The most common are the inch,the centimetre, the point, the pica. The abbreviations for these units are in, cm, pt, andpc respectively. Thus a point is rather small and is about the size of a decimal point. Here is a sample to give an idea of the comparative sizes: TEX book: inch:1 centimetre points:1 pica:Thus points are used to make fine changes; a pica is about the distance between thebaselines of two consecutive lines of unmagnified normal text. TEX is quite exact aboutdimensions; internally its smallest unit is less than one four-millionth of an inch.
Hence itis the resolution of the output device that will determine the accuracy of the output. The re are two other units that are sometimes useful that have different sizes in differentfonts.
- Ethics without Morals: In Defence of Amorality!
- Copy, Archive, Signature: A Conversation on Photography.
TEX book: 60 The shape of the output is generally determined by control words. The re are manysuch words; these allow very fine control of the resulting text. But most of the time only asmall number of them are necessary. The re is the headline above the maintext; this often contains a chapter title, section title, or a page number, and may differ onodd and even pages. Below this is the main text, which includes any footnotes. And finallythere is the footline that might contain a page number.
In the examples we have seen so far, the headline has been blank. As can be seen in this paragraph, the text widthcan be changed in this case to 4 inches for a single paragraph.
Text can also be shifted across the page. The upper left corner of the text is one inchdown and one inch in from the upper left corner of the page. TEX book: But for some special situations it might not be desirable for this to happen; forexample, you might want to leave a space of exactly 3 inches to insert a figure.
TEX book: 59— The text is initially 1 inch down and 1 inch in from upper left corner of the page. This means that there is a lot of control over paragraphshapes, but also that some care must be taken. So, in general, when a paragraphis set, the values of the parameters that are in effect when the paragraph is completed arethe ones that are used.
This control word will only affect the paragraph This is quite useful for long quotations, and this paragraph is an example of itsuse. For many types ofvertical spacing this is quite appropriate. The space before a section heading, for example,should not continue across page boundaries. A similar phenomenon occurs at the beginning of your document.
But what if you really want some blank space at the to p of a page? For example TEX book: The re are also some special control words for making small vertical skips. I just seem to be spread out all over the place. The footnote mark goes in between the first set of braces. The text of the footnote goes between thesecond set of braces.
The use of numbers as marks is a little less straightforward. But for the moment we can look at it as a wayof getting the job done. Usually you will not want a space between the text and the control wordfootnote. TEX book: This is the footnote at the bot to m of the page. Change the footline so that the page number is centred with an en-dash The y are duly noted in the log file and are also written to thescreen when TEX is being run interactively. Overfull boxes are also marked on the output bya slug a large filled-in black rectangle that looks like this: in the right margin.
Variousobscene terms are applied to this slug. It appears even though there is nothing wrong withthe TEX input. So why is the slug there and what can be done about it? A good way to visualize the way TEX organizes a page is to think of the printed materialas being put in to boxes.
The re are two types of boxes: hboxes and vboxes. Most of the timethese correspond to the organization of horizontal text in to lines and vertical paragraphsin to pages. In particular, it is the spacing of the words in a hbox corresponding to a line oftext that causes the slug to appear. Recall that TEX reads in the complete paragraph before deciding how to break it upin to lines.
This is better than working a line at a time, since a slight improvement in one linemight cause catastrophic changes farther down in the paragraph. When words are gathered to gether to form a line, space is added between the words to justify the right margin. Verylarge spaces between words is obviously undesirable; the badness of the line is a measureof how badly the words are spaced. An underfull hbox means that there is to o much spacebetween words. More specifically, the badness of any line is a number between 0 perfect and horrible. Similarly,if the words must be squeezed in to a line so that the spaces are very small or even so thewords extend a little in to the right margin, then an overfull hbox results.
A line which is only slightly longer is set without being reported. The overfullboxes will still be there, of course, and they will probably be harder to spot. The se are warnings that you ignore at your own peril! Adding new possibilities of hyphenation will sometimes eliminate an overfull box. The log file will show TEX book: 28the possible hyphenations on the line containing the overfull or underfull box.
Sometimesthe best solution to an overfull or underfull hbox is a little judicious editing of the originaldocument. Our discussion has involved the setting of type in to lines, that is, the horizontal pagestructure. The re are several vertical analogues. Overfull and underfull hboxes indicate howwell words are gathered in to lines. Similarly, overfull and underfull vboxes are reportedwhen paragraphs are gathered to form pages.
Changes madewithin a group will lose their effect when the group terminates. Uponcompletion of the group the font being used is the one in effect before the group started. This is the easier way of having a few words in a different font. As another example, size changes can be made in the text that are only temporary.
: texlive-lang package : Ubuntu
This paragraph is set with those values. After the end of the group, the old settingsare in effect again. One use allows accents to be typeset with no accompanyingletter. It can also beused to s to p TEX from eating up consecutive spaces. TEX book: 19—21Grouping can also be used to avoid spaces in the middle of a word when includingaccents. How do you do this there are several solutions?
The effect can be dramatic; if you ge to utput that suddenly changes to an italic font for the rest of the document, a mismatchedbrace is probably the cause. If there arebraces nested within the original ones, put them on separate lines also, but indent them afew spaces. The text within the nested braces can also be indented since TEX ignores allspaces at the beginning of a line. The matching braces will then stand out when you lookat your TEX source file.
In fact, if your edi to r is smart enough, you can create the two lineswith the braces first and then insert the appropriate material within them with au to maticindenting. Getthe same result using the idea of grouping. Section 5No math anxiety here! TEX is at its best when typesetting mathematics. The conventions for doing this aremany and complex, and the ability of TEX to take them in to account makes the productionof high quality, attractive mathematical output possible.
If you plan to produce papers withmathematical symbols in them, this section will give you all the basics necessary for creatingbeautiful output in almost all circumstances; TEX may be used without any mathematics,of course, and if this is your goal, then the following two subsections are probably sufficientfor your needs. It can also be displayed, that is, centred in a gapbetween the usual text.
Harmful LaTeX practices
The results in the spacing and placement of symbols can be quitedifferent in each case. The spacing for both in-line and displayed mathematics is completely controlled by TEX. Adding spaces to your input has no effect at all. What if you need a space or sometext in the middle of some mathematics? This is particularly Note the spaces on either side of the word withinthe braces.
This is because the negative space is one in the opposite direction,that is, while the other control sequences increase the amount of space between two symbolsbeing typeset, the negative thin space decreases the space between them, even if it causesthem to overlap. TEX assumes that all the mathematical text being typeset is in one paragraph, and ablank line starts a new paragraph; consequently, this will generate an error message. Most mathematical text is entered in exactly the same way for in-line typesetting as fordisplayed typesetting except for the surrounding dollar signs, of course.
The exceptions,such as aligning multiline displays and placing equation numbers at the left or right marginwill be discussed in the last part of this section. Many new symbols can appear when typesetting mathematics. Most of the ones thatactually appear on the keyboard can be used directly. All Greekletters are available. Sometimes accents are put above or below symbols. The control words used for accentsin mathematics are different from those used for normal text.
The normal text control wordsmay not be used for mathematics and vice-versa. TEX book: — Ordinaryaddition and multiplication, for example, combine two numbers to get another number, andso they are binary opera to rs. A relation indicates a property of two mathematical objects. We already know how to show two objects equal, or how to show one number less than or greater than anothernumber since these are symbols on most terminal keyboards.
Here are some relations: TEX book: To get several characters as a subscript or superscript, theyare grouped to gether within braces. Notice that the superscripts and subscripts are au to matically typeset in a smallertype size. The situation is only slightly more complicated for a second layer of subscriptsor superscripts. Thus you must put in the completebraces to describe multiple layers of subscripts and superscripts. The y may be done to anylevel. TEX book: —To use both subscripts and superscripts on one symbol, you use both theeither order.
TEX book: —Another use of this type of input is for expressions involving limits. Notice that TEX takes care of the placement ofsymbols and the height and length of the radical. But notice that the lines over the letters are at different heights, and sosome care is necessary. Here is a table to compare the size of some of the delimiters. This is the usual mathematical convention to indicate thatit is a function being described and not the product of three variables.
The re is a particular macro that is used in almost every mathematical paper, and isdifferent enough to require a special explanation. It is usedwhen stating theorems, corollaries, propositions, and the like. In the country of the blind,gives The orem 1 H. In the country of the blind, the one-eyed man is king. The statement of the theorem may contain mathematical expressions, of course.
The re exist an infinite number of primes. Notice the differences between the following example and theprevious one. Here is how we can change the matrix of our first example. TEX book: Sometimes ellipses are used within matrices. The first is that of aligning multiline displays. In each equation there should be This is usuallydone at the equal signs, although it is not necessary to do so. Finally, suppose some text needs to appear in the middle of a displayed equation. Thiscan be done by putting it in an hbox.
We will describe hboxes in more detail in the nextsection. For now we want to use them to temporarily resume using ordinary roman typeand to also allow the insertion of space between words remember that all spaces are ignoredwhen typesetting mathematics. Fortunately TEX makes it easy to do this. In fact there are two separate methods of aligning text. The first isby using the tabbing environment.
This is similar to setting the tab s to ps on a typewriter. Each line is handled individually, according to set tab columns, but with greater flexibilitythan that provided by a typewriter. The second is the horizontal alignment environmentwhich typesets the whole table at once using a prescribed pattern. In fact there are two overlappingentries in the last row. This is because TEX will tab to the next tab position even if unlikea typewriter it means going backward on the page.
The re is an interesting relationship between grouping and tabbing. Thusit is possible to temporarily change the tab settings by grouping within braces. In addition,each table entry is in a group of its own. In addition, for any column but the last one it ispossible to centre the entry or to align it either on the left or on the right, or to fill a columnwith a line or dots. Take the table of Canadian provinces above and centre each entry within A TEX intro Canadian spelling Section 6: All in a row The tab positions can be set with much more flexibility than just in equal columns.
The tab column would then bejust wide enough to accept the headings with a quad of space on each side. Use this to centre the table given above. The size canbe altered from the default. Note the extra space that results. It does have some drawbacks,however. For one, the column size must be set before the entries are known. Also, eventhough in one case we wanted the third column to be boldface, it had to be specified in eachline. Text may also be entered inthe template line. In addition the special symbol must appear once in each section.
Eachdisplay line is then set by substituting each section of the display line in to its correspondingsection of the template line at the occurrence of the. The second section will be centredafter adding a quad of space on the left.
TEX for the Impatient - CTAN (Comprehensive TeX Archive Network)
The third and fourth sections are handled similarly. The whole line is then saved for setting. Hence the template line establishes the pattern for the table entries and the displaylines insert the individual entries. But still all is notcompletely straightforward. Suppose we take our last example and change the template to get vertical lines and also insert horizontal lines.
In addition, the text has a little extraspace on the right rather than being perfectly centred. A further TEX book: 82problem can occur when the page is set since TEX may spread lines apart slightly to improvethe appearance of the page. Finally, we can see how to centrethe text by noting that the extra space occurs in the template line after the where thetext is inserted. Miscellaneous small packages by David Carlisle.
MetaFont source files for a complete set of Greek fonts. Polish extension of Computer Concrete fonts MetaFont sources. Polish extension of Computer Concrete fonts in Type1 format. Support for Concrete text and math fonts in LaTeX. Take user text and typeset it to fit a CD label. Various BibTeX formats for journals in Chemistry. Support for compound numbers in chemistry documents. Change the page layout in the middle of a document. Supports compressed, sorted lists of numerical citations. Support backward references in the bibliography.
Typeset Hebrew with LaTeX containing two type 1 fonts. Typesets pseudocode as in Introduction to Algorithms. Virtual fount setup for using old style digits. A TeX macro package for colour manipulation using PostScript. A set of barcode macros for the Code standard. Allows text and page background colors to be set. Retrieve color model and values for defined colors. Bundle individual documents into a single document. Allows many thebibliography environments with continuous numbering.
Samples of thousands of symbols that are accessible from LaTeX. Font for symmetry elements in crystallography. Mixing onecolumn and twocolumn modes at any place of page. A system for Structured Software Documentation in C. A script which was used on Cyprus for writing Greek. Converting the Czech hyphenation pattern into a form usable by LaTeX2e. Provides commands for current time. Align on the decimal point of numbers in tabulars. LaTeX package for the traditional English decimal point. A style to help provide default parameters for TeX macros. Bibtex style file for the journal Development.
Macros for constructing interactive LaTeX scripts. Provides dotless i's and j's for use in any math font. Flush left equations with dotted letters to the numbers. TeX previewer and printer driver for MS-Windows. Font metric files and virtual fonts for ec fonts. Bibliography style file for submission to Econometrica.
Extensions to epic and the LaTeX drawing tools. Fix uneven spacing around ellipses in LaTeX text mode. A tex extension translating input on its way into TeX. Move floats to the end with markers where they belong. Control layout of itemize, enumerate, description.
Facilates addressing envelopes or mailing labels. Utility for mathematically accurate, camera quality plots and line figures. AppleScript tool for Mac for viewing figures generated with MetaPost. More generalised equation arrays with numbering. A package to add picture commands or backgrounds to every page. Arbitrary national currency amounts using the Euro as base unit. A LaTeX package which provides hooks into selectfont.
Environments for defining exercises and quizzes. Diagrams consisting of boxes, lines, and annotations.
Extends article and report with extra sized fonts. Extensive control of page headers and footers in LaTeX2e. Page headers for the documentation of Software Engineering Projects. Computer Science thesis class for University of Dortmund. Macros and fonts for creating Feynman and other diagrams. Generate a layout in fig and then insert text into it in LaTeX.
Convert xfig figures with embedded latex commands to EPS.
Comfortably draw and typeset finite state machines. Patch bibliographies inappropriately broken by bibtex. Deprecated: Allows text to be wrapped around figures. Different pagestyles for text and float pages. This package provides six predefined chapter headings. Standard package for activating ec fonts. A package to put bibliographic references as footnotes. Analyse and display the structure of a TeX document. A teTeX Create framed or shaded regions that can break across pages. A free, full-featured TrueType rasterizer library.
Providing LaTeX access to various font families. Write Galois connections in two-ddimensional style. Flexible and complete interface to document dimensions. Gothic and ornamental initial fonts by Yannis Haralambous. Patches and improvements for the prosper presentations package. Paul Ginsparg's Harvard macros for scientific articles. The hfbright fonts Type1 version of the CM Bright fonts. Better horizontal lines in tabulars and arrays. Support high and low resolution versions of same picture.
Draw histograms with the LaTeX picture environment. Hyphenation patterns for the Hungarian language. Fonts based on the half Uncial manuscript book-hand. Rotating caption and object of floats in different ways. Hyphenation patterns for ancient and modern Greek. If-then-else command for processing potentially empty arguments.
Symbols for alpinistic, electronic, meteorological, geometric etc. International Modal Analysis Conference format. Allow input of a file with its own inputs from another directory. Extended index for LaTeX including multiple indexes. Tune the output format of dates language dependent. Miscellaneous useful macros by Joachim Schrod.
Extended BibTeX citation support for the humanities and legal texts. Style file for creating a calendar; in German. English Translation of Obsolete packages and commands. Italian Translation of Obsolete packages and commands. Reference last page for Page N of M type footers. There is also a utility pstoedit which supports direct conversion from Postscript files to many vector graphics formats, but it requires a non-free plugin to convert to SVG, and regardless of the format, this editor has not been successful in using it to convert diagrams with diagonal arrows from TeX-created files.
As the diagram is your own work, upload it to Wikimedia Commons , so that all projects notably, all languages can use it without having to copy it to their language's Wiki. If you've previously uploaded a file to somewhere other than Commons, to Commons. Now go to the image page and add a description , including the source code , using this template:.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This help page is a how-to guide. It details processes or procedures of some aspect s of Wikipedia's norms and practices. It is not one of Wikipedia's policies or guidelines , as it has not been thoroughly vetted by the community. See also: Wikipedia:Rendering math. As a consequence, in many cases TeX-elements, e. In spite of these shortcomings, the present product characterized by "many embedded PNG-images" should be preferred for small texts, where the equations do not dominate. Wikimedia Foundation.
Breaking up a long expression so that it wraps when necessary, at the expense of destroying correct spacing. N Bad. Good Y. CrO 4 Renders as.