Ends lectures with "Heil Hitler. Argues that philosophy can only be done in the German language or, at a pinch, in Greek and that Germany is the only possible successor to the Greek tradition. Very well connected politically. Thought reaches height of popularity in France, influencing Sartre, existentialist movement. Martin Heidegger : Selected Works. What is Metaphysics? Essay, censored by Nazis because of treatment of humanism. What is Called Thinking?
Martin Heidegger : Ciccarelli Life Story. The Heideggerian "apologias" have been, however, widely utilized. Completes grammar school. Educated in Greek, Latin. Simultaneously enters theological seminary and university at Freiburg. Studies mathematics and natural science for a period, but increasing focus on philosophy.
Attends lectures of Rickert. Full Professor, Fall, Dedicated to Husserl dedication dropped in ed. Immediate fame. Documentary evidence contradicts this Ott. Legally subject to individual state government; but state generally did not interfere with internal university affairs. Though this is rescinded shortly afterward because superceded by national N-S legislation, the implentation of a series of later national laws meant that by , Husserl had completely lost his official responsibilities.
University senate has no say in appointment. Let not your being be ruled by doctrine or "ideas". Study to know: from now on all things demand decision, and all action responsibility. Heil Hitler! States that there was severe internal tension between Wolf, Dean of Law School, and the faculty when the Dean tried to make changes to bring the university into line with National Socialist policies. Wolf supported Heidegger and promotion of National Socialist educational policies during this period, though later became a member of the Confessing Church.
Heidegger, annoyed that a complaint was made "behind his back", writes a letter of resignation. Ott feels he was basically using these issues as an excuse to resign because he had not succeeded in attaining a role of intellectual leadership in the National Socialist revolution, particularly with regard to the Gleichschaltung of the universities. He was under regular surveillance from At approach of Allied Forces, requests leave to rescue his mss. Goes to Messkirch where he is in hiding when French troops arrive.
Heidegger and family come under scrutiny. Crucial to decision of commission is a statement by Jaspers: revealing certain damaging anti-Semitic incidents, his active role in implementing N-S policy; suggesting Heidegger should not be allowed to teach because a dangerous influence now, that this be reviewed after a time; and that he be pensioned and allowed to continue philosophic work because of stature, importance of thought Cited in Ott, Dies May in Freiburg.
A hermeneutics of the ontology of time and technology - Enlighten: Theses
Martin Heidegger, An Illustrated Study. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, Encyclopedia of Philosophy , Vol. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co. Martin Heidegger: A Political Life. Allan Blunden. New York: Basic Books, Jaspers, K. Philosophische Autobiographie ; and Notizen zu Martin Heidegger , ed. Saner Mein Leben in Deutschland vor und nach Contemporary observations, noted down in Petzet, Heinrich W.
Schneeberger, Guido. Nachlese zu Heidegger. Dokumente zu seinem Leben und Denken. Martin Heidegger : Being and Time The influences on Being and Time were several, including both phenomenology and existentialism. Though denying with some justification that he was an existentialist, Heidegger was strongly influenced by existentialism. Under this influence he became convinced that human being is the most important appearance of Being there is.
Analyzing human being was thus a vital task for philosophy. Could these two vital interests be combined? Indeed they could, and were. What could you expect to find out about Being itself from studying human beings? Whereas for Aristotle humans are rational animals, for Heidegger they are the creatures uniquely intimately concerned with Being. But, as husserl underlines, it is extremely difficult to talk about Being when you are a being, and instance of Being. This defines a method of approach for Heidegger and this method has several consequences for his understanding of philosophy.
Second, We should beware of technical precision in philosophy and in the analysis of culture because it may well block self-consciousness of what we are as Dasein. Third, philosophy is inevitably always on the way. We are in an anguished state of being driven by our own nature to ask questions about ultimacy that we cannot answer fully. We must be content with little answers for big questions. The Plan for Being and Time. Being and Time , dedicated to Husserl, though the dedication was removed in the edition was envisaged as a two part work, in accordance with the basic methodological insight of Heidegger.
First, he would analyze human experience to establish an horizon for the interpretation of Being-itself; this part on the hermeneutics of Being was finished. Second, and not pursued to completion, he would give the grand interpretation of Being-itself. Thus in his later career he turned his attention to poetry and the study of language, there to explore Being-itself indirectly.
According to him, the great Western mistake was the metaphysical turn of Socrates, for this is the beginning of the denial of the demonstrable impossibility of explaining human being and justifying human choices. We need to return to the Presocratics because there is more clarity in their reticence to thematize questions of Being. Inauthentic, "normal" human life is unreflective, a hiding from being, in spite of the fact that humans are the sorts of beingin which being becomes a problem for itself and thus are constantly trying to understanding the being that they are.
The hiding occurs through: Thrownness or facticity Geworfenheit by which we are always already contextualized; Existentiality by which we must and do freely appropriate the world for our own ends, constructing moral and social order where there is none; and Forfeiture verfallen by which we have lost connection to Being through becoming obsessed with distracting beings, just as Parmenides warned us about.
The problem with human being : Time is the finite horizon of human being and temporal finitude is fundamentally the problem separating us from authentic engagement with Being. Consider the significance for human beings of the three modes of time: Past: this is the source of care Sorge and guilt, for we are not all we could have been. Future: this is the source of death, the ultimate reminder of our temporal finitude. Present: this is the locus of freedom in which we live out the tension between being-determined-by-the-world and determining-the-world-out-of-our-own-will.
History will therefore be the traces of the ground of Being. Authentic life : Humans live authentically when they orient themselves to Being-itself; resisting the fierce compulsion of our age to hide from the mystery of Being-itself by means of social conventions and external laws; and taking responsibility for our own lives and societies with an act of disciplined will. We must orient ourselves to the future where awaits us death which is the ground of negation, or nothing while accepting the past and living in the present moment.
In this way, Freedom is earned. There is no definitive solution to the problem of human being. All past solutions are really only pseudo-solutions. The best we can do is to be honest and not to make matters worse with metaphysical, ethical, and religious delusions. Martin Heidegger : Influence on Theology. When we penetrate the mythic husk of the NT to the message underlying it, we discern the grace-empowered offer of authentic life through Jesus Christ.
Tillich also explicitly acknowledges his debt to Heidegger. Gadamer's principalmost famous work is Truth and Method Some of his key ideas are as follows. Gadamer holds that the person is always a person-in-community, a person with a tradition. Any analysis of the human person must take account of this.
Armed with this insight, Gadamer approached the problem of hermeneutics with fresh insights. Our personal context, even though it creates bias and distortion, is essential for any interpretation. More than being necessary, however, our prejudiced horizon is actually useful.
- Phenomenology of essences.
- European Economic Integration: Limits and Prospects?
- Wisdom in Loose Form. The Language of Egyptian and Greek Proverbs in Collections of the Hellenistic and Roman Periods (Mnemosyne Supplements).
But without our personal context, we can neither feel what needs to be "de-stranged," nor can we transform the strange into the familiar. Another approach to the same point refers to the hermeneutical circle again: the tension between interpreter and the text remains static and unyielding until some energy is put into the process, which energy comes from the questions we bring to the text out of our own inevitably prejudiced experience and background.
Then the text can speak to us, our questions can be refined, the text speaks with greater nuance, etc. The nature of personal context. Now, we must ask, what constitutes this personal context? In the most general terms, the relevant part is "historically effected consciousness" wirkungsgeschichtliches Bewusstein , which is a way of seeing or reading or understanding that a person embodies in his or her own life. When it is a text that is to be understood, that historically effected consciousness includes a tradition of interpretation against which readings occur.
Relatedness of hermeneutical tasks : These three components are merged in acts of interpreting texts of all kinds. In this way Gadamer was able to render legal, historical, and theological hermeneutics variations on a theme in spite of their apparent differences. An Outline of Hermeneutics A. The Beginnings of the Problem B. Phenomenology A.
Husserl B. The Philosophy of Being and Time. Back to Hermeneutics. An Outline of Hermeneutics. The beginnings of the problem. In his dialogue Cratylus , Socrates and Hermogenes are discussing the origin of language and are speculating about the origin of particular Greek words, in particular, the meaning of the names of particular Gods. It can convey information, but it can also deceive. Hermes is both a mediator and a contriver. If texts have the potential to be ambiguous, how ought we to read them so as to glean from them their correct meaning?
What is the proper way to interpret a spoken or written product of language? In short, how ought we to interpret , so as to understand? Or is it the other way around? Hermeneutics : The art of understanding and the theory of interpretation. This problematic, which Plato was the first to recognize, provided the impetus for the modern discipline of hermeneutics, which really only gets going in the nineteenth century.
Well, until then these questions about understanding and interpretation were encountered ONLY within the province of particular areas.
For example: there was a certain philological method for interpreting classical texts of antiquity; there was a different method for the understanding of sacred scripture; both of these differed from the interpretation and application of law. The process begins with a figure well-suited to this monumental task whose acquaintance we have already made: Friedrich Schleiermacher.
But he was also the first important figure in the field of hermeneutics. For Schleiermacher, hermeneutics is the art of understanding. In seeking to lay out a general hermeneutics, his aim was to discover the interpretive techniques which occurred in any act of understanding. What made his attempt special was that these techniques were not based on that which was particular to the text, but were operative in any act of understanding at all.
Perhaps the most helpful way to view it is in comparison to the figure who was one the great influences on Schleiermacher: Kant. Furthermore, Schleiermacher thought that the way we speak and write really has two components: the language common to a culture, and the individual qualities that the author, as an individual , brings to his task.
Hence Schleiermacher saw the hermeneutical task as that of relating two different kinds of interpretation: grammatical and technical. Grammatical Interpretation is the interpretation of a spoken or written utterance in terms of the language in which it appears, and those features of the language which are common to the culture of the time. Also known as objective interpretation. Technical Interpretation is the interpretation of a spoken or written utterance in terms of the life and personal development of the particular speaker or writer. Also known as subjective interpretation. The art of understanding, Schleiermacher says, consists in knowing which of these interpretive techniques to give prominence to at a given time.
Phenomenology : The descriptive science of phenomena. Husserl intended to revive the project of putting philosophical knowledge on an absolutely secure, induibitable basis; it should be founded ultimately on a secure insight, and its contents should be rigorously deduced from this insight. This means leaving aside all of the presuppositions which are a part of our ordinary experience and to begin doing philosophy, as much as possible, from only that which is immediately evident. This should remind you of Descartes, right? But whereas other philosophers such as Descartes wanted to base knowledge on certain propositions which could not be doubted, Husserl instead wanted to begin from an immediate perception or vision of the things which present themselves to us; that is, he wanted to start from phenomena.
It is a kind of a pre-reflective commitment concerning the ontological status of the world and the things we discover within it. From this natural attitude, certain presuppositions have found their way into our thinking and into the sciences which are almost impossible to do away with. Now, unlike Descartes, Husserl does not think that the natural attitude can be really doubted. But neither can there be anything in our experience which confirms beyond doubt that the world exists.
The Natural Attitude, then, can be neither conclusively confirmed nor conclusively refuted. This neutralization is accomplished by the Phenomenological Reduction. The reduction is a way of bracketing or stepping back from the Natural Attitude, and it happens in two steps: 1 on the side of consciousness, we come to view the Natural Attitude for what it is, a commitment to the real existence of the world, while, 2 on the side of the world, we refuse to take a position on the real existence of the world—we become agnostic about it, so to speak.
This allows the phenomenologist to ask what is involved in viewing the world in the terms set by the Natural Attitude; that is, what is significant about the world, if we have suspended our ultimate belief in its reality? The answer is that we approach the world in terms of the meaning it has for us. We become interested in the relation between consciousness of the objects of the world whose existence we are not taking a stand on.
5. Hermeneutical phenomenology
Ultimately, Husserl wants to demonstrate that our minds take an active role in constituting the objects as we perceive them: what happens when I take this object as a book, as a tree? Phenomenology really gets interesting and controversial when Husserl comes to the problem of what happens when we take a phenomena as another human being. The point of this neutrality, then, is that we leave aside whether this meaning is ultimately and in the last instance valid, and whether my belief in the real existence of the world is warranted.
Phenomenological research, for Husserl, is about probing into the nature of the relation between phenomenon and consciousness. These days, phenomenology sounds like an impossibly idealistic project, and perhaps it is. However, in its time phenomenology was revolutionary and proved to be extraordinarily influential. Van der Leeuw famously said that the phenomenology of religion did not deal with God, for to do so God would have to be a phenomenon, which is impossible. We bracket claims about the ultimate reference of these expressions—as well as our own personal prejudices about the object—and try to get ourselves back to the data themselves, so as to examine the meaning they have for those who practice them.
Husserl set the agenda for phenomenology, and most of his students adopted his method wholesale. One who did not, but introduced fascinating modifications into it, was his most illustrious student, Martin Heidegger. Martin Heidegger is born September 26, in Messkirch, a small village in southwest Germany near the Swiss border, the son of a Catholic sexton. He studies theology in seminaries in Constance and Freiburg. He plans to enter a Jesuit order to complete his training for the priesthood, but leaves after only two weeks and instead began instruction in philosophy at the University of Freiburg in He receives his doctorate in , by which time he has begun to read Husserl.
He completes his Habilitationschrift that is, the second thesis required for teaching in the University in with a thesis on Duns Scotus. The two would remain intellectually and personally close for years. In January he renounces Catholicism, finding it intellectually unacceptable and incompatible with his philosophical interests. In the faculty wants to appoint him to a full professorship but the request is denied because he has published nothing during his time in Marburg; he quickly writes what would become Being and Time , and it is published in the journal that Husserl edits early in , and Heidegger receives his full professorship in October OK, now comes the interesting part.
The story really picks up with his appointment to the rectorship of Freiburg University in April After the war Heidegger always maintained that he reluctantly assumed the post only so as to keep less reasonable party hacks away from the job. More recent historical scholarship has proved rather conclusively that this is a lie, and that Heidegger had been scheming to gain the rectorship as early as March.
He officially joins the Nazi party in May He resigned the post a year later in April , at which time he also renounced his membership in the Nazi party. From on he falls under suspicion from anti-Heidegger elements within the party. After the war he is investigated by the denazification committee and barred from teaching in the German university system, largely on the recommendation of philosopher Karl Jaspers.
This ban is lifted in , when he is granted emeritus status and a full pension. He gives occasional lectures from time to time. He dies in May The philosophy of Being and Time. Heidegger, too, wants to return to what presents itself as phenomenon, but in a radically different way than Husserl does. The very fact that both the question and its answer seem so obvious to us indicates the magnitude of the problem to Heidegger.
Early on in BT Heidegger identifies three common prejudices about the concept of being: that it is the most universal concept; that it is indefinable ; and that it is self-evident. Well, says Heidegger, in a way, the entire philosophical tradition is: somewhere back in the past, certain ways of treating Being came about which have determined its history right up to the present at least, the present in which Heidegger is writing. See the plan of the work, below. His first step in doing so is to specify the problem. A Polish philosopher, Roman Ingarden , did major work in structural ontology and analyzed the structures of various works of art in its light; Hedwig Conrad-Martius, a cosmic realist at the University of Munich , worked intensively in the ontology of nature; and others made comparable contributions in other fields of philosophy.
From then on he pursued the course of phenomenology with the greatest interest, and from he belonged to the narrow circle of students and followers of the movement. To be sure, there appeared very early a difference between Husserl and Heidegger. Discussing and absorbing the works of the important philosophers in the history of metaphysics was, for Heidegger, an indispensable task, whereas Husserl repeatedly stressed the significance of a radically new beginning and—with few exceptions among them Descartes, John Locke , David Hume , and Kant —wished to bracket the history of philosophy.
In it, phenomenology was understood as a methodological concept—a concept that was conceived by Heidegger in an original way and resulted from his questioning back to the meanings of the Greek concepts of phainomenon and logos. His manner of questioning can be defined as hermeneutical in that it proceeds from the interpretation of the human situation. What he thematized is thus the explanation of what is already understood. By conceiving of Dasein as being-in-the-world, Heidegger made the ancient problem concerning the relationship between subject and object superfluous.
The basic structures of Dasein are primordial moodness Befindlichkeit , understanding Verstehen , and logos Rede. These structures are, in turn, founded in the temporalization of Dasein , from which future, having-been past , and present originate. Article Media. Info Print Print.