The Dilemma of Freedom and Foreknowledge

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Other means of reconciling God's omniscience with human free will have been proposed. Some have attempted to redefine or reconceptualize free will:. A proposition first offered by Boethius [5] and later by Thomas Aquinas [note 2] and C. Lewis , suggests that God's perception of time is different, and that this is relevant to our understanding of our own free will. In his book Mere Christianity , Lewis argues that God is actually outside time and therefore does not "foresee" events, but rather simply observes them all at once.

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He explains:. But suppose God is outside and above the Time-line. In that case, what we call "tomorrow" is visible to Him in just the same way as what we call "today". All the days are "Now" for Him. He does not remember you doing things yesterday, He simply sees you doing them: because, though you have lost yesterday, He has not.

He does not "foresee" you doing things tomorrow, He simply sees you doing them: because, though tomorrow is not yet there for you, it is for Him. You never supposed that your actions at this moment were any less free because God knows what you are doing.

Linda Trinkaus ZAGZEBSKI, The Dilemma of Freedom and Foreknowledge - PhilPapers

Well, He knows your tomorrow's actions in just the same way—because He is already in tomorrow and can simply watch you. In a sense, He does not know your action till you have done it: but then the moment at which you have done it is already "Now" for Him. A common objection is to argue that Molinism , or the belief that God can know counterfactually the actions of his creations, is true. Dan Barker suggests that this can lead to a "Freewill Argument for the Nonexistence of God" [7] on the grounds that God's omniscience is incompatible with God having free will and that if God does not have freewill God is not a personal being.

Theists generally agree that God is a personal being and that God is omniscient , [note 3] but there is some disagreement about whether "omniscient" means:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on Atheism Concepts History. Arguments for atheism. Related stances. Religious concepts.

Freedom and Foreknowledge

Ethical egoism Euthyphro dilemma Logical positivism Religious language Verificationism eschatological Problem of evil Theodicy Augustinian Irenaean Best of all possible worlds Inconsistent triad Natural evil. Though all three solutions are rejected in their best-known forms, three new solutions are proposed, and Zagzebski concludes that divine foreknowledge is compatible with human freedom. The discussion includes the relation between the foreknowledge dilemma and problems about the nature of time and the causal relation; the logic of counterfactual conditionals; and the differences between divine and human knowing states.

An appendix introduces a new foreknowledge dilemma that purports to show that omniscient foreknowledge conflicts with deep intuitions about temporal asymmetry, quite apart from considerations of free will. Assuming libertarianism is true, then there is a sense in which agents can bring it about that some world is actual. Against arguments for the incompatibility of divine foreknowledge and human freedom, I offer a justification for power Against arguments for the incompatibility of divine foreknowledge and human freedom, I offer a justification for power over the past which takes this suggestion into consideration.

I argue that the subsequent account is available to Ockhamists. However, I assert that it is not an open option for Molinists-which leaves them susceptible to incompatibilist arguments. Save to Library. Does Molinism Reconcile Freedom and Foreknowledge? John Martin Fischer has argued that Molinism does not constitute a response to the argument that divine foreknowledge is incompatible with human freedom.

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I argue that T. Review of Hugh J.


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McCann ed. It is dedicated to its editor, who passed away shortly after completing It is dedicated to its editor, who passed away shortly after completing the manuscript. In this review, I briefly summarize each of the 11 chapters and then offer a few critical comments. Arminianism and Molinism on Divine Foreknowledge. Evidence is examined concerning the coherence of divine foreknowledge as defined by Arminianism and Molinism.

Arminianism argues that God has complete and infallible knowledge of the future, and attempts to simultaneously maintain a Arminianism argues that God has complete and infallible knowledge of the future, and attempts to simultaneously maintain a strong view of libertarian freedom.

Molinism agrees with the Arminian stance on foreknowledge and human freedom, but argues that middle knowledge must also be posited for God to have strong providential control over His creation. It is argued that Molinism better accounts for the biblical data and provides a more coherent theological and philosophical position, since Arminianism cannot provide a strong theory of providential control.

The Dilemma of Freedom and Foreknowledge

In this treatise Anselm of Canterbury partially uses and further elaborates some ideas of Augustine and Boethius, while integrating, updating and synthesizing them in a creative manner, and partially develops a number of thoughts of his own. These ideas are presented and explicated in the article along with detailed exposition and analytical examination of the main line of argumentation found in the De Concordia. Engaging with Pike: God, Freedom, and Time. Omniscience, Freedom, and Dependence. I poorly construct an argument which answers in the Negative to the Title question from William Hasker.


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I use Linda Zagzebski's Thomistic thought to respond to many of Hasker claims. I also examine Thomas' own writing to respond to Hasker.



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