International law protects the independence of states from attempts to destroy it and, therefore, the presumption is in favour of the continuation of statehood. This means that, whereas an independent state that has existed for centuries, such as Tibet, does not need to prove its continued independence when challenged, a foreign state claiming sovereign rights over it needs to prove those rights by showing at what precise moment and by what legal means they were acquired.
China's present claim to Tibet is based entirely on the influence the Mongol and Manchu emperors exercised over Tibet in the 13th and 18th centuries, respectively.
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This relatively brief period of foreign domination over Tibet occurred years ago. Tibet broke away from the Yuan emperor before China regained its independence from the Mongols with the establishment of the native Ming Dynasty.
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Not until the 18th century did Tibet once again come under a degree of foreign influence. The Ming Dynasty, which ruled China from to , had few ties to and no authority over Tibet. On the other hand, the Manchus, who conquered China and established the Qing Dynasty in the 17th century, embraced Tibetan Buddhism as the Mongols had and developed close ties with the Tibetans.
On the political level, some powerful Manchu emperors succeeded in exerting a degree of influence over Tibet but they did not incorporate Tibet into their empire, much less China. Manchu influence did not last for very long. It was entirely ineffective by the time the British briefly invaded Tibet in From to , Tibet successfully avoided undue foreign influence and behaved, in every respect, as a fully independent state. The 13th Dalai Lama emphasised his country's independent status externally, in formal communications to foreign rulers, and internally, by issuing a proclamation reaffirming Tibet's independence and by strengthening the country's defences.
The Tibetan Government maintained independent international relations with all neighbouring countries, most of whom had diplomatic representatives in Lhasa. The attitude of most foreign governments with whom Tibet maintained relations implied their recognition of Tibet's independent status. The British Government bound itself not to recognise Chinese sovereignty or any other rights over Tibet unless China signed the draft Simla Convention of with Britain and Tibet, which China never did. Because it was signed under duress, the agreement was void under international law.
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The presence of 40, troops in Tibet, the threat of an immediate occupation of Lhasa and the prospect of the total obliteration of the Tibetan state left Tibetans little choice. From a legal standpoint, Tibet has to this day not lost its statehood. It is an independent state under illegal occupation. Forced abortion, sterilization of Tibetan women and the transfer of low income Chinese citizens threaten the survival of Tibet's unique culture.
In some Tibetan provinces, Chinese settlers outnumber Tibetans 7 to 1. Within China itself, massive human rights abuses continue.
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It is estimated that there up to twenty million Chinese citizens working in prison camps. Most of the Tibetan plataeu lies above 14, feet. Tibet is the source of five of Asia's greatest rivers, which over 2 billion people depend upon. Despite these facts and figures, the US government and US corporations continue to support China economically. This shows their blatant lack of respect for these critical issues of political and religious freedom and human rights.
Yes, things are bad, but you may still ask, why Tibet? There are hundreds of other countries in which equal or worse environmental and human rights devistation has occured.
Tibet Autonomous Region - Wikipedia
Why Tibet? Tibet can be used as the catalyst for change in human rights, womens rights, political, religious and cultural freedom across the globe. Through a concerted effort, the citizens of Earth can stand up and say "NO! The struggles in Tibet are symbolic for every human rights struggle.
Please, get involved. There is only a limited time left until there will longer be a Tibet to save.
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Tibet was one of the mightiest powers of Asia for the three centuries that followed, as a pillar inscription at the foot of the Potala Palace in Lhasa and Chinese Tang histories of the period confirm. The Tibetan Lama promised political loyalty and religious blessings and teachings in exchange for patronage and protection. The religious relationship became so important that when, decades later, Kublai Khan conquered China and established the Yuan Dynasty , he invited the Sakya Lama to become the Imperial Preceptor and supreme pontiff of his empire.
The relationship that developed and continued to exist into the 20th Century between the Mongols and Tibetans was a reflect of the close racial, cultural, and especially religious affinity between the two Central Asian peoples. The Mongol Empire was a world empire and, whatever the relationship between its rulers and the Tibetans, the Mongols never integrated the administration of Tibet and China or appended Tibet to China in any manner. Tibet broke political ties with the Yuan emperor in , before China regained its independence from the Mongols. Not until the 18th Century did Tibet again come under a degree of foreign influence.
On the other hand, the Dalai Lama, who established his sovereign rule over Tibet with the help of a Mongol patron in , did develop close religious ties with the Manchu emperors, who conquered China and established the Qing Dynasty The Dalai Lama agreed to become the spiritual guide of the Manchu emperor, and accepted patronage and protection in exchange. This "priest-patron" relationship known in Tibetan as Choe-Yoen , which the Dalai Lama also maintained with some Mongol princes and Tibetan nobles, was the only formal tie that existed between the Tibetans and Manchus during the Qing Dynasty.
It did not, in itself, affect Tibet's independence. On the political level, some powerful Manchu emperors succeeded in exerting a degree of influence over Tibet.
Thus, between and , Emperors Kangxi, Yong Zhen, and Qianlong sent imperial troops to Tibet four times to protect the Dalai Lama and the Tibetan people from foreign invasions by Mongols, and Gorkhas or from internal unrest. These expeditions provided the emperor with the means for establishing influence in Tibet.
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Declension of Tibet. Turkish Wikipedia has an article on: Tibet. Namespaces Entry Discussion. Views Read Edit History. This page was last edited on 20 September , at