It would seem that something was intended to intervene here between the exit of Faustus and Mephistophilis, and their re-appearance on the stage: compare, however, the preceding play, p. Most probably the parts of the Clown and Robin were played by the same actor; and hence the confusion in the old eds. This ironical exclamation is very common in our old dramatists. By our Lady. Asteroth: Old eds. Asterote": but see p. So 4to Exhaereditare filium non potest pater, nisi, etc. Such is the subject of the institute, And universal body of the law: This study fits a mercenary drudge, Who aims at nothing but external trash; Too servile and illiberal for me.
When all is done, divinity is best: Jerome's Bible, Faustus; view it well.
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Stipendium peccati mors est. Stipendium, etc. The reward of sin is death: that's hard. Si peccasse negamus, fallimur, et nulla est in nobis veritas; If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and there's no truth in us. Why, then, belike we must sin, and so consequently die: Ay, we must die an everlasting death. What doctrine call you this, Che sera, sera, What will be, shall be? Divinity, adieu! These metaphysics of magicians, And necromantic books are heavenly; Lines, circles, scenes, letters, and characters; Ay, these are those that Faustus most desires.
O, what a world of profit and delight, Of power, of honour, of omnipotence, Is promis'd to the studious artisan! Wagner, commend me to my dearest friends, The German Valdes and Cornelius; Request them earnestly to visit me. I will, sir. Their conference will be a greater help to me Than all my labours, plod I ne'er so fast.
Enter Good Angel and Evil Angel. O, Faustus, lay thy damned book aside, And gaze not on it, lest it tempt thy soul, And heap God's heavy wrath upon thy head! Read, read the Scriptures:-that is blasphemy. Go forward, Faustus, in that famous art Wherein all Nature's treasure is contain'd: Be thou on earth as Jove is in the sky, Lord and commander of these elements. How am I glutted with conceit of this! Shall I make spirits fetch me what I please, Resolve me of all ambiguities, Perform what desperate enterprise I will?
I'll have them fly to India for gold, Ransack the ocean for orient pearl, And search all corners of the new-found world For pleasant fruits and princely delicates; I'll have them read me strange philosophy, And tell the secrets of all foreign kings; I'll have them wall all Germany with brass, And make swift Rhine circle fair Wertenberg; I'll have them fill the public schools with silk, Wherewith the students shall be bravely clad; I'll levy soldiers with the coin they bring, And chase the Prince of Parma from our land, And reign sole king of all the provinces; Yea, stranger engines for the brunt of war, Than was the fiery keel at Antwerp's bridge, I'll make my servile spirits to invent.
Enter Valdes and Cornelius. Come, German Valdes and Cornelius, And make me blest with your sage conference. Valdes, sweet Valdes, and Cornelius, Know that your words have won me at the last To practise magic and concealed arts: Yet not your words only, but mine own fantasy, That will receive no object; for my head But ruminates on necromantic skill. Philosophy is odious and obscure; Both law and physic are for petty wits; Divinity is basest of the three, Unpleasant, harsh, contemptible, and vile: 'Tis magic, magic, that hath ravish'd me. Then, gentle friends, aid me in this attempt; And I, that have with concise syllogisms Gravell'd the pastors of the German church, And made the flowering pride of Wertenberg Swarm to my problems, as the infernal spirits On sweet Mussaeus when he came to hell, Will be as cunning as Agrippa was, Whose shadow made all Europe honour him.
Faustus, these books, thy wit, and our experience, Shall make all nations to canonise us. As Indian Moors obey their Spanish lords, So shall the spirits of every element Be always serviceable to us three; Like lions shall they guard us when we please; Like Alrnain rutters with their horsemen's staves. Or Lapland giants, trotting by our sides; Sometimes like women, or unwedded maids, Shadowing more beauty in their airy brows Than have the white breasts of the queen of love: From Venice shall they drag huge argosies, And from America the golden fleece That yearly stuffs old Philip's treasury; If learned Faustus will be resolute.
Valdes, as resolute am I in this As thou to live: therefore object it not. The miracles that magic will perform Will make thee vow to study nothing else. He that is grounded in astrology, Enrich'd with tongues, well seen in minerals, Hath all the principles magic doth require: Then doubt not, Faustus, but to be renowm'd, And more frequented for this mystery Than heretofore the Delphian oracle. The spirits tell me they can dry the sea, And fetch the treasure of all foreign wrecks, Ay, all the wealth that our forefathers hid Within the massy entrails of the earth: Then tell me, Faustus, what shall we three want?
Nothing, Cornelius. O, this cheers my soul! Come, show me some demonstrations magical, That I may conjure in some lusty grove, And have these joys in full possession. Then haste thee to some solitary grove, And bear wise Bacon's and Albertus' works, The Hebrew Psalter, and New Testament; And whatsoever else is requisite We will inform thee ere our conference cease.
Valdes, first let him know the words of art; And then, all other ceremonies learn'd, Faustus may try his cunning by himself. First I'll instruct thee in the rudiments, And then wilt thou be perfecter than I. Then come and dine with me, and, after meat, We'll canvass every quiddity thereof; For, ere I sleep, I'll try what I can do: This night I'll conjure, though I die therefore.
Enter two Scholars. First Schol.
Marlowe’s Ghost: The Second Report of Doctor John Faustus (1592)
I wonder what's become of Faustus, that was wont to make our schools ring with sic probo. That shall we know, for see, here comes his boy. Enter Wagner. How now, sirrah! God in heaven knows. Why, dost not thou know? Yes, I know; but that follows not. Go to, sirrah! Why, didst thou not say thou knewest? Have you any witness on't? Yes, sirrah, I heard you. Ask my fellow if I be a thief. Sec, Schol. Well, you will not tell us? Yes, sir, I will tell you; yet, if you were not dunces, you would never ask me such a question, for is not he corpus naturale? But that I am by nature phlegmatic, slow to wrath, arid prone to lechery to love, I would say , it were not for you to come within forty foot of the place of execution, although I do not doubt to see you both hanged the next sessions.
Thus having triumphed over you, I will set my countenance like a precisian, and begin to speak thusTruly, my dear brethren, my master is within at dinner, with Valdes and Cornelius, as this wine, if it could speak, would inform your worships: and so, the Lord bless you, preserve you, and keep you, my dear brethren, my dear brethren! Nay, then, I fear he has fallen into that damned art for which they two are infamous through the world.
Were he a stranger, and not allied to me, yet should I grieve for him. But, come, let us go and inform the Rector, and see if he by his grave counsel can reclaim him. O, but I fear me nothing can reclaim him! Yet let us try what we can do. Enter Faustus to conjure. Now that the gloomy shadow of the earth, Longing to view Orion's drizzling look, Leaps from th' antarctic world unto the sky, And dims the welkin with her pitchy breath, Faustus, begin thine incantations, And try if devils will obey thy hest, Seeing thou hast pray'd and sacrific'd to them.
Within this circle is Jehovah's name, Forward and backward anagrammatis'd, Th' abbreviated names of holy saints, Figures of every adjunct to the heavens, And characters of signs and erring stars, By which the spirits are enforc'd to rise: Then fear not, Faustus, but be resolute, And try the uttermost magic can perform. Valeat numen triplex Jehovae!
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Ignei, aerii, aquatani spiritus, salvete! Orientis princeps Belzebub, inferni ardentis monarcha, et Demogorgon, propitiamus vos, ut apparent et surgat Mephistophilis, quod tumeraris: per Jehovam, Gehennam, et consecratam aquam quam nunc spargo, signumque crucis quod nunc facio, et per vota nostra, ipse nunc surgat nobis dicatus Mephistophilis!
Enter Mephistophilis. I charge thee to return, and change thy shape; Thou art too ugly to attend on me: Go, and return an old Franciscan friar; That holy shape becomes a devil best. I see there's virtue in my heavenly words: Who would not be proficient in this art? How pliant is this Mephistophilis, Full of obedience and humility!
Re-enter Mephistophilis like a Franciscan friar. Now, Faustus, what wouldst thou have me do? I charge thee wait upon me whilst I live, To do whatever Faustus shall command, Be it to make the moon drop from her sphere, Or the ocean to overwhelm the world. I am a servant to great Lucifer, And may not follow thee without his leave: No more than he commands must we perform.
Did not he charge thee to appear to me? No, I came hither of mine own accord. Did not my conjuring speeches raise thee? That was the cause, but yet per accidens; For, when we hear one rack the name of God, Abjure the Scriptures and his Saviour Christ, We fly, in hope, to get his glorious soul; Nor will we come, unless he use such means Whereby he is in danger to be damn'd. Therefore the shortest cut for conjuring Is stoutly to abjure the Trinity, And pray devoutly to the prince of hell. So Faustus hath Already done; and holds this principle, There is no chief but only Belzebub; To whom Faustus doth dedicate himself.
This word "damnation" terrifies not him, For he confounds hell in Elysium: His ghost be with the old philosophers! But, leaving these vain trifles of men's souls, Tell me what is that Lucifer thy lord? Arch-regent and commander of all spirits. Was not that Lucifer an angel once? Yes, Faustus, and most dearly lov'd of God. How comes it, then, that he is prince of devils? O , by aspiring pride and insolence; For which God threw him from the face of heaven. And what are you that live with Lucifer? Where are you damn'd? In hell. How comes it, then, that thou art out of hell?
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Why, this is hell, nor am I out of it. What, is great Mephistophilis so passionate For being deprived of the joys of heaven? Learn thou of Faustus manly fortitude, And scorn those joys thou never shalt possess. Go bear these tidings to great Lucifer: Seeing Faustus hath incurr'd eternal death By desperate thoughts against Jove's deity, Say, he surrenders up to him his soul, So he will spare him four-and-twenty years, Letting him live in all voluptuousness; Having thee ever to attend on me, To give me whatsoever I shall ask, To tell me whatsoever I demand, To slay mine enemies, and aid my friends, And always be obedient to my will.
Go and return to mighty Lucifer, And meet me in my study at midnight, And then resolve me of thy master's mind. I will, Faustus. Had I as many souls as there be stars, I'd give them all for Mephistophilis: By him I'll be great Emperour of the world, And make a bridge through the moving air, To pass the Ocean with aband of men.
I'll join the hills that band the Africk shore And make that land continent to Spain, And both contributory to my crown: The Emperour shall not live but by my leave, Nor any Potentate of Germany; Now that Ihave obtain'd what Idesire, I'll live in speculation of this Art, Til Mephistophilis return again. Enter Wagner and the Clown. Sirrah boy, come hither. How, boy? Boy, quoth'a? Tell me, sirrah, hast thou any comings in? Aye, and goings out, too, you may see else. Alas poor slave, see how poverty jesteth in his nakedness, the villain is bare, and out of service, and so hungey, that I know he would give his soul to the devil for a shoulder of mutton, though it were blood raw.
How, my soul to the devil for a shoulder of mutton though t'were blood raw? Not so good, friend by'rlady, I had need have it well roasted, and good sauce to it, if I pay so dear. Well, wilt thou serve me, and I'll make thee go like Qui mihi discipulus? How, in verse? No, sirrah, in beaten silk and stave's acre. How, how, knave's acre? Aye, I thought that was all the land his father left him: do ye hear, I would be sorry to rob you of your living. Sirrah, I say in stave's acre. Oho, oho, stave's acre, why then belike, if I were your man, I should be full of vermin.
So thou shlt, whether thou beest with me, or no; but, sirrah, leave your jesting, and bind yourself presently unto me for seven years, or I'll turn all the lice about thee into familiars, and they shall tear thee in pieces. Do you hear, sir?
You may save that labor, they are too familiar with me already, swounds they are as bold with my flesh as if they had paid for my meat and drink. Well, do you hear, sirrah? Hold, take these guilders. Gridirons, what be they? Why, French crowns. Mass, but for the name of French crowns a man were as good have as many English counters, and what should I do with these? Why, now, sirrah, thou art at an hour's warning whensoever or wheresoever the devil shall fetch thee. No, no, take your gridirons again. Truly, I'll none of them. Truly, but you shall.
Bear witness I gave them him. Bear winess I give them you again. Well, I will cause two devils presently to fetch thee away. Baliol and Belcher. Let your Balio amd your Belcher come here, and I'll knock them, they were never so knockt since they were devils. Say I should kill one of them what would folks say? Enter two devils, and the Clown runs up and down crying.
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Baliol and Belcher, spirits away! What, are they gone? I'll tell you how you should know them;all hee devils has horns, and all she devils has clifts and cloven feet. Well, sirrah, follow me. But do you hear? If I should serve you, would you teach me to raise up Banios and Belcheos? I will teach thee to turn thyself to any thing, to a dog, or a cat, or a mouse, or a rat, or anything. A Christian fellow to a dog, a cat, or a mouse, or a rat? Oh I'll tickle the pretty wenches' plackets, I'll be amongst them, I'faith.
Well, sirrah, come. But, do you hear, Wagner? O Lord! I pray, sir, let Banio and Belcher go sleep. Villain, call me Master Wagner, and let thy left eye be diametarily fixed upon my right heel, with quasi vestigiis nostris insistere. God forgive me, he speaks Dutch fustian. Well, I'll follow him; I'll serve him, that's flat. Now, Faustus, must Thou needs be damn'd, and canst thou not be sav'd: What boots it, then, to think of God or heaven?
O, something soundeth in mine ears, "Abjure this magic, turn to God again! To God? Sweet Faustus, leave that execrable art. Contrition, prayer, repentance-what of them? O , they are means to bring thee unto heaven! Rather illusions, fruits of lunacy, That make men foolish that do trust them most. Sweet Faustus, think of heaven and heavenly things.
No, Faustus; think of honour and of wealth. Of wealth! Why, the signiory of Embden shall be mine. When Mepistophilis shall stand by me, What god can hurt thee, Faustus? Now tell me what says Lucifer, thy lord? That I shall wait on Faustus whilst he lives, So he will buy my service with his soul. Already Faustus hath hazarded that for thee. But, Faustus, thou must bequeath it solemnly, And write a deed of gift with thine own blood; For that security craves great Lucifer.
If thou deny it, I will back to hell. Stay, Mephistophilis, and tell me, what good will my soul do thy lord? Enlarge his kingdom. Is that the reason why he tempts us thus? Solamen miseris socios habuisse doloris. Why, have you any pain that torture others! As great as have the human souls of men. But, tell me, Faustus, shall I have thy soul? And I will be thy slave, and wait on thee, And give thee more than thou hast wit to ask. Ay, Mephistophilis, I give it thee. Then, Faustus, stab thy arm courageously, And bind thy soul, that at some certain day Great Lucifer may claim it as his own; And then be thou as great as Lucifer.
View here the blood that trickles from mine arm, And let it be propitious for my wish. But, Faustus, thou must Write it in manner of a deed of gift. But, Mephistophilis, My blood congeals, and I can write no more. I'll fetch thee fire to dissolve it straight. Why might the staying of my blood portend? Is it unwilling I should write this bill? Why streams it not, that I may write afresh? Faustus gives to thee his soul: ah, there it stay'd!
Why shouldst thou not? Then write again, Faustus gives to thee his soul. Re-enter Mephistophilis with a chafer of coals. Here's fire; come, Faustus, set it on. So, now the blood begins to clear again; Now will I make an end immediately. O, what will not I do to obtain his soul!
Consummatum est; this bill is ended, And Faustus hath bequeathed his soul to Lucifer. But what is this inscription on mine arm? Homo, fuge: whither should I fly? If unto God, he'll throw me down to hell. My senses are deceiv'd; here's nothing writ:- I see it plain; here in this place is writ, Homo, fuge: yet shall not Faustus fly. I'll fetch him somewhat to delight his mind. Re-enter Mephistophilis with Devils, who give crowns and rich apparel to Faustus, dance, and then depart. Speak, Mephistophilis, what means this show? Nothing, Faustus, but to delight thy mind withal, And to show thee what magic can perform.
But may I raise up spirits when I please? Ay, Faustus, and do greater things than these. Then there's enough for a thousand souls. Here, Mephistophilis, receive this scroll, A deed of gift of body and of soul: But yet conditionally that thou perform All articles prescrib'd between us both. Faustus, I swear by hell and Lucifer To effect all promises between us made! Then hear me read them. First that Faustus may be a spirit in form and substance. Secondly, that Mephistophilis shall be his servant, and at his command.
Thirdly, that Mephistophilis shall do for him, and bring him whatsoever he desires. Fourthly, that he shall be in his chamber or house invisible. Lastly, that he shall appear to the said John Faustus, at all times, in what form or shape soever he please. I, John Faustus, of Wertenberg, Doctor, by these presents, do give both body and soul to Lucifer prince of the east, and hisminister Mephistophilis; and furthermore grant unto them, that, twenty-jour years being expired, the articles above-written inviolate, full power to fetch or carry the said John Faustus, body and soul, flesh, blood, or goods, into their habitation wheresoever.
By me, John Faustus. Speak, Faustus, do you deliver this as your deed? Ay, take it, and the devil give thee good on't! Now, Faustus, ask what thou wilt. First will I question with thee about hell. Tell me, where is the place that men call hell? Under the heavens. Ay, but whereabout? Within the bowels of these elements, Where we are tortur'd and remain for ever: Hell hath no limits, nor is circumscrib'd In one self place; for where we are is hell, And where hell is, there must we ever be: And, to conclude, when all the world dissolves, And every creature shall be purified, All places shall be hell that are not heaven.
Come, I think hell's a fable. Ay, think so still, till experience change thy mind. Why, think'st thou, then, that Faustus shall be damn'd? Ay, of necessity, for here's the scroll Wherein thou hast given thy soul to Lucifer. Ay, and body too: but what of that? In the later 'B text' of the play, there is a subsequent scene [V.
The theological implications of Doctor Faustus have been the subject of considerable debate throughout the last century. Among the most complicated points of contention is whether the play supports or challenges the Calvinist doctrine of absolute predestination, which dominated the lectures and writings of many English scholars in the latter half of the sixteenth century.
According to Calvin, predestination meant that God, acting of his own free will, elects some people to be saved and others to be damned—thus, the individual has no control over his own ultimate fate. This doctrine was the source of great controversy because it was seen by the so-called anti-Calvinists to limit man's free will in regard to faith and salvation, and to present a dilemma in terms of theodicy. At the time Doctor Faustus was performed, this doctrine was on the rise in England, and under the direction of Puritan theologians at Cambridge and Oxford had come to be considered the orthodox position of the Church of England.
Concerning the fate of Faustus, the Calvinist concludes that his damnation was inevitable. His rejection of God and subsequent inability to repent are taken as evidence that he never really belonged to the elect, but rather had been predestined from the very beginning for reprobation.
For the Calvinist, Faustus represents the worst kind of sinner, having tasted the heavenly gift and rejected it. His damnation is justified and deserved because he was never truly adopted among the elect. According to this view, the play demonstrates Calvin's "three-tiered concept of causation," in which the damnation of Faustus is first willed by God, then by Satan, and finally, by himself. The anti-Calvinist view, however, finds such thinking repugnant, and prefers to interpret Doctor Faustus as a criticism of such doctrines. One of the greatest critics of Calvinism in Marlowe's day was Peter Baro , who argued that such teachings fostered despair among believers, rather than repentance among sinners.
He claimed, in fact, that Calvinism created a theodical dilemma:. Baro recognised the threat of despair which faced the Protestant church if it did not come to an agreement of how to understand the fundamentals. For him, the Calvinists were overcomplicating the issues of faith and repentance, and thereby causing great and unnecessary confusion among struggling believers.
Faustus himself confesses a similar sentiment regarding predestination:.
The tragical history of Doctor Faustus Essay
Ay, we must die an everlasting death. What doctrine call you this? Che sera, sera, "What will be, shall be"? Divinity, adieu! Faustus includes a well-known speech addressed to the summoned shade of Helen of Troy , in Act V, scene I. The following is from the Gutenberg project e-text of the quarto with footnotes removed. Was this the face that launch'd a thousand ships, And burnt the topless towers of Ilium -- Sweet Helen, make me immortal with a kiss. Here will I dwell, for heaven is in these lips, And all is dross that is not Helena. I will be Paris , and for love of thee, Instead of Troy , shall Wertenberg be sack'd; And I will combat with weak Menelaus , And wear thy colours on my plumed crest; Yea, I will wound Achilles in the heel, And then return to Helen for a kiss.
O, thou art fairer than the evening air Clad in the beauty of a thousand stars; Brighter art thou than flaming Jupiter When he appear'd to hapless Semele ; More lovely than the monarch of the sky In wanton Arethusa 's azur'd arms; And none but thou shalt be my paramour! Another well-known passage comes after Faustus asks Mephistophilis how he Mephistophilis is out of Hell, to which Mephistophilis replies:. Why this is hell, nor am I out of it.
Think'st thou that I, who saw the face of God, And tasted the eternal joys of heaven, Am not tormented with ten thousand hells In being deprived of everlasting bliss? According to Charles Nicholl this places the play firmly in the Elizabethan period when the problem of magic "liberation or damnation? Nicholl, who connects Faustus as a "studious artisan" 1.
Mephistophilis is a demon whom Faustus conjures up while first using magic. Readers initially feel sympathy for the demon when he attempts to explain to Faustus the consequences of abjuring God and Heaven. Mephistophilis gives Faustus a description of Hell and the continuous horrors it possesses; he wants Faustus to know what he is getting himself into before going through with the bargain:. O Faustus, leave these frivolous demands Which strikes a terror to my fainting soul! Say he Faustus surrender up to him Lucifer his soul So he will spare him four and twenty years, Letting him live in all voluptuousness Having thee Mephistophilis ever to attend on me .
Some scholars [ who? Mephistophilis is foreshadowing the pain Faustus would have to endure, should he go through with his plan. In , the BBC adapted the play for television as a two-episode production starring Alan Dobie as Faustus; this production was also meant for use in schools. Doctor Faustus has raised much controversy due to its alleged interaction with the demonic realm.
After his play, other authors began to expand on their views of the spiritual world. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the play by Christopher Marlowe. For other uses, see Doctor Faustus. Play by Christopher Marlowe.
Frontispiece to a printing of Doctor Faustus showing Faustus conjuring Mephistophilis. The spelling "Histoy" is agreed to be a typographical error. This section has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages. This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. This article needs attention from an expert in Literature.
The specific problem is: this plot summary contains many errors. WikiProject Literature may be able to help recruit an expert. May March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Smith, eds. No Elizabethan play outside the Shakespeare canon has raised more controversy than Doctor Faustus. There is no agreement concerning the nature of the text and the date of composition The Review of English Studies. Marlowe's Doctor Faustus Parallel Texts. Oxford: Clarendon Press.