Mesons and fields. Mesons

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Assuming that a deflection less than 0. Charged mesons will be deflected appreciably even at such a high velocity. Thus, it is concluded that most particles ejected are neutral. The time variation of this assumed neutral signal at the pin collector is not very informative. One possibility is of course that the neutral particles are ionizing photons, which interact with the collectors by ejecting photoelectrons and Compton electrons.

Compton electrons can indeed be observed with positive bias on the collectors, as a peak at short time. However, most results do not agree with photons. The large difference between the signals at the inner and outer collectors means that photons cannot explain the signals. Such results are seen in Figs 5 , 6 , 7 , 11 and 12 and summarized in Table 1. Most of these comparisons are for the entire signal, including the part of the signal identified to be due to charged particles.

Stricter comparisons are possible for example using the data from experiments such as those in Figs 6 and 7 with magnetic deflection of the charged particles. Thus, the fastest particles are to a large part charged, not photons. Such results are also shown in Fig 27 both with D 0 and p 0 and with negative and zero collector bias. The signal to the outer collector is there shifted 3. It is clearly seen that the later parts of the curves are not identical, thus corresponding to particles with velocity somewhat less than the velocity of light.

The first part of the curves represents particles moving at the velocity of light photons or relativistic massive particles. Thus, the neutral signal is to a large part due to particles with a velocity somewhat less than the velocity of light. This effect is shown by the recalculated signal curve in Fig 4. The outer collector signal is shifted 3. Thus particles moving close to velocity of light c and slower than c exist. One possibility is that the neutral particles are of the H N 0 particle type, as suggested previously [ 16 , 17 , 21 ].

Such particles may be named quasi-neutrons, or quasi-dineutrons in the case of D N 0 , and could remain neutral even after acceleration to very high velocities by the other fast ejected particles. However, their properties in this respect are not known. Another possibility is that the neutral particles are long-lived neutral kaons which have a decay time constant of 52 ns.

This type of decay is shown in Fig If similar numbers of neutral kaons and charged kaons are formed initially by the laser-induced nuclear processes, a large part of the neutral flux may be long-lived neutral kaons. The time variation of the collector signals was initially assumed to be due to time-of-flight of the ejected particles from the target to the collectors. Even the relatively low particle velocity of 10—20 MeV u -1 found with this assumption [ 21 — 23 ] is not explainable as originating in ordinary nuclear fusion.

Any high-energy neutrons would not be observed in the present experiments. Further, similar particle velocities are obtained also from the laser-induced processes in p 0 as seen in Figs 4 , 6 and 7 etc, where no ordinary fusion process can take place. Thus, it is apparent that the particle energy observed is derived from other nuclear processes than ordinary fusion. It is clear that such laser-induced nuclear processes exist in p 0 as well as in D 0.

For example, in Refs.

A Level Physics - Baryons and Mesons in terms of their Quarks

The experiments with two and three collectors made in this type of system [ 16 , 17 , 22 , 23 ] show more complex features. By comparing the different collector signals, it became clear that the time variation of the collector signals is not due to time-of-flight. Instead, it is obvious that the signal time variation is mainly due to time variation of the particle generation process at the laser target. This in turn implies that the particles move with much higher velocities than 10—20 MeV u -1 which was the apparent particle velocity.

Different time variations of the signal at the collectors mean further that the same signal is not seen by two collector in-line, but that the particles in the beam are transformed during their flight between the collectors. Finally, the specific exponential decays observed in the time variations indicate clearly that several different decaying particles are generated at the laser target. The accurate modeling of the intermediate particle formation and decay used here means that the detailed behavior of the laser-induced processes can be investigated with confidence.

It could be thought that the signal time variation is due solely to processes on the target which vary with time. However, the different specific time variations of the signals at the two collectors in line contradict this. For example, in Figs 4 and 5 the signal variation at the inner collector is slower than at the outer collector.

Thus the outer collector does not see the same signal, either due to different angular acceptance or due to decay of the particles in the beam. The dimensions of the collectors are in this case such that the same signal should be observed at both collectors in Fig 4. Thus, a real change of the particle flux is taking place between the collectors. In Figs 11 and 12 with model results collected in Table 1 , it is clearly demonstrated that different signals are observed at the two collectors.

It is thus concluded that the main signal variation is due to the time variation of the ejecting processes on the target with strong modifications due to decay processes during the transport in the beam. If the process on the target which ejects the very fast particles was just a nuclear process with a decay time caused by energy loss from the high energy spot on the target, the apparent decay times would be quite arbitrary with no specific values found.

This is not the case, but the time constants are reproducible and can also be measured accurately. One example is given in Fig 5 , where the signal to the outer collector agrees accurately with the time constant 13 ns expected for charged kaon decay In Figs 13 and 14 , the three main time constants are found with different laser pulse energies.

Of course, in that case the time constants mix to some extent but no other time constant values are observed. This means that specific decay time constants are observed, and that the time variation of the signals is largely determined by such constants. From the decay time constants, it is clear that charged kaons are formed, which decay to charged pions and finally also to muons. The muons may not be easily detected by the metal collectors and have a long decay time constant of 2. Thus, muon decay may not be directly observed here.

Direct evidence of the size of these clusters exists to be published. The charge of the mesons kaons, pions is observed to be positive by the magnetic deflection experiments. This means that they decay primarily to positive muons and finally positrons. The velocity of these particles will be quite high. Thus, processes like annihilation of the positrons will not exist close to the laser target since the positrons need to be thermalized before annihilation with electrons, and will not be easily detected in the experiments.

One decay channel of low probability for positive kaons can also give negative pions and thus negative muons [ 51 ]. However, the detection of muons through muon decay and capture [ 3 — 5 , 60 ] with an example in Fig 3 beta-like distribution requires that negative muons are formed at quite large intensities. The possibility that seems to exist in the model used here is formation of negative muons by decay of neutral kaons. These kaons interact relatively weakly with the collectors but they may as noted above constitute a large fraction of the neutral particles which pass undeflected by the magnets.

The neutral kaons decay to give positive and negative pions and muons. The reason why they are not observed regularly from their decay lifetime here is that is it relatively long, at 52 ns. It is observed in one case in Table 1 , and with 2 m collector distance from p 0 in Ref. It is also reported in Ref. The short-lived neutral kaon may give positive and negative pions directly [ 55 ].

The intermediate particle description agrees well with the results. This implies that the velocity of the particles is higher than the apparent particle TOF velocity of 10—20 MeV u This velocity corresponds to a time from the target to the outer collector of 15 ns, or to 10 ns between the two collectors. It is shown here in Figs 6 and 7 that the fastest signal to the outer collector can be deflected by the magnet at the beam, which means that it is not due to photons.

Electrons are excluded as described above. Thus, these particles are relativistic at energies up to 0. This corresponds to velocities higher than MeV u From the decay time and time between the two collectors for these relativistic particles, it was concluded that the particles are charged kaons with velocity of MeV u -1 or kinetic energy of MeV.


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A charged kaon may decay to a charged and a neutral pion. The excess energy in this process is MeV, which means that very energetic particles are likely to be found also as decay products. They of course have a large probability to leave the beam. The deflections of the particles in the magnetic fields observed are quite complex, as can be expected for a meson shower with several different meson types in the beam. For example, neutral, negative and positive kaons coexist in the beam, as concluded from the decay times observed.

They decay in a complex fashion to pions and muons [ 51 , 55 ]. Even if the beam is symmetric without magnet as shown for example in Figs 21 — 24 , this does not ascertain that also the different particle types have similar symmetric distributions in the beam. On the contrary, it must be expected that different types of particles have different spatial distributions in the beam, since they have different velocities from the complex particle decay patterns.

One example may exist in Fig If the beam was homogeneous, it would be expected that most of the signal flux was deflected by the magnetic field from the centerline of the beam. This is not the case, but the particles with larger transverse energies at the outer parts of the beam are the ones that are deflected most.

Thus, it appears that neutral particles are more abundant in the center of the beam, or alternatively that the increase and decrease in particle number at the center are almost equal. This means that the deflections observed are from one side of the beam to the other, while the same type of particles from the other side of the beam leaves the beam. This is the reason for counting the deflections from the side of the beam to the other side, not only from the center. Both approaches are indeed included in the analysis in Figs 19 and The evidence from the calculations of the deflection in the magnetic fields in Figs 19 and 25 is clearly that the deflected particle masses are below unity.

Mass 1 or 2 particles may explain the deflections only if they have relatively low velocity, at 10—20 MeV u -1 as initially thought to be the case but now shown not to be correct; the decay time constants cannot be explained as due to such particles. The signals at the outer collector do not agree at all with such slow particles. Comparing also to Fig 8 with the relativistic particle deflection means that mesons easily explain all these deflection results, and also the decay time constants. Thus the deflected particles in the magnetic fields are charged mesons, mainly with positive charge.

Another possibility could be that also negative mesons are formed and deflected by the magnetic fields. If negative mesons will give a negative current at the pin collector, the signal will not be so easily discriminated from the positive mesons giving a positive current with deflections of the same size but in the opposite direction.

The difference signals in Figs 16 , 18 , 22 and 24 are in fact quite antisymmetric around the center, which could indicate similar negative and positive particle fluxes.

The Yukawa Particle and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Revisited

The mechanism of charge ejection from the collectors for negative mesons should be the same as for positive particles, both giving a positive signal current, so the possibility of large negative meson fluxes cannot be supported. The experiments using the small pin collector for TOF and magnetic deflection observe currents up to 1. This means a peak current density of 25 mA cm -2 at the pin, or a factor of nine larger density of mA cm -2 at the slit due to the difference of a factor of three in the distance to the laser spot.

It is apparent that such a large current density is due to a very large number of emitted particles from the target. It may thus be interesting to estimate the total energy released by the nuclear processes initiated by the laser. This gives total particle energy of 10 J, much higher than the laser pulse energy of 0. In the experiment in Fig 6 , an inner slit was in fact used with an opening of 6. This gives an energy of 90 J released, a factor higher than the laser-pulse energy.

Section Summary

Since the particle energy is higher than 20 MeV and the particles have velocities up to MeV u -1 , then the total energy released is correspondingly higher. The particles on average have mass less than unity but higher velocity than 20 MeV u -1 , so a reasonable average for this estimate is 20 MeV.

It should also be realized that the particles departing out from the beam on the way to the outer collector are not included, and they are probably the ones with the largest kinetic energy. Returning to Fig 6 , the charged particles deflected difference have approximately a factor of 5 lower total intensity, thus corresponding to a total energy of 18 J per laser pulse in charged particles.

These estimates of course depend on an assumed ejected isotropic distribution of particles around the laser interaction spot on the target. If it instead assumed that all the particles were ejected into a narrow cone of size 0. Thus, it is safe to conclude that the nuclear processes in H 0 observed to give meson ejection release a large amount of energy.

Mesons with different velocities are generated by the laser-induced nuclear processes in ultra-dense hydrogen D 0 and p 0. The highest velocities observed are in the range 0. Both charged kaons and pions are frequently observed from their decay time constants, while the neutral long-lived kaon with its longer decay-time is less frequently observed in the present experiments. It is probably observed as a long-lived foil-penetrating neutral particle, and it may be a large part of the neutral flux which is the main fast particle flux from the laser-induced nuclear processes.

The magnetic deflection experiments give strong evidence for fast charged kaons and pions. Heavier or lighter particles cannot give the observed deflections. Conceptualization: LH. Data curation: LH. Investigation: LH. Methodology: LH. Resources: LH. Validation: LH. Visualization: LH. Writing — original draft: LH. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Retraction After publication, concerns were raised about the scientific validity of the results reported in this article [ 1 ].

Claims of the presence of anti-baryons are not sufficiently supported by the evidence presented and are inconsistent with prior studies.

Properties of mesons in a strong magnetic field

The theoretical support published by other research groups cited in the article does not discuss the state of matter in question [ 2 ]. LH did not agree with retraction. Abstract Large signals of charged light mesons are observed in the laser-induced particle flux from ultra-dense hydrogen H 0 layers. Funding: The author received no specific funding for this work. Introduction Emission of muons by spontaneous and laser-induced processes in ultra-dense deuterium D 0 [ 1 , 2 ] was recently reported from our group [ 3 , 4 , 5 ]. Theoretical background Ultra-dense hydrogen H 0 is the lowest energy form of hydrogen atoms.

Download: PPT. Fig 1. Relation between ultra-dense hydrogen H 0 and other forms of hydrogen. Fig 2. Horizontal cut through two layouts of the apparatus, with various parts indicated. Results Energy spectroscopy of laser-induced particles Experiments that identify the laser-induced particles by scintillator-based energy spectroscopy have been done in another closely located apparatus in the laboratory [ 4 , 5 ]. Fig 3. Many-channel analysis MCA energy spectrum using a plastic scintillator and Al converter [ 4 ] in a small chamber with D 0 generation on the laser target.

Two-collector time measurements Time measurements using two and three collectors in line to analyze the laser-induced flux from H 0 have been published [ 16 , 17 , 21 — 23 ]. Fig 4. Two-collector experiment with p 0 on a Pt target surface. Fig 5. Two-collector experiment with D 0 on a Ta target surface. Relativistic charged particles Time measurements with and without magnet deflection show that very fast particles exist in the laser-induced flux from the target with H 0 coverage.

Submission history

Fig 6. Magnet deflection experiment at outer collector at cm distance. Fig 7. Magnet deflection experiment at inner pin collector at 64 cm distance. Fig 8. Calculated particle mass and velocity giving deflections of 5 mm at the outer collector with an 0. Particle separation by metal foils Some of the particles ejected from the laser target at high energy penetrate easily through metal foils.

Fig Removal of the neutral penetrating particles in Fig 9 , giving smoother, more easily interpreted signals. Intermediate decaying particles A more complex behavior can be seen by using experimental conditions that give several different signal parts at the collectors. Two-collector experiment with D 0 on Pt with zero bias. Two-collector experiment with D 0 on Pt with negative bias. Table 1. Best adjusted parameters for the intermediate particle signals shown in Figs 11 and Decay times A further possibility to investigate the behavior of the decaying particles is to vary the laser intensity.


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  • Variation of laser pulse energy, signal at outer collector, zero bias. Variation of laser pulse energy, signal at outer collector, negative bias. Magnetic deflection To study the energy and mass of the particles observed, magnetic deflection experiments have been done at two different magnetic field strengths. Magnetic field at 0. Signal time distributions at different lateral positions with no magnet top and with magnet bottom. Signal difference I no magnet - 1. Calculated particle mass and velocity giving deflections of 1.

    Difference signal time variation with the same data as in Figs 15 — Difference signal time variation with the same data as in Figs 21 — Neutral particles Most particles in the magnet deflection experiments are not deflected appreciably. Comparisons between signals at inner and outer collector, showing the signal not to be photons. Discussion The time variation of the collector signals was initially assumed to be due to time-of-flight of the ejected particles from the target to the collectors.

    Conclusions Mesons with different velocities are generated by the laser-induced nuclear processes in ultra-dense hydrogen D 0 and p 0. Author Contributions Conceptualization: LH. References 1. Laser-induced variable pulse-power TOF-MS and neutral time-of-flight studies of ultra-dense deuterium.

    Scripta ; View Article Google Scholar 2. Holmlid L. Excitation levels in ultra-dense hydrogen p -1 and d -1 clusters: structure of spin-based Rydberg Matter. Mass Spectrom. View Article Google Scholar 3. Holmlid L, Olafsson S. Spontaneous ejection of high-energy particles from ultra-dense deuterium D 0. Energy ; View Article Google Scholar 4. Muon detection studied by pulse-height energy analysis: novel converter arrangements.

    Charged particle energy spectra from laser-induced processes: nuclear fusion in ultra-dense deuterium D 0. Hydrogen Energy ;— View Article Google Scholar 6. Laser-mass spectrometry study of ultra-dense protium p -1 with variable time-of-flight energy and flight length. Hirsch JE. The origin of the Meissner effect in new and old superconductors. View Article Google Scholar 8.

    Efficient source for the production of ultra-dense deuterium D -1 for laser-induced fusion ICF. High-charge Coulomb explosions of clusters in ultra-dense deuterium D View Article Google Scholar Olofson F, Holmlid L. Detection of MeV particles from ultra-dense protium p -1 : laser-initiated self-compression from p 1. B ; MeV particles from laser-initiated processes in ultra-dense deuterium D A ; Laser-induced fusion in ultra-dense deuterium D -1 : optimizing MeV particle ejection by carrier material selection. Time-of-flight of He ions from laser-induced processes in ultra-dense deuterium D 0.

    Heat generation above break-even from laser-induced fusion in ultra-dense deuterium. AIP Advances MeV particles in a decay chain process from laser-induced processes in ultra-dense deuterium D 0. Modern Phys. E ; Nuclear particle decay in a multi-MeV beam ejected by pulsed-laser impact on ultra-dense hydrogen H 0. Leptons from decay of mesons in the laser-induced particle pulse from ultra-dense hydrogen H 0.

    It shows obviously that, at low temperature, the ratio stays almost constant, 1, which is a demonstration of the DCSB represented by the GOR relation. However, when the temperature increases, it deviates significantly from 1, which means that the temperature damages the GOR relation drastically or, in other words, induces the dynamical chiral symmetry to be restored. Furthermore, we illustrate the dependence of the ratio on the temperature in the case of a nonzero magnetic field strength in Fig.

    One can recognize easily from Fig. Once the temperature reaches up to around the critical value, r fluctuates seriously and both the temperature for the fluctuation to reach its first minimum and that for it to take its maximum increase with the ascension of the magnetic field strength, which implies that the fluctuation of the ratio r may be a signal for the chiral phase transition. These characteristics indicate that the external magnetic field preserves the DCSB.

    Calculated temperature dependence of the ratio r defined in Eq. The temperatures increase with strengthening the magnetic field. These features indicate that the external magnetic field can at least maintain the DCSB, so that there may exist magnetic catalysis in the region of the magnetic field strength we have considered. One may also infer that there exists magnetic inhibition for the vector hadrons. For convenience we outline the scheme and quote only the main formulas as follows.

    With those obtained in the last section as the inputs we get the scattering lengths in the case of vanishing and nonzero magnetic field strength. The obtained results are shown in Fig. The figure manifests evidently that, in both the cases of zero and nonzero magnetic field strength, a 0 and a 2 all remain correspondingly constant in low temperature region. As the temperature increases to the pseudo-critical temperature denoted T c r in last section, both the a 0 and the a 2 diverge to positive infinity rapidly.

    Extending the discussion in Ref. Calculated scattering lengths a 0 and a 2 as functions of temperature in cases of zero and several nonzero magnetic field strengths. Following the method of Ref. The obtained results of the temperature dependence of the mass and the width at zero and several nonzero magnetic field strengths are shown in Fig. The feature for the mass to decrease to 0 but not increase at high temperature is due to the divergence of the scattering length.

    Such a feature is exactly the same as we obtained in the last section. Especially the width diverges at a certain critical temperature which increases as the magnetic field strength becomes larger. One is the conventional scheme, which takes the mesons as quark and antiquark bound states.

    However, the degeneracy is not precise because of the magnetic catalysis and the finite current quark mass effect. Such a feature, that different criteria give distinct critical temperatures, implies that the chiral phase transition at finite temperature and finite magnetic field is a crossover. The obtained results display the masses of not only the neutral but also the charged particles increase with the strengthening of the magnetic field at low temperature.

    At a certain magnetic field, the masses decrease generally with the increasing of temperature. We have also calculated the temperature and the magnetic field strength dependence of the neutral pion decay constant and checked the GOR relation in the case of finite temperature and finite magnetic field. Our calculation results of the decay constant agree very well with the previous one. Such an aspect shows again that the magnetic field preserves the DCSB. The masses and their widths at zero temperature and zero magnetic field strength we obtained excellently agree with the experimental data.

    Meanwhile increasing the magnetic field strength retards the disassociation. These features confirm that there does not exist a charged vector meson condensate in the QCD vacuum at finite magnetic field. Furthermore the NJL model is only a contact interaction approximation of the strong interaction, which neglects the contributions of the complicated quark—gluon interaction vertex and the dressed gluon propagator.

    In addition, we have not taken into account the temperature and magnetic field strength dependence of the cutoff in the calculations, either. Investigations on the meson properties with more sophisticated approaches e. On the other hand, the practical situation may, in fact, be more complicated, for instance, the effect of the magnetic field on the phase transition may depend on the field strength non-monotonically.

    GCB and CB National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. The European Physical Journal. C, Particles and Fields. Published online Jun 2. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Yu-xin Liu, Email: nc. Corresponding author. Received Dec 17; Accepted Apr Introduction The properties of strong interaction matter QCD matter have attracted great attention in the past years, and plenty of theoretical and experimental results were obtained see, for example, Refs.

    Open in a separate window. Calculated phase diagram in the T — eB plane. References 1. Gyulassy M, McLerran L. Arsene I, et al. Back BB, et al. Adams J, et al. Braun-Munzinger P, Wambach J. Fukushima K.

    Meson-Baryon coupling constants in QCD sum rules - Research database - University of Groningen

    Fukushima K, Hatsuda T. Liu, S. Qin, L.


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