Gaia, Ethnos, Demos: Land, Leadership, and Community in Early Archaic Greece

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He was its first member to rule Macedonia. At the age of twenty-two he was left by his father to defend Syria against Ptolemy the son of Lagus , he was defeated at the Battle of Gaza , but soon repaired his loss by a victory in the neighbourhood of Myus. In the spring of , he was soundly defeated when he tried to expel Seleucus I Nicator from Babylon ; as a result of this Babylonian War , Antigonus lost two thirds of his empire: all eastern satrapies fell to Seleucus. After several campaigns against Ptolemy on the coasts of Cilicia and Cyprus , Demetrius sailed with a fleet of ships to Athens , he freed the city from the power of Cassander and Ptolemy, expelled the garrison, stationed there under Demetrius of Phalerum , besieged and took Munychia.

After these victories he was worshipped by the Athenians as a tutelary deity under the title of Soter. Demetrius conquered Cyprus in BC. Following the victory, Antigonus assumed the title "king" and bestowed the same upon his son Demetrius. In BC, he endeavoured to punish the Rhodians for having deserted his cause. Among his creations were a battering ram feet long, requiring men to operate it.

In BC, he returned a second time to Greece as liberator, reinstated the Corinthian League , but his licentiousness and extravagance made the Athenians long for the government of Cassander. Among his outrages was his courtship of a young boy named Democles the Handsome; the youth one day found himself cornered at the baths. Having no way out and being unable to physically resist his suitor, he took the lid off the hot water cauldron and jumped in, his death was seen as a mark of honor for his country. In another instance, Demetrius waived a fine of 50 talents imposed on a citizen in exchange for the favors of Cleaenetus, that man's son.

He sought the attention of Lamia , a Greek courtesan. He demanded talents from the Athenians, which he gave to Lamia and other courtesans to buy soap and cosmetics , he roused the jealousy of Alexander's Diadochi. The hostile armies met at the Battle of Ipsus in Phrygia. Antigonus was killed, Demetrius, after sustaining severe losses, retired to Ephesus ; this reversal of fortune stirred up many enemies against him—the Athenians refused to admit him into their city. But he soon afterwards ravaged the territory of Lysimachus and effected a reconciliation with Seleucus, to whom he gave his daughter Stratonice in marriage.

Athens was at this time oppressed by the tyranny of Lachares—a popular leader who made himself supreme in Athens in BC—but Demetrius, after a protracted blockade, gained possession of the city and pardoned the inhabitants for their misconduct in BC. After Athens' capitulation, Demetrius formed a new government which espoused a major dislocation of traditional democratic forms, which anti Macedonian democrats would have called oligarchy.

The cyclical rotation of the secretaries of the Council and the election of archons by allotment, were both abolished. The royal appointing is implied by Plutarch who says that "he established the archons which were most acceptable to the Demos. He faced rebellion from the Boeotians but secured the region after capturing Thebes in BC; that year he married Lanassa , the former wife of Pyrrhus , but his new position as ruler of Macedonia was continually threatened by Pyrrhus, who took advantage of his occasional absence to ravage the defenceless part of his kingdom.

After besieging Athens without success he passed into Asia and attacked some of the provinces of Lysimachus with varying success. Famine and pestilence destroyed the greater part of his army, he solicited Seleucus ' support and assistance. However, before he reached Syria hostilities broke out, after he had gained some advantages over his son-in-law, Demetrius was forsaken by his troops on the field of battle and surrendered to Seleucus.

His son Antigonus offered all his possessions, his own person, in order to procure his father's liberty, but all proved unavailing, Demetrius died after a confinement of three years, his remains were given to honoured with a splendid funeral at Corinth. His descendants remained in possession of the Macedonian throne till the time of Perseus, when Macedon was conquered by the Romans in BC.

Demetrius was married five times: His first wife was Phila daughter of Regent Antipater by whom he had two children: Stratonice of Syria and Antig. Polis Polis , plural poleis means city in Greek. It can mean a body of citizens. In modern historiography , polis is used to indicate the ancient Greek city-states, like Classical Athens and its contemporaries, thus is translated as " city-state "; these cities consisted of a fortified city centre built on an acropolis or harbor and controlled surrounding territories of land.

The Ancient Greek city-state developed during the Archaic period as the ancestor of city and citizenship and persisted well into Roman times, when the equivalent Latin word was civitas meaning "citizenhood", while municipium applied to a non-sovereign local entity; the term "city-state", which originated in English, does not translate the Greek term. The term polis, which in archaic Greece meant "city", changed with the development of the governance center in the city to signify "state".

With the emergence of a notion of citizenship among landowners, it came to describe the entire body of citizens; the ancient Greeks did not always refer to Athens , Sparta and other poleis as such. The body of citizens came to be the most important meaning of the term polis in ancient Greece; the Greek term that meant the totality of urban buildings and spaces is asty.

The philosopher king is the best ruler because, as a philosopher, he is acquainted with the Form of the Good. In Plato's analogy of the ship of state, the philosopher king steers the polis, as if it were a ship, in the best direction. In The Republic, Socrates is concerned with the two underlying principles of any society: mutual needs and differences in aptitude. Starting from these two principles, Socrates deals with the economic structure of an ideal polis.

Along with the two principles and five economic classes, there are four virtues; the four virtues of a "just city" include, courage and justice. Priests and priestesses, although drawn from certain families by tradition, did not form a separate collegiality or class. Gymnasia Theatres Walls: used for protection from invaders Coins: minted by the city, bearing its symbols Colonies being founded by the oikistes of the metropolis Political life: it revolved around the sovereign Ekklesia , the standing boule and other civic or judicial councils, the archons and other officials or magistrates elected either by vote or by lot, etc.

They practised direct democracy. Publication of state functions: laws and major fiscal accounts were published, criminal and civil trials were held in public. Synoecism , conurbation : Absorption of nearby villages and countryside, the incorporation of their tribes into the substructure of the polis. Many of a polis' citizens lived in countryside; the Greeks regarded the polis less as a territorial grouping than as a religious and political association: while the polis would control territory and colonies beyond the city itself, the polis would not consist of a geographical area.

Social classes and citizenship: Dwellers of the polis were divided into four types of inhabitants, with status determined by birth: Citizens with full legal and political rights—that is, free adult men born legitimately of citizen parents, they had the right to vote, be elected into office, bear arms, the obligat. The "goat-man" who gave his name to the Aegean Sea was, next to Poseidon , the father of Theseus , the founder of Athenian institutions and one of the kings of Athens. But, in some accounts, he was regarded as the son of Scyrius or Phemius and was not of the stock of the Erechtheids, since he was only an adopted son of Pandion.

Aegeus' first wife was Meta, daughter of Hoples and his second wife was Chalciope , daughter of Rhexenor, neither of whom bore him any children. Aegeus was born in Megara where his father Pandion had settled after being expelled from Athens by the sons of Metion who seized the throne. After the death of Pandion, now king of Megara, Aegeus in conjunction with his three brothers attacked Athens, took control over the government and expelled the usurpers, the Metionids.

They divide the power among themselves but Aegeus obtained the sovereignty of Attica , succeeding Pandion to the throne. It has been said that Megara was at the time a part of Attica, that Nisus received his part when he became king of that city. Lycus became king of Euboea. Aegeus, being the eldest of the brothers, received; the division of the land was explained further in the following text by the geographer Strabo : Later on, Lycus was driven from the territory by Aegeus himself, had to seek refuge in Arene , Messenia.

Pallas and his fifty sons revolted at a time, being crushed by Aegeus' son Theseus.

Part IV. Monopolies and Enclaves

Still without a male heir with his previous marriages, Aegeus asked the oracle at Delphi for advice. According to Pausanias , Aegeus ascribed this misfortune to the anger of Aphrodite and in order to conciliate her introduced her worship as Aphrodite Urania in Athens; the cryptic words of the oracle were "Do not loosen the bulging mouth of the wineskin until you have reached the height of Athens, lest you die of grief. Aegeus was disappointed. This puzzling oracle forced Aegeus to visit Pittheus , king of Troezen , famous for his wisdom and skill at expounding oracles.

Pittheus understood the prophecy and introduced Aegeus to his daughter, when Aegeus was drunk, they lay with each other, in some versions, Aethra waded to the island of Sphairia and bedded Poseidon. When Aethra became pregnant, Aegeus decided to return to Athens. Before leaving, he buried his sandal and sword under a huge rock and told her that, when their son grew up, he should move the rock and bring the weapons to his father, who would acknowledge him.

Upon his return to Athens, Aegeus married the wrath of Jason. Aegeus and Medea had one son named Medus. Out of envy, Aegeus sent him to conquer the Marathonian Bull. Minos declared war on Athens, he offered the Athenians peace, under the condition that Athens would send seven young men and seven young women every nine years to Crete to be fed to the Minotaur , a vicious monster. This continued until Theseus killed the Minotaur with the help of Minos' daughter. In Troezen, Theseus became a brave young man, he took his father's weapons. His mother told him the identity of his father and that he should take the weapons back to him at Athens and be acknowledged.

Theseus decided to go to Athens and had the choice of going by sea, the safe way, or by land, following a dangerous path with thieves and bandits all the way. Young and ambitious, Theseus decided to go to Athens by land; when Theseus arrived, he did not reveal his true identity. He was welcomed by Aegeus , suspicious about the stranger who came to Athens.

Medea tried to have Theseus killed by encouraging Aegeus to ask him to capture the Marathonian Bull, but Theseus succeeded, she tried to poison him, but at the last second, Aegeus recognized his son and knocked the poisoned cup out of Theseus' hand. Father and son were thus reunited, Medea was sent away to Asia. Theseus departed for Crete. Upon his departure, Aegeus told him to put up white sails when returning if he was successful in killing the Minotaur. However, when Theseus returned, he forgot these instructions.

When Aegeus saw the black sails coming into Athens, mistaken in his belief that his son had been slain, he killed himself by jumping from a height: according to some, from the Acropolis or another unnamed rock. Sophocles ' tragedy Aegeus has been lost. At Athens, the traveller Pausanias was informed in the second-century CE that the cult of Aphrodite Urania above the Kerameikos was so ancient that it had been established by Aegeus, whose sisters were barren, he still childless himself.

Catullus , LXIV. Plutarch , Theseus. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. Cambridge University Press. Theoi Project - Aegeus. Classical Athens The city of Athens during the classical period of Ancient Greece was the major urban center of the notable polis of the same name, located in Attica , leading the Delian League in the Peloponnesian War against Sparta and the Peloponnesian League. Athenian democracy was established in BC under Cleisthenes following the tyranny of Isagoras ; this system remained remarkably stable, with a few brief interruptions remained in place for years, until BC.

In the classical period, Athens was a center for the arts and philosophy, home of Plato's Akademia and Aristotle's Lyceum, Athens was the birthplace of Socrates , Pericles , Aristophanes and many other prominent philosophers and politicians of the ancient world, it is referred to as the cradle of Western Civilization , the birthplace of democracy due to the impact of its cultural and political achievements during the 5th and 4th centuries BC on the rest of the then-known European continent.

Hippias , son of Peisistratus , had ruled Athens jointly with his brother, from the death of Peisistratus c Following the assassination of Hipparchus c, Hippias took on sole rule, in response to the loss of his brother, became a worse leader and disliked. Hippias exiled of the Athenian noble families, amongst them Cleisthenes' family, the Alchmaeonids. Upon their exile, they went to Delphi , Herodotus says they bribed the Pythia to always tell visiting Spartans that they should invade Attica and overthrow Hippias; this worked after a number of times, Cleomenes led a Spartan force to overthrow Hippias, which succeeded, instated an oligarchy.

Cleisthenes disliked the Spartan rule, along with many other Athenians, so made his own bid for power; the result of this was democracy in Athens, but considering Cleisthenes' motivation for using the people to gain power, as without their support, he would have been defeated, so Athenian democracy may be tinted by the fact its creation served the man who created it. The reforms of Cleisthenes replaced the traditional four Ionic "tribes" with ten new ones, named after legendary heroes of Greece and having no class basis, which acted as electorates.

Each tribe was in turn divided into three trittyes , while each trittys had one or more demes — depending on their population — which became the basis of local government; the tribes each selected fifty members by lot for the Boule , the council which governed Athens on a day-to-day basis. The public opinion of voters could be influenced by the political satires written by the comic poets and performed in the city theaters; the Assembly or Ecclesia was open to all full citizens and was both a legislature and a supreme court, except in murder cases and religious matters, which became the only remaining functions of the Areopagus.

Most offices were filled by lot. Prior to the rise of Athens, Sparta, a city-state with a militaristic culture, considered itself the leader of the Greeks , enforced a hegemony; the silver mines of Laurion contributed to the development of Athens in the 5th century BC, when the Athenians learned to prospect and refine the ore and used the proceeds to build a massive fleet, at the instigation of Themistocles. This provoked two Persian invasions of Greece, both of which were repelled under the leadership of the soldier-statesmen Miltiades and Themistocles.

In the Athenians, led by Miltiades, prevented the first invasion of the Persians , guided by king Darius I , at the Battle of Marathon. In the Persians returned under a new ruler, Xerxes I ; the Hellenic League led by the Spartan King Leonidas led 7, men to hold the narrow passageway of Thermopylae against the ,—, army of Xerxes, during which time Leonidas and other Spartan elites were killed.

The Athenians led an indecisive naval battle off Artemisium. However, this delaying action was not enough to discourage the Persian advance which soon marched through Boeotia , setting up Thebes as their base of operations, entered southern Greece; this forced the Athenians to evacuate Athens , taken by the Persians, seek the protection of their fleet. Subsequently, the Athenians and their allies, led by Themistocles, defeated the Persian navy at sea in the Battle of Salamis.

Xerxes had built himself a throne on the coast. Instead, the Persians were routed. Sparta's hegemony was passing to Athens, it was Athens that took the war to Asia Minor; these victories enabled it to bring most of the Aegean and many other parts of Greece together in the Delian League , an Athenian-dominated alliance.

Pericles — an Athenian general and orator — distinguished himself above the other personalities of the era, men who excelled in politics, architecture, sculpture and literature, he fostered arts and literature and gave to Athens a splendor which would never return throughout its history. He improved the life of the citizens. Hence, he gave his name to the Athenian Golden Age. Silver mined in Laurium in southeastern Attica contributed to the prosperity of this "Golden" Age of A. During his early life he served under Philip II , he was a major figure in the Wars of the Diadochi after Alexander's death, declaring himself king in BC and establishing the Antigonid dynasty.

Not much is known about Antigonus's early career, he must have been an important figure in the Macedonian Army because when he emerges in historical sources he is in command of a large part of Alexander's army. Antigonus must have participated in the battle of the Granicus since he command a division of the amry and Alexander's entire army was at the Granicus ; when Alexander marched East he appointed Antigonus as governor of Phrygia in BC. Antigonus was responsible for defending Alexander's lines of supply and communication during the latter's extended campaign against the Achaemenid Persian Empire.

Following Alexander's victory at Issus , part of the Persian army regrouped in Cappadocia and attempted to sever Alexander's lines of supply and communication running through the center of Asia-Minor. As part of the division of the provinces after Alexander's death in BC, Antigonus received Pamphylia and Lycia from Perdiccas , regent of the empire, at the Partition of Babylon. However, he incurred the enmity of Perdiccas by refusing to assist Eumenes to obtain possession of the provinces allotted to him and Cappadocia. Leonnatus had left with his army for Greece , leaving Antigonus alone to deal with Cappadocia, a task he couldn't complete without additional aid.

Perdiccas seems to have viewed this as a direct affront to his authority and led the royal army to conquer the area. From there Perdiccas turned west towards Phrygia in order to humble Antigonus, who escaped with his son Demetrius to Greece, where he obtained the favour of Antipater , regent of Macedonia , Craterus. With the death of Perdiccas in BC, a new attempt at dividing the empire took place at Triparadisus.

Antipater was made the new Regent of the Antigonus became Strategos of Asia. Antigonus was entrusted with the command of the war against the former members of the Perdiccan faction. Antigonos decided to deal with Eumenes, in Cappadocia, first. Despite being outnumbered Antigonus adopted a bold attacking strategy, he outgeneraled and defeatred Eumenes at the battle of Orkynia and forced him to retire to the fortress of Nora. Antigonos defeated his opponents at the battle of Kretopolis.

So Antigonos in two brilliant campaigns in the course of one campaigning season had annihilated the remnants of the Perdiccan faction; when Antipater died in BC, he left the regentship excluding Cassander , his son. Antigonus and the other dynasts refused to recognize Polyperchon , since it would have undermined their own ambitions. Antigonus entered into negotiations with Eumenes, but Eumenes had been swayed by Polyperchon, who gave him authority over all other generals within the empire. Effecting his escape from Nora Eumenes raised a small army and fled South into Cilicia.

Antigonus did not move against Eumenes directly because he was tied up in northwestern Asia Minor campaigning against Cleitus the White who had a large fleet at the Hellespont. Cleitus was able to defeat Antigonus's admiral Nicanor in a sea battle but he was caught of guard the next morning when Antigonus launched a double assault by land and sea on his camp, Cleitus was taken by surprise and his entire force was captured of killed.

Meanwhile Eumenes had been raising an army and building a fleet in Cilicia and Phoenicia , he had formed an alliance with Antigenes and Teutamos, the commanders of the Silver Shields and the Hypaspists , soon after formed a coalition with the satraps of the eastern provinces. Both were inconclusive. However, in the aftermath of the second battle, Antigonus managed to capture the families and the valuables of the Silver Shields, an elite regiment within Eumenes' army, who in turn handed over Eumenes to Antigonus in return for their release.

After some deliberation, Antigonus had Eumenes executed; as a result, Antigonus now was in possession of the empire's Asian territories, his authority stretching from the eastern satrapies to Syria and Asia Minor in the west. He entered Babylon ; the governor of Babylon, fled to Ptolemy and entered into a league with him and Cassander.

Seleucus returned to Babylon in order to build up a base of his own, he soon established control of the eastern satrapies. After the Babylo. Following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece , Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the Archaic period and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin ; this was followed by the period of Classical Greece , an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars , lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC.

Due to the conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedon , Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea ; the Hellenistic period came to an end with the conquests and annexations of the eastern Mediterranean world by the Roman Republic , which established the Roman province of Macedonia in Roman Greece , the province of Achaea during the Roman Empire. Classical Greek culture philosophy, had a powerful influence on ancient Rome , which carried a version of it to many parts of the Mediterranean Basin and Europe.

For this reason, Classical Greece is considered to be the seminal culture which provided the foundation of modern Western culture and is considered the cradle of Western civilization.

The Development of the Polis in Archaic Greece

Classical Greek culture gave great importance to knowledge. Science and religion were not separate and getting closer to the truth meant getting closer to the gods. In this context, they understood the importance of mathematics as an instrument for obtaining more reliable knowledge. Greek culture, in a few centuries and with a limited population, managed to explore and make progress in many fields of science, mathematics and knowledge in general.

Classical antiquity in the Mediterranean region is considered to have begun in the 8th century BC and ended in the 6th century AD. Classical antiquity in Greece was preceded by the Greek Dark Ages, archaeologically characterised by the protogeometric and geometric styles of designs on pottery. The Archaic Period saw early developments in Greek culture and society which formed the basis for the Classical Period. After the Archaic Period, the Classical Period in Greece is conventionally considered to have lasted from the Persian invasion of Greece in until the death of Alexander the Great in ; the period is characterized by a style, considered by observers to be exemplary, i.

Following the Classical period was the Hellenistic period, during which Greek culture and power expanded into the Near and Middle East ; this period ends with the Roman conquest. Late Antiquity refers to the period of Christianization during the 4th to early 6th centuries AD, sometimes taken to be complete with the closure of the Academy of Athens by Justinian I in The historical period of ancient Greece is unique in world history as the first period attested directly in proper historiography , while earlier ancient history or proto-history is known by much more circumstantial evidence, such as annals or king lists, pragmatic epigraphy.

Herodotus is known as the "father of history": his Histories are eponymous of the entire field. Herodotus was succeeded by authors such as Thucydides , Demosthenes and Aristotle. Most of these authors were either Athenian or pro-Athenian, why far more is known about the history and politics of Athens than those of many other cities. Their scope is further limited by a focus on political and diplomatic history, ignoring economic and social history. In the 8th century BC, Greece began to emerge from the Dark Ages which followed the fall of the Mycenaean civilization.

Literacy had been lost and Mycenaean script forgotten, but the Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet, modifying it to create the Greek alphabet. Objects with Phoenician writing on them may have been available in Greece from the 9th century BC, but the earliest evidence of Greek writing comes from graffiti on Greek pottery from the mid-8th century. Greece was divided into many small self-governing communities, a pattern dictated by Greek geography: every island and plain is cut off from its neighbors by the sea or mountain ranges; the Lelantine War is the earliest documented war of the ancient Greek period.

It was fought between the important poleis of Chalcis and Eretria over the fertile Lelantine plain of Euboea. Both cities seem to have suffered a decline as result of the long war, though Chalcis was the nominal victor. A mercantile class arose in the first half of the 7th century BC, shown by the introduction of coinage in about BC. Cleisthenes Cleisthenes was an ancient Athenian lawgiver credited with reforming the constitution of ancient Athens and setting it on a democratic footing in BCE.

For these accomplishments, historians refer to him as "the father of Athenian democracy. He was the younger son of Megacles and Aragiste making him the maternal grandson of the tyrant Cleisthenes of Sicyon , he was credited with increasing the power of the Athenian citizens' assembly and for reducing the power of the nobility over Athenian politics.

Cleomenes I , king of Sparta , put in place a pro-Spartan oligarchy headed by Isagoras , but his rival Cleisthenes, with the support of the middle class and aided by democrats, took over. Cleomenes intervened in and BCE, but could not stop Cleisthenes, now supported by the Athenians. Through Cleisthenes' reforms, the people of Athens endowed their city with isonomic institutions—equal rights for all citizens —and established ostracism. Historians estimate that Cleisthenes was born around BCE. Cleisthenes was the uncle of Pericles ' mother Agariste and of Alcibiades ' maternal grandfather Megacles.

With help from the Spartans and the Alcmaeonidae, he was responsible for overthrowing Hippias, the tyrant son of Pisistratus. After the collapse of Hippias' tyranny and Cleisthenes were rivals for power, but Isagoras won the upper hand by appealing to the Spartan king Cleomenes I to help him expel Cleisthenes, he did so on the pretext of the Alcmaeonid curse. Cleisthenes left Athens as an exile, Isagoras was unrivalled in power within the city.

Isagoras set about dispossessing hundreds of Athenians of their homes and exiling them on the pretext that they too were cursed, he attempted to dissolve the Boule , a council of Athenian citizens appointed to run the daily affairs of the city. However, the council resisted, the Athenian people declared their support of the council. Isagoras and his supporters were forced to flee to the Acropolis , remaining besieged there for two days.

On the third day they were banished. Cleisthenes was subsequently recalled, along with hundreds of exiles, he assumed leadership of Athens. After this victory, Cleisthenes began to reform the government of Athens, he commissioned a bronze memorial from the sculptor Antenor in honor of the lovers and tyrannicides Harmodius and Aristogeiton , whom Hippias had executed. In order to forestall strife between the traditional clans, which had led to the tyranny in the first place, he changed the political organization from the four traditional tribes, which were based on family relations and which formed the basis of the upper class Athenian political power network, into ten tribes according to their area of residence which would form the basis of a new democratic power structure, it is thought that there may have been demes which were organized into three groups called trittyes , with ten demes divided among three regions in each trittyes.

Cleisthenes abolished patronymics in favour of demonymics, thus increasing Athenians' sense of belonging to a deme.