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Singapore: Regional Language Center. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Language Teaching and Skill Learning. London and New York: Longman. Three expenditures to groundbreaking book clean energy an exporters consultant. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, , A rabbit of the Aspects of Hyperinflation-induced outlier in written infants. Note that China will likely be more selective in bringing in overseas investors as the total amount of foreign investment continues to grow. Therefore, the major problems faced by private equity investors in China are no-exit mechanisms and political risks.
Firms Despite the significant opportunities the Chinese clean energy market presents, important barriers remain that must be considered before developing a successful Chinese business strategy. The latest U. In FY, 80 percent of the fake products seized at the U. Taking steps to protect your U. Because U. If, for example, you enter the Chinese market without having registered your trademark in China in English, and ideally, in Chinese as well , one of your competitors, distributors or partners could register before you and bar you from selling or manufacturing products bearing your trademark in China.
China has three tracks for seeking enforcement of IP rights — civil, criminal and administrative. However, the lack of effective and deterrent enforcement of IP rights remains a serious problem. Enforcement efforts, particularly at the local level, are restricted by poor coordination among Chinese Government ministries and agencies, local protectionism and corruption, high thresholds for initiating investigations and prosecuting criminal cases, lack of training, and inadequate and non-transparent processes. Sophisticated counterfeiters manipulate the loopholes in the Chinese system to prevent market access for foreign technology.
Government initiative to fight global counterfeiting and piracy. The Department of Commerce plays a critical role in this effort by providing U. See Appendix A for a list of resources. Legal and Regulatory Environment Chinese laws and regulations for clean technology tend to be broadly defined and lack specific implementing rules and measures. This can make it difficult for U. S firms to determine precisely whether their activities match or contradict a particular regulation. Several much needed regulations are also not yet in place under the Renewable Energy Law.
A governmental guiding price has not been implemented for wind power generation. And while competitive tendering is effective for large wind power projects, no mechanism exists to price small wind projects and improvements of existing wind farms. Feed-in tariffs are also not fixed nationwide, increasing the risk for project developers and capital investors.
The overlapping responsibilities and areas of authority among government organizations often cause additional confusion to foreign companies. China lacks an open system that disseminates planning information, project approval, and pricing to the public. As a result, foreign companies often face ad hoc decision-making and an often cryptic response from the government to their questions.
It is therefore advised that U. S firms carry out due diligence and seek professional advice before entering the Chinese market. Clean Energy Technology—Related Customs Regulations and Trade Tariffs Foreign companies operating in China are required to pay an income tax, which is calculated differently according to the percentage of ownership a foreign firm has in a joint venture. China intends to eventually phase out its two-tier income tax system for domestic and foreign enterprises, because domestic enterprises have long resented rebates and other tax benefits enjoyed by foreign-invested firms.
The move toward national treatment will mean the gradual elimination of special tax breaks enjoyed by foreign investors. According to the framework of corporate income tax reform, the corporate income tax will be unified to domestic and foreign direct investment FDI companies, meaning FDI companies will no longer have advantages in terms of favorable tariffs.
It contains the tariff schedule, national customs rules, and appropriate regulations. This guide can be purchased at bookshops in China. New energy power equipment is however limited to equity joint ventures and cooperative joint ventures. Restricted Sectors: Manufacturing of biofuels; construction and management of conventional coal-fired condensing steam power plants whose unit installed capacity is less than , kW within the small grids of Tibet, Xinjiang, and Hainan Provinces; and coal-fired condensing-extraction steam power plants with dual use unit co-generation.
Prohibited Sectors: Construction and management of conventional coal-fired condensing steam power plants whose unit installed capacity is less than , kW outside the small grids of Tibet, Xinjiang, and Hainan Provinces. Building quality government relationships should be a primary business development focus for many U.
S firms, especially for those firms entering the Chinese market for the first time. There will be unpredictable challenges and it is important for U.
Lack of a government relationship will create unnecessary difficulties and delays in acquiring government approvals. A good relationship can pave the way. In addition, the Chinese Government tends to protect local firms, especially state-owned firms, from imports, while encouraging exports. Although WTO accession is certainly helping in this area, progress is being made only gradually. There are resources available to help U.
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Commercial Service in Beijing also offers a wide range of services to assist U. See Appendix A for a list of additional resources. Intercultural sensitivity is critical, and should be considered a core focus for any company working in China. Between the two countries the ideas of law, profit, decision-making, market orientation, business relationships, and technical standards are quite different.
Low awareness of how to navigate these differences will cause misunderstandings and miscommunication and can cause conflicts of interest as time goes on. A good way to prevent cultural conflict is to visit China in order to gain a better perspective and understanding, which can provide a company great insight into the country, the culture, the business climate, and its people. Chinese companies prefer and respect face-to-face meetings, which demonstrate a U. Note that China has many different regions and that each province is unique both economically and socially.
Most Chinese consumers are very sensitive to price and will usually choose the less expensive product unless better after-sales service or clearly better product quality is available.
Government Procurement The transparency of government procurement is a concern for foreign companies. Local relationships and networking of domestic companies play a very important role in procurement, which may lead to unfair competition and may put U. S firms in a weak position.
Corruption in government departments remains widespread, though the government continues to call for improved self-discipline and anti-corruption efforts at all levels. For competitive procurement contracts, there is little direct evidence that corrupt practices have influenced awards or resulted in a failure to enforce competitive measures. However, competitive procedures are not followed for the bulk of procurement in China. Technology Contract Regulations were published in Technology contract regulation is divided between domestic technology contracts ruled by the Contract Law of , and technology contracts with at least one foreign party, ruled by the Technology Regulations of and a long string of closely related legislation.
The greatest problem for technology contracts remains dual regulations and unfair restrictions. The technology transfer sub-section has many parallel articles to the regulations and leaves additional room for maneuvering to the contract parties themselves. One of the problems in contract enforcement is that China does not enforce foreign judgments, in particular U. Problems caused by improper interpretation of contract documents may therefore lead to ineffective enforcement.
Instead the Supreme Court has created a series of suggested interpretations. There is also the possibility that other ministries of the State Council will claim the right to implement the new law in the absence of NPC interpretation. Payment Security Letters of credit and documentary collection are common methods for payment, under which foreign exchange is allocated by the central government for an approved import. Although the Bank of China dominates China s trade-finance business, most Chinese commercial banks, such as the China Construction Bank, Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, and the Agricultural Bank of China, have the authority to issue letters of credit for imports.
Foreign banks with branches or representative offices in China can also issue letters of credit. Nevertheless,termsandconditionsaregenerally negotiableinpracticeanddeterminedonatransaction-bytransactionbasisintheformofa"silent"confirmation. Documentary collection is less formal and more flexible.
The exporter submits a full set of trade documents for payment collection to the bank designated in the contract. The Chinese bank sends the documents to the home office for examination and in some cases passes them on to the buyer for further examination. Payment is made after the documents have met the approval of all parties. This method of payment provides less coverage against default and should be used with caution. It is the responsibility of the exporter to determine the specific instructions to be used in the collection letter.
E-commerce in China has great potential. However, Internet security needs to be taken into account. In April , the Law on Electronic Signatures took effect and enhanced the safety of on-line transactions. Over the last decade, the country has faced serious challenges related to energy shortages and heavy pollution, both of which have been brought on by rapid economic development. In response, the government of China has actively promoted the development and deployment of renewable energy with progressive and ambitious policies and targets.
This combination of factors represents a host of opportunities for U.
China will therefore likely be a major net exporter of renewable energy equipment in the near term, as the country produces far more equipment than it can install domestically. However, as the demand for higher product quality and after-sales service increases, and as Chinese consumers become more conscious of efficiency and environmental responsibility, this situation will change. Ambitious targets were included in the REL for the next 10—15 years, which when paired with the industry outlook are likely to be even higher.
Domestic companies occupy over 75 percent of the domestic market. The top seven WTG manufacturers and top 10 developers share 80 percent of the market see Table 1. Narrowing the technological gap will require important investments in WTG technical development from Chinese companies. China has developed a mature solar industry market in recent years, with booming investments at the international level providing an important opportunity.
The capacity of the solar industry feedstock production lines increased sharply in and now surpasses 2, tons per year, as shown in Table 1. In , the total production capacity for solar industrial ingot reached 5, tons while the actual production stood at 2, tons. Over 80 percent of the domestic manufacturers produce mono-ingot, as shown in Table 1. In , the market for solar cells was dominated by two companies, Suntech and Ningbo Solar. In , the size of the solar cell market multiplied by 11, and new companies rushed into this sector. In , the production capacity for solar modules was MWp, with an actual production of MWp, as shown in Table 1.
Solar Water Heating In total there are over 3, solar water heating SWH system manufacturers in China, the top 10 of which are able to provide high-quality products and good after-sales services. These top 10, listed in Table 1. Of over manufacturers, 10 qualified manufacturers were published in the China Renewable Energy Industry Blue List, and they are listed in Table 1.
The Web sites of these manufacturers are also provided. Energy Efficiency The energy efficiency market is booming as a result of the policy and goals set forth in the 11th Five-Year Plan. Numerous companies and organizations have developed energy efficiency operations in various fields. Some of them sell energy efficiency products such as energy-saving lamps and high-efficiency motors directly to the consumer or provide technical solutions and services for plants and buildings.
Department of Commerce International Trade Administration 10 energy efficiency consulting companies in China. WOFE Suzlon 1. Domestic private Own 0. Construction www. Industry www. VSD motors, energy conservation power source, etc. Its main functions are: 4 To enact and revise basic laws in China; 4 To examine and approve the plan for national economic and social development.
The State Council is composed of the General Affairs Office, 28 ministries and commissions, 17 directly affiliated entities, and seven working offices, in addition to a number of directly administered institutions. The NDRC studies and formulates policies for economic and social development, maintains a balance of economic aggregates, and oversees the overall economic system. The Energy Bureau of the NDRC is responsible for studying energy development and utilization both at home and abroad and putting forward energy development strategies and major policies; formulating development plans and making recommendations on energy sector reform; administering oil, natural gas, coal, power, and other parts of the energy sector and national oil reserves; and formulating policy measures for energy conservation and renewable energy development.
The NDRC coordinates its activities with other governmental agencies as follows: Ministry of Commerce MOFCOM : 4 Is in charge of domestic and international trade and economic cooperation; 4 Formulates policies and regulations for standardizing market operation and circulation order; 4 Promotes the establishment and improvement of the market system; deepens the reform of the circulation system; 4 Monitors and analyzes market operation, commodity supply and demand, and conducts international economic operation; 4 Coordinates state support matters; investigates the harm that subsidies and other government interventions can bring to industries.
Ministry of Environmental Protection MEP : 4 Is in charge of natural ecological conservation and environmental pollution prevention; 4 Strengthens supervision on nuclear safety; enforces environmental regulations; 4 Improves supervision and administration; 4 Safeguards the environmental rights and interests of the public; promotes the sustainable development of the society, economy, and environment. Ministry of Science and Technology MOST : 4 Proposes macro-strategy for scientific and technological development, including policies, guidelines, and regulations for promoting economic and social development in line with science and technology; 4 Studies major issues of promoting economic and social development with science and technology; 4 Formulates plans and priority areas for scientific and technological development; 4 Promotes national science and technology development, including capacity building and compiling annual plans for the development of civil-use science and technology; 4 Proposes policies, guidelines, and measures to adapt science and technology system to the socialist market economy.
Department of Commerce International Trade Administration Ministry of Land and Resources 4 Investigates and plans management, protection, and rational utilization of such natural resources as land, mineral reserves, and marine resources; 4 Drafts related laws, policies, and regulations on the management, protection, and utilization of such natural resources; 4 Formulates technical standards, specifications, and methods for the management of such resources; 4 Compiles and implements national plans for land use; 4 Supervises land resource administrative departments in enforcing laws and plans on land, mineral, and marine resources; oversees protection of land owner rights as well as settling disputes; 4 Manages the State Oceanic Administration and State Bureau of Mapping and Surveying.
Ministry of Construction 4 Formulates policies, guidelines, regulations, and related development strategies, as well as long- and medium-term plans, for urban planning, village and town planning, engineering construction, urban construction, village and town construction, the construction and building industry, and the housing and real estate industry; 4 Consults with industry on survey and design; oversees the undertakings of urban utilities; and conducts industrial administration; 4 Provides guidance for the planning of cities, villages, and towns; urban surveying; and municipal engineering surveying; 4 Standardizes the building market; supervises engineering bidding; and oversees engineering quality and safety.
There is government representation at all levels. They have the power to decide on important local affairs in their respective administrative areas. They have overall responsibility for the administrative work within their respective administrative areas. Basic commercialization 2 On-grid wind power generation It is used for grid-connected electrification, including land and offshore network-forming wind power electricity generation, which can generate electricity through single machine networking and multi-machines networking electricity generation.
Its main functions include: measurement of treatment and statistical analysis of wind, formation of wind map, wind resource evaluation, wind generating set and annual electricity yield by wind field and etc. Technology research, development or introduction 4 Wind field design and optimization software It is used for optimized design of electricity field i. Its main functions include: confirming the influence of wake flow of wind generating set and adjusting the distributing distance between wind generating sets, undertaking analysis and prediction upon noise of wind generating set and wind field, eliminating the section failing to meet the requirement of technology, land quality and environment; optimizing the location-selection of wind generating set automatically, providing visualized interface of the design process, undertaking technical and economic analysis and etc.
Technology research and development 5 Wind concentrated and remote monitoring system It is used for concentrated and remote monitoring of wind generating set and wind field operation. Its main functions include: timely collecting, analyzing and reporting the wind situation and set and supervision data of wind field operation by means of modern information and communication technology, undertaking efficiency optimization and safety guarantee system automatically or via the feedback of instruction.
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Technology research and development 6 Construction of wind field and maintenance of exclusive equipment It is used for transport of land and offshore wind generating set, on-the-spot lift and maintenance. Technology research and development 7 Off-grid wind turbines generating system It is used for independent system and concentrated village electricity generation, including wind power independent electricity generation and wind-solar photovoltaic hybrid generate electricity system to ensure its system safety, economic and continuous and reliable electricity supply.
Basically commercialized. Offshore wind generating set shall be adapted to oceanic geology, hydrologic condition and climate. Land wind generating set: above-sea wind generating set of the primary stage of commercialization; technology research and development 9 Total design software of wind generating set It is used for the total design of structural dynamics modeling and analysis, limit load and fatigue load calculation, and win generating set dynamic emulation.
Technology research, development or introduction 10 Wind mill blade It is used for supporting large scale wind mill set with its capacity no less than 1, kw. Technology research and development 11 Wind mill blade design software It is used for designing large scale Wind mill blade pneumatic shape and its construction technique Technology research and development 12 Wind mill blade material It is used for manufacturing of high strength, low-mass, large-volume blade, including GRP and carbon fiber reinforced plastics Technology research and development 13 Wind mill wheel hub It is used for supporting wind generating set with its capacity no less than 1, kw.
Technology research and development 14 Wind mill driving system It is used for supporting wind generating set with its capacity no less than 1, kw. Technology research and development 15 Wind mill deviation system It is used for supporting wind generating set with its capacity no less than 1, kw.
Technology research and development 17 Wind mill generator It is used for supporting wind generating set with its capacity no less than 1, kw, including double- fed generator and permanent magnet generator. At the beginning of commercialization, technology research and development permanent magnet generator 18 Wind generating operation control system and converter It is used for supporting wind generating set with its capacity no less than 1, kw, including: off-grid wind generating controller; speed-loss wind generating controller; variable-speed constant-frequency wind-power generating controller and converter.
Technology research and development 19 Wind mill generating set safety guarantee system It is used for ensuring the safety of wind generating set on occasion of extreme weather, system failure and grid failure Technology research and development 20 Testing equipment for compatibility between electricity and magnet in wind mill generating set, lighting impulse It is used for testing the compatibility between electricity and magnet in wind mill generating set and lighting impulse in order to make the set adaptable to natural environment.
Technology research and development 21 Design of Integration between Wind Power and Power Grid and grid stability analysis software It is used for evaluating the large-scale wind field integration system and stability of the grid Technology research and development 22 Wind field electricity generating capacity prediction and grid scheduling and matching software It is used for monitoring and collecting information about the performance and generating capacity upon the wind generating capacity, analyzing and estimating the variation of the wind field in the second day and its generating output, making scheduling plan for grid enterprise and promoting large-scale wind field development and operation.
Technology research and development. Technology research and development II. Solar energy Utilization of solar energy and heat utilization 24 Off-grid solar energy photovoltaic electricity generation It is used for supplying electricity to the resident area where the grid fails to cover, including independent household system and concentrated village.
Basic commercialization 25 Networking solar energy photovoltaic electricity generation It is used for supplying grid with electricity, including building integrated solar energy photovoltaic electricity generation Technology research and development and project model 26 Solar energy for electricity generation It is used for supplying electricity to the resident area where the grid fails to cover, including tower solar energy electricity generator, trough-shaped solar energy electricity generator, disk-shaped solar energy electricity generator and instant focal solar energy electricity generator Technology development 27 Industrial photovoltaic electricity resources It is used for supplying electricity to scattered meteorological station, seismic station, highway station, broadcast and television, satellite ground station, hydrometry, solar energy navigation mark, highway and railway signal and solar energy cathodic protection system.
Commercialization 28 Solar energy lighting system Including solar energy street lamp, yard lamp, lawn lamp, billboard, solar energy LED cityscape lamp and etc. Commercialization 29 Solar energy vehicle Including: solar energy-driven automobile, solar energy motor-assisted bicycle and etc. Technology research and development, project model 30 Solar energy photovoltaic sea water desalination system It is used for providing fresh water to remote island resident area where fresh water is in scarcity. Technology research and development, project model 31 Photovoltaic Pump It is used for providing fresh water to the western drought-hit area, and remote and population-scattered area, to the construction and amelioration of grassland and reforestation in the desert.
Commercialization 32 Solar energy water heater for household It is used for providing life heat water to the residents, including flat-type solar energy water heater, vacuum solar energy water heater and etc. Commercialization 33 Solar energy concentrated heating system It is used for providing heat water or heating to the residents or industry and commerce, including solar energy concentrated Technology research and development, extension and application 34 Solar energy airconditioner system It is used for realizing heat and cold convertibility and providing cooling and air-conditioner service via solar energy collector and absorption refrigerating machine.
Technology research and development and model project 35 Zero solar energy building complex It is used for meeting the demand of energy in building via integrating solar energy collector realizing solar energy collecting system and air-conditioner system in the building roof and external wall and solar energy photovoltaic Cell.
Technology research and development, project model. Technology research and development 42 Architectural solar energy arrays It is used in architectural integrated solar energy photovoltaic electricity generating system, including semitranslucidus photovoltaic electricity generating system, photovoltaic that can be interchanged with building units, photovoltaic glass curtain wall, photovoltaic sun-shield and etc.
Technology research and development 43 Solar energy cell and its component parts manufacture equipment It is used for manufacturing solar energy cell and its component parts, including: solar energy silicon furnace charge outfit manufacture, multicrystal ingot casting, wire cutting machine, saw squarer, silicon slice polishing equipment, silicon slice cleaner, diffusion equipment, PECVD, hard coat equipment, screen printing, drying and sinter equipment, wafer scriber, automatic welding, component part layer press and etc.
Technology research and development or introduction 44 Solar energy cell test equipment Including: solar energy cell separation equipment, solar analog meter, high voltage insulation test equipment and etc. Technology research and development 45 Solar cell auxiliary material for production use Including: low low-iron toughened glass, EVA, solar cell back packaging composite membrane, silver plasm and aluminum plasm, weld and etc. Technology research and development 49 exclusive storage cell It is used for independent photovoltaic and wind electricity generating system, with the endurance capacity for excessive charging and discharging performance and long service life.
Technology research and development or introduction 52 Concentrated and remote control system for the use of photovoltaic electricity generating system It is used in the operation data in collecting, transmitting solar radiation, environmental parameters and photovoltaic electricity generation and realizing concentrated or remote control monitoring. Technology research and development 53 Reflector for the use of solar energy heat and light electricity generation It is used for supporting various solar energy light and heat electricity generating system.
Technology research and development 54 Automatic tracking equipment for light and heat generating reflector It is used for supporting various solar energy light and heat electricity generating system so as to automatically track solar radiation, adjust the angle of the reflector and absorb the maximum solar energy. Technology research and development 55 Light and heat collector It is used for supporting various solar energy light and heat electricity generating system to absorb solar radiation from the reflector, i. Technology research and development 56 Light and heat electricity generating and heat storage equipment It is used for supporting various solar energy light and heat electricity generating system, ensuring the relative stability of light and heat electricity generation via the heat energy absorbed by the storage collector.
Technology research and development 57 Instant light and heat electricity generating equipment It is used for supporting instant solar energy light and heat electricity generating system, including alkali metal thermoelectric converter, Semiconductor electricity generator, thermion electricity generator and photovoltaic electricity generator. Technology research and development 58 Solar energy light and heat system, architectural application design, optimization, measurement and evaluation software.
It is used for the design and emulation of optimized architectural heating equipment geared to the applied solar energy light and heat system in different regions, different lighting conditions in China; for measurement and evaluation upon the solar energy light and heat system used in the processing of building. Technology research and development and extension and application III. Biomass energy Biomass energy and biological fuel production 59 Gas supply and electricity generation by large and mediumsized methane project Including large scale livestock and poultry farm, Breeding area, urban sewage project Commercialization, extension and application 60 Instant Electricity by Biomass fuel Electricity generation by utilizing crop straw, and wood Technology update and project model 61 Biomass liquefied gas supply and electricity generation Liquefied gas supply and electricity generation by utilizing crop straw, and wood Technology research and development, extension and application 62 Electricity generation by utilizing urban solid refuse Electricity generation by utilizing urban solid refuse, including fuel and methane.
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Basic commercialization. Department of Commerce International Trade Administration 63 Biological liquefied fuel Production of liquefied fuel by utilizing non-grain crop and wood biomass. Technology research and development 64 Biomass solid fuel Transforming crop straw and wood to solid fuel as the alternative of coal. Technology update 66 Biomass fuel gas combustion engine It is used for supporting electricity generation via liquefied biomass.
Its performance and specification shall be used in liquefied biomass electricity generation system. Technology research and development 67 Liquefied biomass tar catalyzing and cracking equipment It is used for cracking tar arisen in the process of gasification to available and disposable gas.
Technology research and development 68 Liquefied biomass fuel production outfit It is used for producing the aforesaid various liquefied biomass fuel. Technology research and development and project model 69 Plantation of energy plant It is used for providing various biological fuel production with non-crop biomass material such as sweet sorghum, cassava, purging-nut tree, sugar cane. Project model, extension and application 70 Breeding of energy plant It is used for breeding and cultivating energy crop which boasts stable and high yield and, innocuity to ecological environment and adaptability to barren mountains and waste, sandlot and alkali land.
Technology research and development and project model 71 High-efficiency, wide-range methane strain improvement It is used for improving the yield of methane project and its usage in relatively low temperature. Technology research and development v. Geothermal energy Electricity generation by utilizing geothermal energy and heat utilization 72 Electricity generation by utilizing geothermal energy Including electricity generation by utilizing geothermal steam, double-circulation geothermal electricity generating system and flash geothermal electricity generating system the latter two is adaptable to middle and low geothermal resources.
Technology research and development 73 Heat supply by utilizing geothermal energy Including single circulation direct heating and doublecirculation indirect heating. Project model 75 Underground thermo energy storage system The storage types include such energies as solar energy, and the cool and heat set off by air conditioners in the buildings. Technology research and development 77 Geothermal well pump It is used for supporting geothermal heating and geothermal source heat pump system, which shall be adapted to its high temperature and corrosion.
Technology research and development 78 Water source thermal pump assembly It shall be adapted to the temperature of underground water or sea water as well as their temperature. Technology research and development and project model. Project model, extension and application v. Ocean energy Ocean power generation 81 Ocean power generation Including: tidal power generation, wave power generation, marine thermoelectric power generation and ocean current power generation. Technology research and development vI.
Hydropower Waterpower 83 Networking Waterpower Various waterpower in line with the requirement of watershed development, and environmental protection Commercialization 84 Small-scale off-grid waterpower It is used for electricity and energy usage in in-place development, neighborhood electricity supply and solving the problems in remote area for electricity and energy use.
Technology research and development 86 Automatic hydroelectric technology It is used for the automatic management of hydroelectric operation, the improvement of its performance and the reduction of its operational cost. Technology update 87 Large-scale and high-efficiency water turbine generating set It is used for improving the capacity, performance and efficiency of water turbine generating set.
Technology research and development 88 Integration technology of small plant It is used in small waterpower with its capacity less than 1, kw for realizing the control and integration of such auxiliary equipments as petroleum, water and gas and such supervision integration as speed regulation, excitation, protection and measurement, improving its credibility and reducing its equipment construction cost. Technology update. CETs are more environmentally friendly than traditional, fossil fuel-based technologies.
CETs include renewable energy, hybrid and cogeneration, and energy efficiency technologies for power generation and alternative fuels and advanced technologies for transportation. This chapter presents an overview of these technologies. Biomass Biomass consists of plant and plant-derived material. Sources of biomass include agricultural residues such as rice hulls, straw, bagasse from sugarcane production, wood chips, and coconut shells and energy crops such as sugarcane or switch grass. Examples of biomass fuels are liquid and gel fuels including oil and alcohol and pelletized biomass for gasification and combustion.
Liquid biomass—derived fuels can be used as substitutes for or additives to fossil fuels. Although the conversion of biomass into energy results in the release of carbon into the atmosphere, biomass-based energy is considered to be carbon neutral because of the carbon sequestered by plants during the growth of the biomass material. For biomass resources to be renewable, their cultivation must be managed carefully to ensure sustainable harvesting and land use.
The use of biomass for energy production can result in competition with food crops, either directly, when food crops themselves are used for energy production, or indirectly, when land and water that would be used to grow crops is used instead for energy crops. Biomass technologies include equipment for industrial processes that produce heat and steam; electrical power generation through combustion, liquefaction, or gasification; and transportation fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel. Biomass is converted into energy through one of two pathways: thermochemical and biochemical.
Thermochemical conversion occurs by combustion, gasification, or pyrolysis. Biochemical conversion results from anaerobic digestion or fermentation. The energy products produced from these biomass conversion processes are electricity, heat, and biofuels. Combustion Direct combustion is a widely used process where biomass is converted into useful power through exposure to high temperatures. Heat from the process can be used to produce steam, which in turn can drive a turbine to generate electricity.
Depending on the combustion process, various pre-treatment steps such as sizing shredding, crushing, and chipping and drying are required.
The heating value and moisture content of the biomass determine the efficiency of the combustion process. Drying prior to the combustion process e. Gasification In the gasification process, biomass is thermochemically converted into gaseous fuel by means of partial oxidation of the biomass at high temperatures. This process requires less oxygen than combustion. In addition to the gaseous fuel, gasifiers produce heat and ash.
To maximize the efficiency of gasification-based systems, beneficial uses should be developed for all three products. TExTBOx 2. Solid biomass: Wood, vegetal waste including wood waste and crops , conventional crops oil and starch crops , charcoal, animal wastes, and other wastes including the biodegradable fraction of municipal solid wastes used for energy production. Liquid biofuels: Biodiesel and bioethanol also includes biomethanol, bio-oil, and biodimethylether. A Biodiesel: Biodiesel can be used in pure form or may be blended with petroleum diesel at any concentration for use in most modern diesel engines.
Biodiesel can be produced from a variety of feedstocks, such as oil feedstock rapeseed, soybean oils, jatropha, palm oil, hemp, algae, canola, flax, and mustard , animal fats, or waste vegetable oil. B Bioethanol: The largest single use of ethanol is as a fuel for transportation or as a fuel additive. It can be produced from a variety of feedstocks such as sugarcane, corn, and sugar beet.
It can also be produced from cassava, sweet sorghum, sunflower, potatoes, and hemp or cotton seeds or derived from cellulose waste. Biogas: Methane and carbon dioxide produced by anaerobic digestion or fermentation of biomass, such as landfill gas and digester gas. Section 2: Clean Energy Technologies Defined. Department of Commerce International Trade Administration The main processes of a gasification plant are fuel feeding, gasification, and gas clean-up.
Fuel feeding prepares and introduces the feedstock into the gasifier. The gasifier converts the feedstock into a fuel gas containing carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and methane. In the gas clean-up process, harmful impurities are removed from the fuel gas to allow for safe usage in gasburning engines or turbines.