Computer Vision and Sensor-Based Robots

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Object Recognition and Scene Analysis From a universal perspective, it is the goal of machine vision to determine for an artificial agent where in the environment things are and what they are. Answering these two questions constitutes a scene interpretation in the generic sense.

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The prerequisites range from fast, i. To gain the appropriate model for the desired application, a wide range of sensors and several data processing steps are necessary. Tracking and Servoing When a rigid object moves in 3D space relative to a camera, it is often interesting to know how its relative pose changes in its full 6 degrees of freedom DoF. The problem of 6-DoF tracking arises in the context of numerous applications within and beyond robotics. Navigation Basic skills for a mobile robot system are localization and navigation.

Machine Vision in industrial applications

Any possible service task, such as floor cleaning, fetching and carrying objects, or assistance of the handicapped, requires these skills. Visual Odometry The stereo ego-motion method works on successive images of the left camera of a synchronized and rectified stereo camera system.

It is based on identifying image features that are likely to be found again in successive images. The well known Harris corner detector is used for this purpose.

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Exploration The research focuses on sensor-based approaches to robotic exploration of partly unknown environments. Aiming at facilitating automated work processes in flexible work cells, an efficient and reliable task-dependent exploration is performed. High-Speed Vision When a robot has to immediately react to real-world events detected by a vision sensor, high-speed vision is required.

Machine Vision in industrial applications

This may be a visual servoing task, i. Tools Over the years we have developed some tools of general scope that assist us in various vision projects Applications Methods developed in our research are applied in integrated systems that function as demonstrators, technological experiments, or prototypes.

Each of them moves back and forth reviewing tickets and reaching for ingredients based on the orders at hand. Without saying a word, they signal through body language and agree on who stops and who continues, and where and how that should play out.


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Subconsciously, they are collecting and classifying 3D visual, aural, and tactile signals, and outputting a set of simple actions: acknowledge, stop, shift right, shift left, allow passage, and continue trajectory. All of this happens in a split second and results in mostly error-free, fluid collaboration.

Machine vision - Wikipedia

Now consider the case of a human and a robot in a workcell. If we want them to safely collaborate at all never mind even getting close to the way two humans can intuitively adjust around each other , we need to give the robot some way of sensing the world, processing the information it collects, and generating a collaborative action.

Roboticists continue to consider the best modes of safe collaboration, but the first class of collaborative robots focus on one of the senses — our sense of touch — as the means for communication and collaboration between robots and humans. Touching the robot is a trigger signal for the robot to stop and avoid harm to its human collaborator. A better solution would be upgrading robot sensing capabilities beyond touch.

Toy Picker Robot using Arduino and Rapsberry Pi

However, newly available and increasingly less costly sensors providing 3D depth information, like 3D time-of-flight cameras, 3D LIDAR, and stereo vision cameras, can detect and locate intrusions into an area with much more accuracy. This enables a much closer interlock between the actions of machines and the actions of humans, which means industrial engineers will be able to design processes where each subset of a task is appropriately assigned to a human or a machine for an optimal solution.

Such allocation of work maximizes workcell efficiency, lowers costs, and keeps human workers safe.

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In order to give industrial robots the perception and intelligence they need to collaborate safely with humans, our system measures the necessary protective separation distance as a function of the state of the robot and other hazards, the locations of operators, and parameters including other robot safety functions and system latency.

If the protective separation distance is violated for example, by a human arm , a protective stop occurs. The Veo system perceives the state of the environment around the robot at 30 frames per second in 3D.



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