It was due not only to accuracy and clarity of definitions, but also to richness of additional information of encyclopaedic character, which had become a tradition in American lexicography. As an encyclopaedia it gives explanations about things named, including scientific and technical subjects. Dictionaries of abbreviations, antonyms, borrowings, new words, proverbs, synonyms, surnames, toponyms etc. Unilingual or explanatory dictionary is the dictionary in which the words and their definitions belong to the same language.
Bilingual or translation dictionaries are those which explain words by giving their equivalents in another language. Multilingual or polyglot dictionaries are not numerous, they serve chiefly the purpose of comparing synonyms and terminology in various languages. General represent the vocabulary as a whole with a degree of completeness depending upon the scope and bulk of the book in question.
They include frequency dictionaries, i. General dictionaries are contrasted to special dictionaries whose stated aim is to cover only a certain specific part of the vocabulary. Special dictionaries may be further subdivided depending on whether the words are chosen according to the sphere of human activity in which they are used technical dictionaries , the type of the units themselves phraseological dictionaries , relationships existing between them dictionaries of synonyms etc.
Special unilingual dictionaries which give definitions of terms medical, technical, art, musical are called glossaries. Dictionaries recording the complete vocabulary of a particular author are called concordances. They should be distinguished from those that deal only with difficult words, i.
Taking up territorial considerations one comes across dialect dictionaries and dictionaries of Americanisms.
Finally, dictionaries may be classifies into linguistic and non-linguistic. The non-linguistic are dictionaries giving information in all branches of knowledge — the encyclopaedias. They deal not with words, but with facts and concepts. History of English and American lexicography.
This dictionary was revised in , , , , Multilingual dictionaries Etymological, frequency, phonetic, rhyming and thesaurus type dictionaries Special Glossaries of scientific and other special terms, concordances. Dictionaries of scientific and other special terms. The Chinese government sought to learn from Western advances, while maintaining China's integrity.
Many officials were skeptical, and rightly so, of the aggressive Westerners, but realized the importance of learning the Western languages. In response to the upsurge in Western scholarship the government established the Tongwen Academy , Tong Wen Guan , sometimes called the Interpreters College. The main academy was in Beijing, with branches in Shanghai, Fuzhou and Guangzhou.
Chapter seven of the department's charter entitled "Language Dictionaries" laid out the ground rules for bilingual dictionaries with a view toward standardizing terminology. Other institutions such as the Jiangnan Arsenal near Shanghai also were actively involved in dictionary-making. The arsenal was established in as an effort to modernize China's military. With the help of foreign advisers, the arsenal shortly became one of the most modern of its time. One way the engineers were able to keep abreast of the latest Western scientific advances was through translations provided by the arsenal's translation bureau.
The bureau produced numerous glossaries as well. Some of the early bilingual dictionaries include a chemistry glossary in , a metallurgy glossary in , a medicine glossary in , a steam engine glossary in and a glossary of weight and measures in Li Like their Buddhist counterparts, early Christian Missionaries concentrated on learning Chinese and on developing bilingual reference materials. By the niddle of the nineteenth century, as the western diplomatic and commercial presence grew in China, secular scholars had become involved in bilingual lexicography.
The most noteworthy non-missionary dictionary-maker is Herbert A. Natteo Ricci, an Italian Jesuit missionary, reached China in His two important linguistic achievements were a romanization scheme for Chinese based on Portuguese and Italian orthography and a system of marking tones which, with some modification, is the same system used today in Chinese dictionaries.
The dictionary is in folios and collects Portugese words arranged in alphabetical order from "aba da vestidura" to "zunir. Thanks to the efforts of Ricci and his colleagues, Jesuits and Catholic missionaries took the lead in compiling bilingual Chinese dictionaries. These two works, more vocabularies than dictionaries, may be the first of their kind published in Europe.
Trigualt'8 work, when combined with Rlcci's, set the stage for the introduction of the romanization of Chinese and for modern phonological studies in China Yang The Jesuits also developed an alphabetic dictionary and what is generally referred to as the manuscript dictionaries, a series of dictionaries in several Western languages that contain between ten to thirteen thousand Chinese entries. The manuscripts were used by M. He was to establish residence in China or on an adjacent island, learn Chinese and translate the Bible into Chinese which he completed in Morrison began working on a dictionary soon after he arrived in China.
He brought with him a transcribed copy of a Latin-Chinese dictionary lent to him by the Royal Society in London and also obtained a copy of the Jesuit's Manuscript dictionaries. In addition, he amassed a library of almost 10, Chinese books that served as sources for the examples he included in the dictionary.
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Part one is organized Chinese to English and is arranged according to the Kangxl radicals. Part three is organized English to Chinese and arranged alphabetically. Following Morrison's lead, missionaries and other foreigners became active in Chinese dialectology. A few of the early dialect dictionaries include: William H. The nineteenth century ended on a high note in Chinese bilingual lexicography with the publication of Herbert A. Giles began his career in China in as an interpreter for the British Consular Service, returned to Nlngbo as Consul in and in was named Professor of Chinese at Cambridge University.
Perhaps the most respected sinologist of his time, Giles wrote more than two dozen books on China. Imperial China and of Chinese literature and formed the basis for Robert H. The dictionary contains 13, head characters arranged in alphabetical order by the Wade-Giles romanization system and approximately 80, character combinations. Each head character entry includes its standard pronunciation, plus pronunciation in nine Chinese dialects and in Japanese, Vietnamese and Korean.
Character combinations are listed under each head character using the head character in either the initial position or elsewhere in the character string. Besides its overall usefulness, Giles1 dictionary is the authoritative source for the Wade-Giles romanization system. Until the advent of pinyin, the official romanization of the People's Republic of China adopted in , the Wade-Giles system was the most popular romanization scheme in English-speaking countries for Chinese. The history of Chinese bilingual lexicography is the history of foreign interest in China and of China's concern for its non-Chinese neighboring peoples and national minorities.
Finally, Western missionaries such as Matteo Ricci and Robert Morrison and diplomats such as Herbert Giles were among the most active Chinese bilingual lexicographers. Chinese monolingual lexicography was greatly influenced by Chinese bilingual lexicography. From the Buddhists came the study of linguistics, a phonetic alphabet and the fanqie system of indicating the pronunciation of a Chinese character.
From Western lexicographers came the modern method of marking the tone of a Chinese character, romanization schemes such as Wade-Giles, and the phonetic arrangement of dictionaries. Bloomington: Indiana U. In fact, it seemed clear to me that the work had disappeared into some sort of scholarly dark abyss precisely because previous analyses consigned it to the never-never land of failed artificial language projects e.
Starnes and Noyes Simply put, my analysis began and ended with the text as given. The uncertainty surrounding what constitutesa lexicographic text in the academy is countered by the dictionary-buying and -using public who normally refer to their alphabetically ordered word lists, of whatever origin, as 'the dictionary' as in "Look it up in the dictionary".
Perhaps the people understand the issue intuitively; even so, one is apt to hear from a speaker of some Language L that if a word is not in the Dictionary, then it is not a word of Language L. I propose to present evidence from the early history of English lexicography that will show the extent to which the 'tradition' be it mildly labelled as influence or harshly labelled as plagiarism can be adequately described as a series of edited and revised texts. I will support my claims with data from a selection of major English dictionaries. Rather, I would l i k e to suggest another approach, which I hope might bring a u n i f i e d v i s i o n of the development of the English d i c t i o n a r y.
The common practice i n modern English dictionary publications is to have an E d i t o r - i n - C h i e f and varying numbers of special e d i t o r s ; however, one suspects the t i t l e ' e d i t o r ' i n these cases underlines the p a r t i c u l a r d i c t i o n a r y ' s brand-name genealogy e.
Webster's, Funk and Wagnalls which has as i t s o r i g i n a t i o n an author Noah Webster, f o r instance. We would do well to consider t h i s h i s t o r y i n the manner i n which one would approach the h i s t o r y o f , say, printed editions of Shakespeare's tragedies. Thus, I r e s t r i c t e d my study to four types of textual occurrences: 1 t i t l e page composition; 2 notational devices; 3 vocabulary s e l e c t i o n ; and 4 construction of d e f i n i t i o n s. The l i m i t a t i o n s of space require that I confine my discussion to points 3 and mainly 4 ; however, we note that from the e a r l i e s t English dictionary to the present there i s a general format f o r t i t l e pages which depends on varying the size and type of the f o n t used on a multi-layered succession of printed l i n e s.
The notational devices used i t a l i c s , abbreviations, brackets, page format, e t c. We can only maintain these propositions by ignoring Wil k i n s ' and Lloyd's d i c t i o n a r y. My research Dolezal argues f o r a reevaluation of t h i s p o i n t. Evidently, he based his decision on the stated intentions behind both t e x t s.
However, when we t r y to trace the genealogy of a dictionary we cannot afford to overlook texts which the public may not use yet which the dictionary compiler may, and probably would, use. Furthermore, J. The studies comparing the constructions of d e f i n i t i o n s e. Starnes and Noyes are used i n tandem with the studies on the lexicon.
Influence from Latin-English d i c t i o n a r i e s i s noted i n these works. Osselton , on the other hand, points to the English- Latin d i c t i o n a r i e s and English-French d i c t i o n a r i e s as a probable source f o r the 'ordinary words' which appear i n J. Littleton: A man's Arm. Brachium, laceratus An Arm of the sea. Sinus Maris, aestuarium An Arm of a t r e e. Ramus, ramale. Arm of Man. I would not be surprised to learn of an entry in a bilingual dictionary predating both Littleton and Wilkins which bears close resemblance to their definitions.
The establishment of such a standard, I suggest, should be a primary desideratum of the history of lexicography. Bacon Wilkins: Condi ted Hogs-flesh J. Bailey: Hog's flesh salted and dryed. Wilkins: [Refresh] sp. To bait a hook To bait a bear, Bull, etc. The hawk baits, or shakes her wings. Kersey: to allure or entice, to set Beasts a fighting together; also to take some Refreshment on a journey: In Falconry A Hawk is said to Bait when she claps her wings, or stoops at her prey.
Bailey: to allure or intice, to set Beasts a Fighting together. Clod Wilkins: [Lump] Bailey: a Lump. Felter Wilkins: [Entangle] Bailey: to entangle. Effeminate Cawdrey: Womanish, delicate, wanton. Bullokar: Womanish, nice. Cockeram: Womanish, nice. Wil kins: [Woman-like] [Tender] [Nice] J. Bailey: Woman-like, tender, delicate, nice.
Bailey: a difficulty of Urine. Fast Wil kins: Adj. Kersey: A Rope to fasten a Ship, or Boat. Bailey: to Abstain from food. There is really no reason to stop with Bailey , except that after that date the proliferation of dictionaries and definitions increases to a not easily manageable corpus.
However, let us trace the first entry up to the twentieth century. Bacon Johnson: 1. The flesh of a hog salted and dried. To save the bacon Formerly also the fresh flesh now called pork. Century: 1. Hog's flesh, especially the back and sides, salted or pickled and dried, usually in smoke. From the data available it is clear that Wilkins' and Lloyd's 'hogs- flesh' stands at the beginning of one transmission of the text; since I have not looked at all precursors to the O.
It is only an accident of printing and publishing history that causes us to view particular dictionaries as discrete texts. Modern English dictionaries normally have editors, but what text is being edited? As i n other textual analyses, authority i n a dictionary is established upon the judgement and common sense of an e d i t o r or group of e d i t o r s.
Indeed, when we look at the h i s t o r y of English lexicography we can see that the task of the editors is to decide upon the appropriate points f o r recension and emendation of the t e x t. For example, i n defining bacon does one choose 'back and sides of p i g ' , 'hog's f l e s h ' , both or neither? To choose neither would mean only that evidence from other texts suggests a d i f f e r e n t analysis.
One of the problems inherent i n c i t i n g texts to establish authority i s i n d i r e c t l y expressed i n this passage from Bowers I t should matter to us whether the t h i r t e e n t h of John Donne's Holy Sonnets ends triumphantly,. Let us consider an hypothetical dictionary which uses the assumes t e x t of Donne's poem f o r i t s i l l u s t r a t i v e c i t a t i o n.
Is i t only a c u r i o s i t y of the textual h i s t o r y of t h i s sonnet that assumes probably doesn't belong i n the text? Whitney et al. Bowers, Fredson Textual and Literary Criticism. Urbana: University of Illinois Ph. Hartmann Lexicographica. Series Maior 1. Series Maior 4. Benjamins Kolb, Gwin J. London: Oxford U. Osselton, Noel E. Johnson's Dictionary: Essays in the Biography of a Book. Chicago: U. Starnes, DeWitt T.
London: J. However, with the growing interest in oriental studies, this situation changed. A bibliography of Arabic lexicography Ghali lists about 50 general and a number of specialised English and Arabic bilingual dictionaries, many with multiple editions. No transliterations are provided since the compiler supposes the "student who will make use of this work to be acquainted with the general rules of grammar". We can assume that the dictionary is aimed at providing the non-native scholar of Classical Arabic interested in 5th- to 8th-century literature with a thorough and comprehensive translation into English of all available linguistic evidence.
The lexicography of Norwegian
The second important work to be considered is F. The dictionary is in one volume of 1, pages arranged in two columns. The 40, entries are given in Arabic script without diacritical signs, but with English transliteration. The third in this group is H.
The compiler's aim was to produce a dictionary "which is comprehensive, handy and cheap". His system for saving space and expense was not to give "under each root the various nouns, adjectives, etc. To achieve the above aims, he splits the material into two volumes, the first containing all Arabic entries and equivalents as well as a Table of Arabic Derived Forms and abbreviations, the second an Index of the English words with page and line references to their locations in Volume I.
To record a large number of idioms and slang phrases Spiro-Bey claims to have read 'almost all' literature in colloquial Arabic and to have listened 'carefully' to casual conversation. The book consists of two-column pages, containing about 5, entries. The page front matter includes abbreviations, a note on entry design, the Arabic alphabet, days of the week, names etc. The 'standard work of Mr. Lane' is followed in the translations, but original Arabic sources were also consulted. An apparent effort is also made to include Syrian and Egyptian regionalisms.
Obsolete and rare words are deliberately omitted, while "living words and their different shades of meanings are amply dealt with". While the author makes no claim to comprehensiveness 45, words , the dictionary proved extremely popular, reaching 13 editions by It "is based on the form of the language which, throughout the Arab world from Iraq to Morocco, is found in the prose of books, newspapers, periodicals and letters.
This form is also employed in formal public address, over radio and television". It is expected to be useful to those interested in writings that have appeared since The dictionary follows a 'scientific descriptive' approach; "it not only lists classical words and phrases of elegant rhetorical style side by side with new coinages To sum up the main stages in the development of Arabic-English dictionaries, we note that they came into being in response to the needs of orientalists who were mainly interested in the study of Classical Arabic literature.
This dictionary exemplified another new feature, viz. In the Arabic preface the editor says that he had "long thought of translating the English language into the Arabic tongue in order to help spreading the knowledge of Arabic among the English and the knowledge of English among the Arabs.
He cites various published Arabic- English dictionaries, including William Lane's 'marvellous work'. He also obtained many modern expressions and idiomatic usages from various newspapers. It is noteworthy that the key to symbols and terminology used in the dictionary is given only in English. The second work is F.
The introductory and explanatory material is in English. In the preface the compiler expresses his intention to "help the foreigners in Egypt to communicate intelligibly with the natives of this country". Sa'adeh meant to offer his dictionary to the "English student of Arabic and the modern oriental student of English". He was not "content to copy from his predecessors", but introduced many technical and scientific terms as well as colloquial and slang expressions by consulting the most celebrated English monolingual dictionaries.
Title page, introduction, prefatory note and list of abbreviations are given in both languages. It was compiled "with a view to the needs of the Arabic speaking students in their study of English" which, according to the author, had not been catered for by previous reference works. At the same time, he hoped "that English-speaking students of Arabic, who have obtained a fair degree of proficiency in that language, would find it more useful than any other English-Arabic dictionary". Having experienced the kind of frustration felt by educated Arabs when English-Arabic dictionaries fail to meet their needs, the editor wanted to produce a comprehensive dictionary of no less than , entries on modern lines.
To this end, Ba'albaki had recourse to English and American monolingual dictionaries, general and specialised bilingual works, terminology lists published by the Cairo Academy of the Arabic Language, and glossaries in numerous books recently translated into Arabic. The introductory matter of the dictionary is in Arabic. Hassan S. It has a vocabulary of about 40, words and is intended for students at colleges and secondary schools as well as the general user.
For his English source material, Karmi relied on word frequency lists and dictionaries published recently in the United States and Great Britain. With reference to Arabic equivalents, he claims that the "Arabic meanings of words are given for the English words as they are used in practice". The introduction is in English, the guide on how to use the dictionary is in English and Arabic, the key to pronunciation is in English only.
Doniach, published in It is intended for both English-speaking and Arabic-speaking users. Its compilation was carried out on the basis of a fresh appraisal of "what usage was current in English and what relevant usage" was current in Arabic. Care was taken "to produce a representative English text so arranged on the page that the specific usage was easy to find". In addition, a panel of professional linguists were consulted for questions of usage.
Arabic equivalents were checked by native speakers in order to ensure that the semantic scope of the entry in question was fully conveyed and the layout was clear to the user. Unlike the Arabic-English dictionaries, English-Arabic dictionaries not only reproduced most of the Classical language, but also consciously introduced aspects of colloquial discourse, to help English users communicate in Arabic. An interesting point emerges from this short survey. Whether his claims were justified and whether his works provided for this particular user group needs further investigation.
Collison, Robert L. Deutsch Darwish, Abdallah A. Benjamins Haywood, John A. Leiden: E. Its Origin and Development. Glosses found in manuscripts, interlinearly and marginally, in the 11th and the 12th centuries are regarded as precursors of Croatian lexicography. They belong to the Radon Bible and it is believed that they were written in Zagreb during the period of office of the first bishop of Zagreb.
Among them there are some glosses with examples of the local Zagreb kajkavic dialect. These glosses are some scholars believe among the oldest non-Romance lexicography in the Middle Ages. Other Croatian glosses were found later in some Zagreb medieval Latin codices, especially in school manuals. It is a fact that before the 15th century no lexicographical work was preserved in Croatia. Lexicography in Croatia began during Humanism and the Renaissance: the former stimulated the use of Latin both in literature and official life in Croatia; the latter shows the rise of the Croatian language in literature.
Every entry is illustrated by a picture of a plant, thus it is also the first Croatian pictorial dictionary. In this specialized encyclopedic dictionary objects as well as words are explained. During the following hundred or so years several other manuscripts of lexicographical works appeared each containing a number of Croatian words. Then comes the period when the first dictionaries or lexicographical works were printed.
From the Introduction and the rest of the book we learn that he was a merchant and that he wanted to help other merchants and travellers to learn the language spoken and understood not only in Croatia but also in other neighbouring countries such as Serbia, Albania, Turkey, Hungary, etc. His book is intended to enable merchants to sell their goods, to make purchases and to calculate in those languages.
But he also wanted to help Croats to learn Italian, and even to learn how to read it. His instruction to the reader is very interesting, particularly when he tells him how to learn the language. One should start from things which are easy and progress to the more difficult items. That is why he begins with words, and later introduces phrases.
He instructs the reader on how to find a Croatian equivalent for an Italian word, i. From the linguistic point of view Valentiano's dictionary gives a mixture of Croatian dialects and a mixture of Italian dialects. The form of Italian used in the dictionary is the 16th-century Italian spoken in the areas of Florence, Siena, Udine linked with the district of Venice and Trento containing typical local dialectal characteristics.
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Three of the best developed trading centres of the period may be mentioned according to the language used in the book, Dubrovnik, Zadar and Senj. Valentiano's OPERA NUOVA has eight pages: the front page, the second page with the author's introduction to the aim of the dictionary and the first instruction to the reader on how to use the dictionary; then follow three pages, with two columns each, containing Italian entries explained by Croatian equivalents, and then two pages of 38 bilingual dialogues, and on the last eighth page a model letter in Italian and its Croatian translation.
It was discovered by a Czech scholar, Jan Petr. The name of the author is not printed on the front page of the bopklet, but somebody has added the name in pencil. Petr has demonstrated quite convincingly that the work was indeed written by the man named Pietro Lupis Valentiano. Another book, printed in the 16th century, deserves our undivided attention. It is De afflictione After escaping from Turkish captivity he devoted his life to writing popular books in Latin about the Turks and the Ottoman empire.
When De afflictione The Latin part of the dialogue which accompanies the dictionary was also translated into the three above-mentioned languages. The Croatian part of the dictionary and the added dialogue were written in cakavian i-dialect, one of the three main Croatian dialects in literary use before the single modern Croatian standard was established at the beginning of the 19th century. He himself gives the reasons. Since he uses several Turkish and oriental words in his books he supplements them with Croatian examples to show the European reader that Croatian is entirely different from Turkish.
Croatian numerals from one to one hundred and one thousand with their equivalents in Latin, French, Dutch and English are also added.
Croatian lexicographical material appears in various other works of this period with a greater or smaller number of Croatian words. This dictionary is also the first attempt to write an etymological dictionary, since in it there is a list of Hungarian words of Slavonic origin Slavicisms. It is in this dictionary that the Croatian language is presented for the first time in its totality with a direct lexicographical intention. It comprises Latin lexical items explained by Croatian words. Although it is by its size a small dictionary, it is packed with lexical material.
Some years ago the Croatian lexicographer V. He also studied the Croatian words recorded in the dictionary from the point of view of the place and time in which the dictionary was written. The choice of languages was the result of the author's views being limited to the Croatian Mediterranean area and directed only to the neighbouring Italy and Central European lands. Therefore he used Italian and Hungarian instead of French and English or even Spanish , the languages which were by the end of the 16th century already considered 'nobilis- simarum Europae linguarum'.
For the Croatian literary language this was the period of many unsettled problems: the Croatian version of Old Slavonic was coming to an end, the Glagolitic script was in decline and the Latin script was not yet fully mastered. By defining, for instance, the pronunciation of the Latin letter c based on four diffent orthographies in Croatian cz, cS, ch, k, he considers the four possible types of pronunciation only as 'ways' behind which the idea of consonantal phonemes of the Croatian language is hidden.
This is, according to our present knowledge, the first analysis and classification of borrowed words - loanwords. He was also known as an inventor and philosopher. As a philosopher he is remembered by his philosophical works Logica nova Venice and Ethica Christiana Venice , and as a historian he left two unpublished manuscripts, Illyrica historia and Statuta civitatis Sibenicensis. In our attempt to establish the beginnings of Croatian lexicography we have stated that glosses, found in many Latin manuscripts and later in printed codices and manuals, are the precursors of the earliest lexicographical works, some of which are preserved in manuscript form and others printed as parts of published books on various subjects or as independent dictionaries.
Thus we have classified as the earliest of them a 15th-century ca. Seventeen years later a book was printed, entitled De afflictione In the following two centuries Croatian lexicography flourished by producing a number of bilingual and multilingual dictionaries, which shows that Croatian lexicographers were developing more and more into competent linguists. When the Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts was founded in Zagreb in , the scheme of a completely new Croatian dictionary was converted into the Academy's first working programme in We can conclude that Croatian lexicography from its rather modest but stable beginnings in the 16th century and through the very productive period of the 17th and the 18th centuries, developed into a well-established lexicography in the 19th century of a modern European type.
Baudouin de Courtenay, Jan I. Afrikaans is a young language. In Afrikaans became one of the official languages to be used in the House of Parliament. Since then Afrikaans and English have been the two official languages of the R.
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In South Africa Afrikaans has to survive alongside the international language English. The average South African has a reasonable to good command of both languages. The South African speech community is subjected to language contact. This contact situation does not only have an influence on Afrikaans and English but it also affects Afrikaans lexicography. Being a young language Afrikaans still has to be fully accommodated in a dictionary and Afrikaans lexicographers have to bear the position of Afrikaans in mind.
Attention is also drawn to the present-day lexicography. Objective definitions and bilingual dictionaries are discussed. The effects of the two official languages on bilingual dictionaries and some semantic and morphological aspects in monolingual dictionaries receive attention. This 'dictionary' was not aimed at the improvement of Afrikaans, but at the vindication of Dutch in South Africa. Shortly after this list several other dictionaries were published, but none of them reached any high lexicographical standards. It was an attempt to reach spelling uniformity because Afrikaans had not yet been established as a written language.
It was also an aid for both Afrikaans and English speaking South Africans to master the other language. This dictionary was published shortly after the Anglo-Boer War Its principal aim was not lin- guistic but cultural and political. In the preface to this dictionary the authors said they wanted to promote co-operation between English and Afrikaans speaking South Africans. This overall-descriptive dictionary was also the product of its circumstances. Because of the incipient lack of other Afrikaans dic- tionaries and encyclopedias the WAT included more than the usual amount of non-linguistic and technical information.
It also provided pragmatic information on the usage of its entries. In the course of time a stronger linguistic approach was to be adopted. The WAT is a long-term project. Since seven volumes, from A to korvynael, have been published. But in this time there was a consid- erable expansion in the Afrikaans dictionary family.
A number of standard dictionaries have been completed and, normative in their approach, they were immediately aimed at the linguistic needs of the language community. Meaning discrimination and correct spelling received precedence. A major shortcoming in these dictionaries is insufficient information on pronunciation. Although primary stress, an orthographic respelling in some cases, and syllabification are indicated, there is a definite need for a phonetic transcription. Only then the attempted syllabification can be successful because at present it is only valid in those cases where it coincides with hyphenation.
Due to the work done by the Terminology Bureau as well as some other contributions there exists a wide range of technical dictionaries today; The publication of these dictionaries had an influence on the character and extent of the WAT's entries and led to a more definite linguistic approach in this comprehensive dictionary. For the average language user dictionaries remain an authoritative source of reference and this attitude compels the lexicographer to be objective and unbiased in his definitions. A review of Afrikaans dictionaries confirms a change towards an impartial and objective definition.
This change corresponds with a major shift in the focus from a cultural to an encyclopedic and pragmatic to a linguistic basis. The objectivity covers a wide range of areas. It includes religion, politics and social behaviour. Met water besprinkel as simbool van die afwassing van sondes. To sprinkle someone with water as a symbol of the purification from sin.
In the second edition this definition was altered: "2. Met water besprinkel of in water dompel This second definition satisfies more church denominations than the first one. This type of redefining represents definite progress in Afrikaans lexicography. Similar progress is seen with regard to words with a derogatory meaning.
Although it is an accepted lexicographical practice to define a com- pound in terms of its components, Afrikaans dictionaries often renounce this definition type when one of the components is a derogatory word. Instead an unstigmatised synonym or a paraphrase is given. This is done in such a way that the syntactic and semantic relations between the components are still explicated.
NW defines kafferpot kaffirpot as "1. This is a definite im- provement on the definition given in the WAT: "1. BD translates the derogatory Koeliewinkel Coolie store as "Indian store shop ".
One of the translation equivalents of koelie is coolie. Koeliewinkel could have been translated with Coolie store. Then both source and target language would have had the same derogatory value. The present translation is not aimed at social equivalence but at a non-derogatory equivalent. The lexicographer deviates from the principle of translation equivalents with the same connotation in favour of a non-offending entry.
BD proves its sensitivity regarding derogatory words by an excellent use of labels to mark these forms. The extensive application of labels in the present-day Afrikaans lexicography contributes to the above-mentioned progress. According to Al-Kasimi "Dictionaries have developed not as theoretical instruments but as practical tools Each culture fosters the development of dictionaries appropriate to its character- istic demands. The co-existence of two official languages puts its own characteristic demands on lexicography.
Bilingual dictionaries in S. This second category includes target languages like German, French, Italian, Portugese, etc. These dictionaries are aimed at the speakers of the source language. They are learners' dictionaries for the benefit of Afrikaans-speaking persons and their entries are typical examples from the written rather than from the spoken language. Although some of these languages have many speakers, these dictionaries are primarily learners' dictionaries. This causes concern and was identified as a major problem at a seminar on the needs and crucial problems in S.
According to Al-Kasimi it is impossible to serve the speakers of both languages equally in one dictionary. But this has changed. The average South African has a reasonable knowledge of both Afrikaans and English. This decision will determine the way in which he compiles his dictionary. Accommodating two official languages a dictionary has to give more than just a translation equivalent. Equivalents for the different polysemous senses of a lemma are provided with the necessary context to eliminate the other polysemous senses.
In an attempt to serve the speakers of both languages, bilingual dict- ionaries utilise the reversibility principle better than their earlier counterparts did. This may be permissible if the dictionary is written for the speaker of the source language but not if both languages are supposed to have equal treatment. The lexicographer of a bilingual dictionary must be able to cope with lexical gaps that may exist in either of the languages. Afrikaans, for example, has no direct equivalent for pup py.
It takes no major lexicographical effort to give a description as klein of jong hondjie small or young dog as an equivalent. However, according to the reversibility principle pup py must also be included as a translation equivalent. In the entry for hond dog there has to be room for jong - : pup py young -.
The correct application of this principle is one of the results of attention given to bilingual lexicography in S. Bilingual dictionaries lack sufficient information about pronunciation. Only an indication of the main stress is given. This results in an extended collection of dictionary entries.
Bilingual dictionaries also give evidence of the bilateral influence of Afrikaans and English on each other. Attention is drawn to semantic and morphological aspects. Therefore a lexicographer needs a sound semantic training. Afrikaans dictionaries could not always produce proof of the necessary semantic input and this evoked severe criticism. As mentioned earlier the WAT was initially more than just a dictionary; it was a source of technical reference and often used as encyclopedia.
This is clearly stated by a previous editor, P. The WAT was dominated by a utility principle. This approach was also adapted by Snijman who succeeded Schoonees. At this stage there was no need for such a policy because terminology lists and encyclopedias had already been published. The domination of encyclopedic detail decreased the WAT's linguistic status and threw doubt upon the lexicographers' semantic competence. Especially in Volumes five and six of the WAT little distinction is made between meaning and usage. The knowledge and application of componential analysis would have rendered a far better product because of the necessary discrimination between meaning, usage and encyclopedic detail that must be excluded from a definition where meaning is superior.
This encyclopedic approach was not only detrimental to the WAT but it also had a backlash in the standard dictionaries which resulted in an insufficient account of semantic information there. Contrary to the WAT the standard dictionaries tried to give as little information as possible in an attempt to avoid the much disapproved encyclopedic trap. NW defines geelbek Cape salmon as: "soort vis" a kind of fish. This definition applies equally unsatisfactorily to any other fish.
Yet, the lack of sound meaning description was less obvious in the standard dictionaries than in the WAT. But this position has changed. A number of prominent linguists are working actively in the field of theoretical lexicography and several universities offer postgraduate courses in lexicography. In May Dr. Snijman was succeeded by Mr. Hauptfleisch as editor in chief and in the new editorial policy it has been made clear that meaning discrimination will be prominent in the future volumes of the WAT.
According to the editorial policies of the leading monolingual dictionaries not all compounds have to be included in the dictionary. The meaning of many compounds can be obtained by combining the senses of their components. Where such self-explaining compounds are included, they are not provided with definitions but only entered in list form. In Afrikaans this principle was first formulated by the WAT but a number of standard dictionaries also apply the same method. Although it is an accepted lexicographical method its application in Afrikaans dictionaries has not always been plausible.
This is to a large extent due to the above-mentioned semantic insufficiency. The history of Afrikaans lexicography shows that there has been a change in the approach towards these 'self-explaining' undefined compounds. Formally the WAT still has the same approach to these compounds. The unexplained compounds are contrasted with those that are defined.
The meaning of those explained compounds are not easily derived from the senses of the different components. The stated principle leads to major problems for both explained and unexplained compounds. In many cases there is no difference in the transparency of meaning between these two types of compounds. Kiemvry is a self-explaining compound; kiemomstandigheid by no means. This type of problem is illustrated by a lot of examples proving the semantic insufficiency.
Yet, they are treated differently. Afrikaans dictionaries display a thorough treatment of polysemy. But polysemy does not only concern a lexical item's occurrence as simplex. It is of the same importance for that item's occurrence as component of a compound. In a dictionary a polysemous word must be described in such a manner that it can be disambiguated in a given context.
The lexicographer has to treat a polysemous component of a compound in the same way. A compound with one or more polysemous components may not be entered unexplained if the dictionary states that unexplained compounds have no semantic problems because of their transparency. The word ketting chain has seven polysemous senses in the WAT. A number of unexplained compounds with ketting as the first component are listed.
No indication is given as to which sense of ketting is applicable in each compound. Progress has been made. NW did not fall into the same trap. This dictionary clearly states which sense applies when there are polyse- mous components. The lemma poeier powder has two senses. With some adjustments a higher degree of lexicographical practice is imminent. A review of Afrikaans lexicography shows that the progress that has been made must be expanded to other dictionaries.
In its preface the NW explains its treatment of unexplained compounds. This treatment gives evidence of an important new approach to this type of entry. NW says that these compounds are listed to show that they are part of the lexicon and to help with spelling problems.
In a few instances reference is made to semantic problems. With regard to unexplained compounds this indicates a shift away from semantics as the basis for inclusion. A review of the WAT's entries shows a definite increase in the amount of unexplained compounds. This approach indicates a shift from semantics as stated in the WAT's preface to morphology and this is a positive development in the history of the WAT.
Where there are spelling difficulties the compounds may be included. In some compounds these link phonemes are optional. With regard to link phonemes the inclusion of unexplained compounds is important. Initially the WAT's unexplained compounds gave implicit evidence to the contrary: atoomgewig The history of Afrikaans lexicography reflects the growth of the language and the awakening and expansion of a linguistic approach towards dictionaries, in spite of a number of misconceptions and errors which need to be rectified.
Encouraging progress has been made to substantiate these dictionaries as authoritative sources of reference. Al-Kasimi, Ali M. Brill Botha, Rudolf P. Rotterdam: J. I see the DUDEN, controversially, as a serious alternative model for a general one- volume desk dictionary for native-speakers of languages other than German, and, non-controversially, as a rich digging-aground for the 'lexicographic archaeologist' in Robert Ilson's sense this volume.
In connection with the paper's first justification above, an important, if unoriginal, claim is made that, where dictionaries are involved, the theoretician, however valuable as a potential source of innovatory ideas, must be subservient to the user. Popular dictionaries in particular which fall outside the prevailing paradigm s may have a very useful therapeutic function to perform.
A 'standard' dictionary for native-speakers is in my experience judged by 'normal' users not on how exhaustively common words are treated but on whether or not the desired low-frequency items are to be found within it. Each edition has contained a preface or, in East Germany, an appendix listing mostly spelling rules, and since individual entries have been cross-referenced, where the compilers have deemed this potentially useful, with the rules section. This section can attract considerable attention from reviewers e. The prefaces of popular British dictionaries, on the other hand, make cursory reference to orthography: acceptable alternative spellings might be mentioned, and perhaps deviant American spelling behaviour.
It is ironic that, although overall German spelling is more predictable than e. English or French, tolerance of deviations from the norm is less widespread in Germany than in Britain or France Petitjean Foreign borrowings, too, cause problems when they are not fully integrated into the German largely phonemic spelling system cf.
Even when they are, the opaque 'foreign' form may persist beside the often less popular transparent calque cf. Before and the founding of the German Empire, the eqoivalent area had consisted of a remarkable, if steadily decreasing number of more or less independent states, a few of them large e. Prussia, Bavaria , many of them small e. Linguistic norms were therefore slow to emerge. It might even be argued that the German particularist, o at least 'pluricentric' Kloss , tradition is reflected in the fact that West Germany today, as a federation, has no central Ministry of Education.
In the first half of the nineteenth century there were, "auf deutschem Boden", no generally 'valid' guidelines on matters of spelling, either within the individual states or even within individual schools, where until the appearance of spelling rule- books the Kingdom of Hanover led the way in Grebe each individual teacher might be free to make his own selection from a variety of current spellings. Grimm's rejection of upper-case letters was also a return to the Middle High German past.
Operation of what came to be called the 'historical principle' for spelling would have required e. Significantly, Konrad Duden's first publication on the subject of spelling was produced for his school in Schleiz in Thuringia in It was contained in his, the headmaster's, annual report. Unlike the proponents of the historical principle these were dubbed the 'Leffel-Partei" , Duden, as a practising teacher, was wedded to the concept of spelling reform according to the, for learners more manageable and therefore more democratic,'phonemic principle'.
The most distinguished upholder of the "Schreibe, wie du sprichstl" approach was the Erlangen Germanist, Rudolf von Raumer, and it was Raumer's work which inspired the first "Orthographische Konferenz", called by the Prussian Minister of Education, Falk, in Berlin in , five years after the Empire had been founded. Lacking a general agreement on spelling norms for the whole of Germany, many of the larger states but also Mecklenburg-Strelitz issued or continued to issue their own guidelines for school use.
Since Prussia, however, was the mainspring of the Empire it was almost inevitable that the Prussian rulebook the work of Wilhelm Wilmanns should become the basis for the first DUDEN proper The first twelve editions were published in Leipzig the second edition was only a reprint. All subsequent editions have appeared either in Leipzig or in Mannheim, and although the shared heritage is plain to see, Mannheim and Leipzig editions have differed significantly from each other since , stemming as they do from different publishers, different editorial boards, and different "Gesellschaftssystemen".
In Leipzig issued an eighteenth edition, in Mannheim a nineteenth. There follows a brief look at some of the features of the DR as illustrated by the entries listed under the head-words W to Wanze over the many editions from to , Mannheim lineage only. Here I ignore spelling features and look at ways of comparison which are potentially of interest not only to Germanists but also to lexicographers in general. By focusing not on the whole dictionary but on a limited section it is still possible to obtain a fairly accurate measure of growth in the quantity of information listed.
The following diagram, based on the W to Wanze word-stock, gives an edition- by-edition indication of growth using two different measures. The broken line indicates the increase in words in absolute terms, re- vealing a steady increase until and a spectacular increase in Duden died in but was still largely responsible for the edition which amalgamated the standard DUDEN with his so-called "Buchdruckerduden", an edition specially designed for the printing trade and containing, among other things, many more proper names than the standard DUDENs before it Wurzel On the evidence of the figures below there was a quite significant drop in the number of entries in the first DR published after World War II, and possibly also a drop in the overall number of words listed in The baseline of 0 constituted in fact about entries in , the latest Mannheim figure being about the latest Leipzig figure is about The other method indicated of comparing quantity is the non-cumulative one unbroken line.
Here each edition is compared only with the previous one figures in parenthesis show overall gain or loss in word-stock. Such a comparison clearly shows that some editions constitute much more substantial revisions than others, and on this basis the editions of , and were particularly good buys:. Additions to the corpus across all the DUDEN editions cannot be handled here even on the small scale of the sample chosen.
Additions are , however, what most DR reviewers, usually unsystemat- ically, look for above all in new editions. The total list, only, for the section in question is given below and I have included all additional information listed other than genders and inflections. Wonderweg Wandteller.
Rather less attention is generally paid by reviewers to items omitted. Until the eighth edition in , in the section under consideration there were no omissions, only additions. Notable in the following specimen l i s t from the eighth to the eleventh editions are not only the disappearances but also the reappearances: out Waldloch A f t e r des Wildes - in since wachsam - in since , back e t seq.
As every learner of the language knows, compounds in German are both common and initially daunting. They have, however, a useful spin-off effect on the amount and kind of linguistic information that German dictionaries 'automatically' provide: such compounds equate in English terms with certain categories of collocational or usage information. In addition to the collocational information of the kind indicated above, for a limited number of entries the DUDENs have long since provided brief but typical contextual information.
In the DR, in the chosen sample, the number of such entries is fifteen, viz. F i n a l l y , as the changing entries for wahn indicated, i t i s possible in the DUDENs to observe definitions moving with the times. From to Wahnfried is defined as 'Wagners Heim in Bayreuth'; in the Heim becomes a Haus , something more than a s t y l i s t i c s h i f t , as is that contained in the d e f i n i t i o n of Wallach gelding which in was given as ' P f e r d ' , from to and by Leipzig s t i l l thus as 'verschnittener Hengst', but since Mannheim only as ' k a s t r i e r t e r Hengst'.
It would be remiss of me not to mention here in passing that comparisons of Mannheim and Leipzig post DUDENs have provided much data for discussions of, among other things, a putative East- West German language divide Hellmann A comparison of W to Wanze Leipzig and Mannheim is, however, more revealing for the similarities than the differences, at least in terms of the Leipzig stock as listed in the Mannheim edition the latter contains very much more. Firstly, its numerous editions from onwards provide a wealth of data on aspects of the development of modern German.
The reasons for this are surely not wholly culture-specific; the also relate to the general usefulness of the artefact. A line-drawing was also provided. In the second edition , horse , the animal, minus drawina. This does not necessarily constitute an improvement. In a general dictionary for the native-speaker there is something to be said for e. Drewitz, Ingeborg and Reuter, Ernst eds. Narr Keller, R. Petitjean, G. Jahrhundert" in Sprachgeschichte. Berlin: W. Der Drobe Duben. It is part of the lore of lexicography that Samuel Johnson loftily described us and himself as 'harmless drudges'.