher Education at the two most important universities in Chile.

    Two independent researchers qualitatively coded explicit techniques of intertextual representation Bazerman, in the corpus using NVivo Interrater reliability and number of occurrences are calculated. These complex intertextuality patters are interpreted as a recent feature of writing in History that has emerged to meet a gradual professionalization and globalization of the field and a pressing expectation for novice writers to systematically engage in disciplinary consensual knowledge.

    The aim of this paper is to show through which mechanisms a strong focus on plagiarism and the use of plagiarism detection software impacts students' identity construction as writers. The tutorial was created in collaboration between Danish University libraries. This paper joins an ongoing critical discussion of the implication of plagiarism software on writing development Vardi, ; Silvey et al.

    We show how, paradoxically, a legal discourse as a framework for writing denies students ownership of their own writing, making it very difficult for them to carve out a space to develop their own authorial identity and voice. By offering contesting discourses to those that are limited to producing non-cheaters, writing support practices can play an important role in supporting students negotiating an identity as writers.

    Identity in student writing is mostly discussed as a matter of compromise and a process involving the loss of voice. Understanding the hidden power relations in writing in this way helps to reveal the alienating and marginalising nature of writing for undergraduate students in particular Lea and Street But what is missing from these debates is a challenge to the scant attention paid to the possibilities, opportunities and privileges that students may experience as writers. And yet such a discussion can contribute additionality both in terms of understanding identity-work in writing, and the potential to steer writing pedagogies in new and novel ways Thesen and Cooper This paper therefore attempts to plug this apparent gap by drawing from a series of semi-structured interviews with undergraduate students that unexpectantly included the gains of writing from the student point of view.

    These gains were diverse and involved concerns to do with agency, accessibility and advocacy. In particular, the paper discusses the ways in which some student writers spoke of audiences beyond academia and their sense of responsibility and power towards them as student writers.

    The paper also explores the way that some students spoke about deliberately resisting academic conventions, and the ways they sought to implant aspects of themselves in writing through a number of linguistic devices that they saw as available to them. The findings highlight the ways in which students maintain and assert voice in academic writing and the complex ways in which students view the play out of power within academia, which they see themselves as part of.

    The implications are that new ways of viewing student agency in writing might be made use of in relation to assessment design and supporting writing development. This paper will report the main findings of a study aimed at identifying patterns in the use of evaluative resources in texts written by undergraduate students of Spanish.

    By highlighting these resources it is possible to see how these students construct both a stance and an effective voice in their texts. In addition, we compare patterns used by first- and fourth-year students to see how the construction of voice develops and differs in the course of a four-year university program. Taking these three subsystems into consideration, twenty literary essays were analyzed with the objective of identifying distinctive evaluative patterns.

    These essays were written by students —ten sophomores and ten seniors- of Spanish Literature at a university in Mexico. The description of these linguistic resources helps shed light on the strategies that students use for presenting a stance as well as negotiating a voice in their texts. At the same time, by identifying these strategies, it is possible for teachers to help students work at different stages towards a more effective use of evaluative resources and therefore help them establish a more successful authorial voice in their texts.

    As a group of language experts, we teach academic writing courses in English and Dutch embedded within degrees at various faculties. This means we need to take into account differences between disciplines in terms of writing styles and cultures. Moreover, the increasing internationalization means we are working with students with different language backgrounds, different levels of proficiency, and with varying levels of analytical knowledge about language.

    Our way of meeting these challenges is a feedback system which we have developed in the past years. Students see this code, and can click on a link to go directly to the relevant page on a purpose-built feedback website, which contains an explanation of the topic, lists common errors and offers exercises. The codes and website were developed based on error categorization of hundreds of student texts from a wide range of disciplines.

    We have not only aimed to develop a system for providing effective corrective feedback cf. This not only includes attention to technical vocabulary in addition to general academic vocabulary cf. In this talk, we will briefly report on the categorization of errors by students.

    These results provide valuable insight into the needs that students in different disciplines have when it comes to language skills and language support. Multiple methodological approaches are applied, including the mapping of writing instructions at the University of N and a needs analysis related to the establishment of a WAC-programme. As a traditional research university, writing support at N has generally been sparse and reliant on individual teachers. In addition to the analysis of documents, we draw perspectives from interviews of international students and a small teacher survey.

    In order to design writing support services where students and teachers can interact in relationships of mutual recognition, the analysis focuses on questions of academic literacies, voice, identity and subject positions. We find that attention to writing is absent even in settings where it would have been natural, such as central recommendations for improving feedback and the design of digital learning environments. Instead, there is a struggle for recognition Honneth that affects both teachers, students and the relationship between them. The aim with this study is to explore how students make use of digital writing tools while writing an academic essay.

    In order to examine how students make use of such tools I have followed ten students during their ten weeks essay writing. This methodological approach, which is grounded in sociomaterial theory e. In my analysis of the data I have related to the field of academic literacies Lea and Street as well as to the field of digital literacies e. Goodfellow and Lea My results show that students rarely make use of other tools than the conventional, and by the university amended writing tools, such as Microsoft Word.

    However, I show that mobilizing different digital tools might open up for new learning processes while writing. In the presentation I argue that awareness of digital strategies could be an important contribution to the teaching of academic writing. Goodfellow, R. Literacy in the digital university : critical perspectives on learning, scholarship, and technology: New York : Routledge.

    Gourlay, L. New York: Routledge. Student writing in higher education: An academic literacies approach. Studies in Higher Education, 23 2 , Deconstructing digital natives: young people, technology, and the new literacies. New York Routledge. As a result, academics may struggle to find their identity as writers. Structured writing retreats cf. At the Unit for Academic Language ASK , a university-wide unit catering for writing and language development for students and staff at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, structured writing retreats for academics doctoral students and researchers have recently been implemented.

    One important aspect of retreats is writing together with other writers, i. A small-scale survey initiated by ASK in shows that many participants have actually done so when returning to their everyday work environment. During the past couple of decades, higher education institutions have been enhancing supervision practices and academic support for increasingly large and diverse cohorts of doctoral students Andres et al, To help these students transition into scholarly writers and successfully complete their dissertations, writing centers frequently provide writing support, including writing retreats.

    Writing retreats for doctoral students usually stress either individual writing time or formal, generic training of writing skills isolated from the broader learning processes in which students develop their scholarly identity and autonomy. We will discuss the development and results of three separate retreats run between and , based on action research. The data includes facilitator experiences, observations and reflections, the writing retreat design, student answers to open-ended questions, and student evaluations.

    The retreat is innovative in actively using peer groups in the learning process and in being embedded within a formal research program consisting of several adjacent disciplines. The retreats focused on the writing process, cross- disciplinary negotiation of meaning through supervisor feedback and peer review, writing time, and individual and social development. The learning thus occurred at several intersections: in generic, cross-disciplinary, and disciplinary frameworks, as well as in formal and informal and individual and collective learning processes.

    Our findings indicate that the retreat helped strengthen students' confidence and skills as writers, their individual and collective identities as doctoral students and emerging scholars, and their institutional ties. In spite of such approaches being theoretically discredited Lea and Street , Lillis , Wingate current provision can still be characterized as fragmented offering generic, deficit focused, skills based instruction.

    This presentation reports on our attempts to bridge this gap and embed writing development work within a department. We report on an extended action research project which aimed to increase student academic literacy within one department with a specific focus on students from a widening participation background. We assume "all students require tuition that helps them develop conversancy with the academic literacies of their discipline" Murray and that our institution bears responsibility for providing opportunities to do this.

    The project provided three distinct interventions; creation of exemplars of high scoring student writing with staff commentary, providing writing retreats to generate text Petrova et al and writing circles to collaboratively develop editing skills Roberts et al Focus groups were used to evaluate the pilot, capturing staff and student experiences. Now in the second year the project has moved from co-curricular position to more fully embedded in the curriculum, and we are adding to focus group data with pre and post measures of confidence and self-efficacy drawn from self -report questionnaires.

    Writing expectations vary across cultures; language differences, information emphases, even vocabulary and style vary wildly among cultural groups. My university LCC International University is an English-medium university in Lithuania that teaches an international student body who are not native English speakers.

    My challenge as a first-year writing instructor is to respect the cultural identity and the education the students have earned while also providing tools to succeed in future university coursework. Adapting writing to students and students to writing is complicated; I propose three activities that help instructors engaging with new student cultures.



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