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Institutional Subscription. Free Shipping Free global shipping No minimum order. Unlocks the physiological, biochemical and molecular basis of abiotic stress response and tolerance in crop plants Presents comprehensive information on abiotic stress tolerance, from gene to whole plant level Includes content on antioxidant metabolism, marker-assisted selection, microarrays, next-generation sequencing and genome editing techniques.
Powered by. You are connected as. Connect with:. Use your name:. Thank you for posting a review! We value your input. Share your review so everyone else can enjoy it too. Seedlings were 5-days-old at the time of transfer. Each data point is the mean of three replicates of 20—30 seedlings. The error bars indicate the SD. The improved osmotic stress tolerance of 35S::VlWRKY3 transgenic seedlings was correlated with changes in several physiological parameters, such as the MDA content, relative electrolyte leakage, and the chlorophyll content, as well as the endogenous ABA content.
Abiotic Stress Physiology of Horticultural Crops
It was also observed that the chlorophyll contents of the leaves of the 35S::VlWRKY3 lines were significantly higher than those of WT corresponding after treatments of NaCl and mannitol treatments Figure 2C , as was also the case for endogenous ABA levels 7 days post the same stress treatments Figure 2D.
B Relative electrolyte leakage from detached leaves of WT and transgenic seedlings grown with or without exposure to osmotic stress. In order to evaluate the tolerance capacity of salt and drought stresses, the performance of 5-week-old 35S::VlWRKY3 transgenic lines and WT that had been subjected to abiotic stresses for 1 week was also investigated. However, most WT leaves became chlorotic after treatment with mM NaCl for 7 days, while the transgenic lines still remained green and phenotypically normal under the same conditions Figure 3A-b.
A Representative images of 5-week-old potted WT and transgenic plants under normal growth and abiotic stress conditions. B Survival rates of WT and transgenic lines 24 h after re-watering. Each data point is the mean of three replicates of 32 plants. C Water loss rate of detached leaves of WT and transgenic plants. Each data point is the mean of three replicates of 10 detached leaves. Reactive oxygen species levels and activity assays of activated oxygen scavenging enzymes in WT and VlWRKY3 transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants under normal growth and abiotic stress conditions.
The experiment was repeated 3 times, and 5—10 leaves were stained in each experiment. The three 35S::VlWRKY3 transgenic plants possessed higher activities of the three antioxidant enzymes than those corresponding WT with or without abiotic stress treatments Figures 4C—E , which was consistent with the lower accumulation of ROS in the transgenic plants. Water loss from leaves is strongly influenced by stomatal regulation, which is in turn affected by the concentration of ABA in the leaves Yan et al.
In addition, we compared the stomatal apertures from the leaves of both transgenic and WT plants that has been treated with different concentrations of exogenous ABA. A Comparison of stomatal apertures in response to different concentrations of exogenous ABA in WT and transgenic plants.
Abiotic Stress Biology in Horticultural Plants - Semantic Scholar
B Stomatal aperture width to length ratios following treatment with different concentrations of exogenous ABA. A The relative expression levels of salt stress-responsive genes in WT and transgenic plants treated with mM NaCl for 7 days. B The relative expression levels of drought stress-responsive genes in WT and transgenic plants deprived of water for 7 days. It is also generally accepted that JA and Eth act in the necrotrophic pathogen-induced disease resistance response Oliver and Solomon, Three dpi with B.
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A The phenotypes of transgenic and WT leaves 3 days after inoculation. B Average lesion diameters 3 days after inoculation. Data values represent means from three independent experiments with at least 50 leaves per sample. The expression patterns of PR1 and NPR1 were significantly increased at 24, 72, and hpi in transgenic lines compared to the WT plants, and reached maximum expression at 72 hpi Figures 8C,D.
A The phenotype of transgenic and WT plants post infection for 5 days. B Bacteria numbers per gram of fresh leaf tissue 5 days post infection.
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Members of the WRKY transcription factor family play important roles in diverse plant developmental and physiological processes, including embryogenesis Lagace and Matton, , seed coat and trichome development Johnson et al. Phylogenetic analysis of the VlWRKY3 sequence, together with orthologs from a range of plant species, revealed a phylogenetic tree with two distinct clades Supplementary Figure S1A , consistent with the WRKY3 sequence evolving substantially after the divergence of dicots and monocots from their last common ancestor Zhang L.
This hypothesis was tested through a series of experiments involving transgenic A. In terms of general osmotic stress, transgenic seeds exhibited significantly increased levels of germination compared to WT seeds Figures 1A,B. Lateral roots contribute to water uptake and facilitate the extraction of nutrients required for growth and development Zhu et al. Interestingly, the number of lateral roots per cm of primary root in VlWRKY3 over-expressing seedlings was higher than in WT, and the roots were shorter than in WT under control and salt stress conditions Figures 1C—E.
In addition, the transgenic plants were substantially more tolerant of salt and dehydration than WT plants Figures 3A,B. These findings suggest that VlWRKY3 is involved in regulating responses to osmotic stress, and may have values as a target for crop improvement.
To investigate the mechanisms by which VlWRKY3 confers abiotic stress tolerance, we performed several experiments to monitor the physiological changes associated with stress responses. It has been reported that drought and salt stresses can be accompanied by the production of MDA Levine et al. It is generally accepted that maintenance of integrity and stability of cell membranes under water stress conditions is a major factor in drought tolerance, and that the degree of cell membrane injury induced by water stress can be assessed through measurements of electrolyte leakage from the cells Bajji et al.
The levels of electrolyte leakage in the WT seedlings were significantly higher than in any of the transgenic lines under salt and mannitol stress Figure 2B , indicating that the cell membranes of the WT suffered more damage. As a reliable, non-invasive method for monitoring photosynthetic events, chlorophyll fluorescence was used to reflect the physiological status of plants Strasser et al. Abscisic acid plays a central role in responses to various abiotic stresses Fujita et al. This was confirmed by the observation that the transcript abundance of NCED3 , whose expression is often used as an indicator of ABA biosynthesis, was also significantly higher in the transgenic plants than in WT following the abiotic stress treatments Figure 6.
A lower width to length ratio in the transgenic plants than in WT following various concentrations of exogenous ABA treatment was also observed Figure 5. The difference in ROS accumulation between abiotic stress treatments and B. Some WRKY transcription factors have been implicated in the regulation of various biological processes, including pathogen response and hormone signaling Eulgem and Somssich, Since the JA and Eth signaling pathways mainly mediate resistance to necrotrophic pathogens, while the SA signaling pathway is involved in resistance to biotrophic pathogens Chen L. To assess the function of VlWRKY3 in response to different pathogens, we examined the infection phenotypes, as well as the expression profiles of disease resistance related genes post pathogen infection.
In addition, the expression of AtPDF1. Since PDF1. However, the enhanced MeJA signaling did not increase the resistance of transgenic plants to B. We observed that the transgenic plants were more resistant to G.
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The function of VlWRKY3 may therefore be affected by other genes, a hypothesis that will be the focus of further studies. Based on the performance of VlWRKY3 over-expressing plants, it was demonstrated that this gene had positive functions in tolerance to salt and drought stresses. Further studies are needed to investigate the mechanisms of action of VlWRKY3 in response to abiotic and biotic stresses. XpW and RG designed the study. XaW and MT performed the data analysis. CG did the quantitative real-time PCR. RW and ZL assisted with the interpretation of the results.
ZL and XpW overall provided guidance on the whole study. RG and XpW wrote the manuscript. All authors approved the final manuscript. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. The divergence of the clades between the monocots and dicots is indicated by the dotted lines.
The overall height of each stack indicates the conservation of the protein sequence at that amino acid position, and the height of letters within each stack represents the relative frequency of the corresponding amino acid. The experiment was repeated 3 times with 5—10 leaves. Abbruscato, P. Plant Pathol. Atamian, H. Planta , — Atkinson, N. The interaction of plant biotic and abiotic stresses: from gene to the field. Bajji, M. The use of the electrolyte leakage method for assessing cell membrane stability as a water stress tolerance test in durum wheat. Plant Growth Regul.
Bhattarai, K. WRKYtype transcription factors contribute to basal immunity in tomato and Arabidopsis as well as gene-for-gene resistance mediated by the tomato R gene Mi Plant J. Cao, W. Modulation of ethylene responses affects plant salt-stress responses. Plant Physiol. Chen, H. BMC Plant Biol. Chen, L. Plant Microbe Interact. The role of WRKY transcription factors in plant abiotic stresses. Acta , — Chen, Y. Plant Cell 21, — Chinnusamy, V. Molecular genetics perspectives on cross-talk and specificity in abiotic stress signalling in plants.
Chujo, T. Plant Mol.
Clough, S. Floral dip: a simplified method for Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana. Desikan, R. ABA, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide signalling in stomatal guard cells. Horticulture Research invites contributions that present novel genomic data of horticultural plants, and associated novel experimental technologies, softwares, pipelines, resources. Horticulture Research is proud to celebrate 5 years of publication in , and to extend its tradition of publishing high-impact, widely read research.
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Skip to main content. Article collection: Abiotic stress This collection describes various abiotic stresses threaten the cultivation of future agricultural crops and how to improve tolerance to abiotic stresses for horticultural plants.