Hair of West European Mammals: Atlas and Identification Key

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Mammal hairs play a significant role in thermoregulation, body shape maintenance, waterproofing and protection from the variety of pollution. The scientific study of the hair is called as trichology and this field originated in the mids. In fact, identification of mammal hair was earlier performed by [1]. There are mainly two types of mammalian hair found: Guard hairs that are usually thick and bristly and fine hairs which are curled and thin comparatively [2].

Hair analyses through their morphological cuticular scale and medullary features have been widely used to distinguish among mammalian species of interest largely in the different field of Science. The domesticated ungulates comprise the order Artiodactyla even-toed and family Bovidae. It was one of old but become advanced with the latest instrument and technology of this modern era. It is the best effective techniques widely used in the forensic as well as in the field of ecology. The distinctive MI for each species is very much suitable for species confirmation and useful to identify unknown hair samples as well as for the study of the feeding ecology of large carnivore animals by their scat analysis within and around the protected areas.

The scale count and scale pattern also found to be species-specific and therefore beneficial to identify the hair of unknown species with the help of all external and internal morphological features of the hair [3].

Materials and Methods

For almost a century, compound and comparison microscopes remained the only reliable tools for the microscopic identification of characteristics found in animal hair [ 4]. All the control guard hairs were collected separately and labeled further from the different cattle owners. After collection of hairs of each species were properly washed in running water for few times to remove dirt. Accordingly total one hundred twenty hairs of four domesticated bovine species were cleaned and degreased in acetone.

Then randomly picked up thirty hairs from each species were examined. First, each hair was embedded in Gelatin layered microscopic slide or Nail paint for scale imprinting. The microscope has inbuilt measurement software with the camera attachment namely: Axiocam Imager. First studied under 10X view, then in 40X view for detailed morphometric study. The morphological external features of the hair shaft were recorded with suitable details and measurement.

Later internal morphological features of the hair medulla were studied previously and recorded separately in the data book. On the basis of all external and internal morphological as well as quantitative features of the guard hair, each species confirmation was made. To distinguish the species, several differencing aspects of hair were to be considered to achieve the confidence limit. The mean value as well as standard deviation regarding various features of hair shaft and medulla are given in below Tables.

Table 1: Systematic position and conservation status of four domesticated cattle. Gir cow. Jafrabadi water buffalo. Gohilwadi goat. Patanvadi sheep. Table 2: Different factors of Hair of the four domesticated ungulate species of Saurashtra. Mean length of hair. Average diameter of hair shaft. Average diameter of medulla. Medullary Index. Jafrabadi buffalo. Different Medullary Index MI of the four domesticated ungulate species along with the standard error given Fig. Various morphological and quantitative features of the guard Hair of four domesticated species of family Bovidae studied in detail.

The mean value, as well as standard deviation regarding various features of hair shaft and medulla are given in Table 3 Fig. Table 3: Morphological features of Hair of the four domesticate Bovine species. Medulla pattern. Scale pattern. Color of hair. Hair surface. Simple medulla Amorphous. Narrow medulla. Wide medulla. Regular wave. Systematic position and conservation status - All the four domesticated species belonging to the single order Artiodactyla and similar family Bovidae.

All four domesticated cattle species acquire different genus and species. Further randomly picked thirty dorsal guard hairs of each species thoroughly evaluated under the microscope Table 1. Mean value of MI, Shaft, Medulla and whole hair- The medullary index is the specialized feature of the hair. Every species of the mammals can be identified on the basis of their medullary features Table 2, Fig. Maximum MI found in Patanvadi Sheep 0. MI is the specialized feature of the guard hair. Each and every species of the mammals can be identified on the basis of their medullary index Table 2, Fig.

Morphological features of the hair- There are a number of important morphological features to be considered for the identification and confirmation of the hair for an unknown species. The Gir cow and Jafrabadi Buffalo have simple type of medulla whereas Gohilwadi Goat has narrow medulla and Patanvadi Sheep has wide medulla comparatively Table 3, Fig.

The scale pattern of the Gir Cow and Gohilwadi Goat found to be similar but Patanvadi Sheep has regular wave pattern instead. The Jafrabadi buffalo has unique streaked scale pattern which is completely distinguishing it from other three domesticated species [4]. Mostly from the above four bovids, Jafrabadi Water buffalo has streaked scale pattern with Simple and wide medulla, while Gir Cow and Gohilwadi Goat shows similar Regular and irregular wave pattern.

In Patanvadi Sheep has regular wave pattern of the scale with wide medulla. On another hand the quantitative features of the guard hair of animal species are distinctive and species-specific. On the basis of medulla type, only water buffalo shows distinctive scale type out of four species of domesticated bovine. The quantitative features of the guard hair of animal species are distinctive and species-specific. These differential features of the hair are largely suitable and authenticated, hence broadly used in the various field namely: ecology, field of forensic science, field of wildlife and Ethology for the hair identification of species of interest.

By using this hair identification key it can be easier and suitable to identify and confirm the species largely to know feeding ecology of carnivore animals in both protected and non-protected areas. It can be easily applicable for hair identification in case of human-carnivore conflict study. Singh, Chief Conservator of Forest, Junagadh for his encouragement and supports for the study.

Our sincerely thank to the laboratory officials and technicians like Mr. Yadav, Mr. Chand, and Mr. Joshi for their help during the laboratory investigation of sample specimens. Research concept - Vibhuti B. Research design - Vibhuti B. Supervision - Ashvinkumar H. Materials - Ashvinkumar H. Data collection and processing - Vibhuti B. Data analysis and interpretation - Vibhuti B.

Literature search - Vibhuti B. Writing article - Vibhuti B. Critical review - Bhupat B. If you do the dissection yourself, you will need a dissecting tray and some dissecting tools, or buy our complete Fetal Pig Dissection Kit. Materials: preserved frog, dissecting tray, dissecting microscope, pins, blunt and sharp probes, scissors, scalpel. Great for homeschooling, high school biology, or just for fun! Fetal Pig Dissection. Discuss your dissection of the components of the endocrine system of the fetal pig by doing the following: a. Doc Fetal Pig Dissection.

You will examine a fetal pig using the protocol of a human autopsy. Observation: External Anatomy of Sheep Brain. Removing the Skin, p. Special notes: 1.

Hair of West European Mammals: Atlas and Identification Key

Dissecting Skeletal Muscles, p. Be sure to follow all directions. Anatomical References. See more On this page you can read or download grade 10 capricorn district practical task no 3 dissecting a mammalian heart in PDF format. Now more realistic than ever! Do Now: List Homework: Read the handout with the dissection procedure for the following day. Fetal Pig Dissection Be able to determine the gender of a fetal pig The structures of the pig that you will be responsible for identifying are: 1.

Muscles of the Chest, p. Nietzsche genealogy of morals first essay summary of globalization essay on rani laxmi bai in kannada lfit unc final review essay gatech essay critique of insurrectionary anarchism and other essays observation essay suffrage movement essay powerful essay the virtual fetal pig dissection esay Fetal Pig Dissection: External Anatomy. Use scissors to cut through the skin and muscles according to the diagram. Slide 6 Name the organs What is the function of these? The mammalian eye consists of many specialized cells and tissues that make up several different structures.

Fetal Pig Dissection Directions. Using the sheep heart handout as a guide, identify the right and left sides of the heart. Experts also demonstrate proper dissection techniques of a fetal pig, providing insight on human 6. Your dissection of the fetal pig will include the Home See for yourself what the cerebrum, cerebellum, spinal cord, gray and white matter, and other parts of the brain look like with this sheep brain dissection guide!

Use this for a high school lab, or just look at the labeled images to get an idea of what the brain looks like. Compare the structure of the fetal pig kidneys to the structure of the sheep kidneys. Fetal Pig Dissection Instructions Urinary fetal pig dissection urinary instructions day 4. This is a handout for use during the fetal pig dissection.

Fetal pig begins gone a european dissection to changing the lab of report and conclusion in America. Spring If your pig is female, you should also note that urogenital papilla is present near the genital opening. Remember you are dissecting not butchering. Investigate the human body and its functions with our comprehensive array of Anatomy and Physiology science lab kits. To investigate the anatomy of a frog. Activity 3: Student dissection Students will work collaboratively in their groups to dissect the pig following the lab instructions.

A fetal pig or cat that has been secured to a dissection tray, the entire tray may be placed within.

Dichotomous Keys: Identification Achievement Unlocked

Digestive System. The dissection of the fetal pig in the laboratory is important because pigs and humans have the same level of metabolism and have similar organs and systems. To get full credit for this activity, your group will need to do three things: 1 Follow the instructions in this dissection guide to identify all the structures in the kidney. Circulatory System. Muscular Labs.


  • Hair of West European Mammals: Atlas and Identification Key by B.J. Teerink (Paperback, 2004).
  • Hair of West-European mammals!
  • Hair of West European Mammals: Atlas and Identification Key!
  • Uruguay people.
  • Diet of free-ranging American mink and European polecat in Denmark.
  • Combinatorial Materials Development.
  • BIBLIO « Alaska Fur ID Project.

Courses Read entire fetal pig handout in preparation for the lab. Virtual Fetal Pig Dissection. What sex is this pig? Thoracic Cavity: Label the organs pointed out and the covering over the heart. While this page summarizes the information needed for the lab practicum, a very good site for further review can be found at the following: Fetal Pig Dissection Guide. Answer: so he could break out. Fetal pig dissection pictures. Three studies at universities across the United States found that students who modeled body systems out of clay were significantly better at.

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Fetal Pig Dissection Pictures. Determine the sex of your pig by looking for the. On females, this opening is located near the. Fetal pig dissection lab report. Determine the sex of your pig by looking for the urogenital opening. We have decided to switch to cats and just put more students per animal -- instead of two to a pig we are going to have four to a cat, I hope. Oct 3, The model is a three-pound fetal pig.

We dissected the. To observe the relationship between the structure of an organ and its functions. Dissection Manual. Describe the path that urine takes to exit the body, starting in the kidney.

Hair of West-European mammals : atlas and identification key

Respiratory Dissection of Fetal Pig. Jan 5, Oct 11 exercise 1 fetal pig dissection pre lab handout. This series of laboratory manuals main — no dissection, cat dissection, fetal pig dissection, and rat dissection will incorporate Terry's clear, concise writing style. The major dissection specimen is the fetal pig. Teacher's guide for fetal pig dissection biologycornercom, teacher's guide for fetal pig dissection the student handouts are available in these formats you are free to modify these documents the student handout has questions and diagrams to label, the answer key is available at teachers pay teachers for a small Fetal Pig Dissection: External Anatomy.

Frog Dissection Crossword. As the pig is a mammal, many aspects of its structural and functional organization are identical with those of other mammals, including humans. To investigate the organ systems of a frog 3. The period of gestation is to days, and there are, on the average, about seven to eight offspring in a Virtual Fetal Pig Dissection. Weather you are actually dissecting a pig or planning to learn about it virtually, I have compiled a list of our favorite fetal pig dissection resources.

AP Biology Pig Dissection - click on any system.


  • Hair of West-European Mammals: Atlas and Identification Key.
  • Hair of West-European mammals [1991].
  • Diet of free-ranging American mink and European polecat in Denmark | SpringerLink?

There are many good videos on the fetal pig dissection. As two worms mate, sperm released at the sperm ducts travels posteriorly in the worm's sperm grooves to reach, and enter, the seminal receptacle opening of the other worm located opposite its clitellum. Mark Stanback www. Free science curriculum from Lesson Plans Inc The niche, with apologies to hopeful suffering young writers, doesnt should be inherently extreme. Pig Dissection. List of Useful Websites: 1. Practical activity one eye dissection and uv absorption in helping researchers tackle diseases such as cancer.

Urogenital System I - help; lab report handout for one- or read asked questions on echinoderms - external anatomy physiology. Fetal Pig Dissection: Abdominal Cavity In this activity, you will open the abdominal and thoracic cavity of the fetal pig and identify structures. Cat dissection offers an excellent opportunity to explore mammalian anatomy using a large specimen. Virtual Fetal Pig Dissection Alternative Lab Assignment Extra Credit up to 20 points for those who complete this assignment in addition to the actual dissection.

Fetal Pig Dissection Manual. On males, the opening is located near the. Repository Citation. The respiratory system of the fetal pig 3. Bill Silvia dissects a pig's digestive tract. Thus, a study of the fetal pig is in a very real sense, a study of humans.

The structures have certain functions and together, they form images that are interpreted by the brain. Dissecting microscope: observe lung tissue. With your lab partner complete the Fetal Pig Dissection handout- which will help guide you through the dissection and answer the Questions at the end of each section of the dissection manual.

Hair of West European Mammals: Atlas and Identification Key - PDF Free Download

Female: In the female pig, locate two bean-shaped ovaries located just posterior to the kidneys and connected to the curly oviducts. Lab Practical 1 Videos. I have recently been urging my school to come up with an official alternative assignment for students who are not comfortable participating in the dissection and who are against the unethical sourcing of the pigs. The dogfish shark species is Squalus acanthias. Report abuse. A dissection kit should include: 1. Biology lesson plans, labs, activities, experiments, and projects for high school life science teachers.

Before the muscles and viscera of a fetal pig can be studied, the specimeni skin has to. Friedhelm Hildebrandt is a specialist in Nephrology at Boston Children's Hospital and can be reached at Fetal Pig Dissection Images. The dissection of the fetal pig in the laboratory is important because pigs and humans and pig to the supply cart and then thoroughly wash your hands with soap.

Fetal Pig Dissection Videos. Use the internet, text book and the fetal pig power point to complete your pre-lab research preparation. Each model includes 25 editable PowerPoint slides with bellwork, instructions, notes and embedded handout answer keys and 28 PDFs of handouts, guided reading A fetal pig or cat that has been secured to a dissection tray, the entire tray may be placed within. Thymus gland Bill Silvia dissects a pig digestive tract.

Iii: elaine n. Print out these PDFs and fill in the labels to test your knowledge of fetal pig anatomy. How do fetal pigs get oxygen through which part? Abstract In this lab, we were given the task to explore the insides and the outsides of a fetal pig to relate. Also, fetal pigs are a byproduct of the pork food industry so they aren't raised for dissection purposes, and they are relatively inexpensive.

We shall be concerned only with the former in the laboratory dissections. Hands-on experiments that do not include full cat and pig dissections are also available. The student handout has questions and diagrams to label, the answer key is available at Teachers Pay Teachers for a small fee to goes toward support and maintenance of biologycorner.

Topic 8. These typically are quite small in the fetal pig. On females, this opening is located near the anus. Or two-semester a mammal, the fetal pig dissection lab report ricky christiansen, Fetal pigs are one of the most common and interesting animals dissected during the high school years. On males, the opening is located near the umbilical cord. Do not remove any organs. The arrow points to one of a pair of sperm grooves, extending from segment 16 to the clitellum.

The fetal pig is just one of the many animals that belong to Phylum Chordata, which contains some of the. Wikispaces classroom now. Thus pig fetuses are byproducts of the slaughter houses. For the fetal pig practical, be able to identify the following structures, know their function, and know the system the structures are associated with. They can be easily adjusted to make them more applicable to the level you are teaching at.

Fetal Pig Dissection Handout. Experience the pork food items. Alternately, you can print the quiz into The dissection of the fetal pig in the laboratory is important because pigs and humans have the same level of metabolism and have similar organs and systems. Fetal pig dissection part 1 9. This video will walk you through the entire process from preparation to removing the organ block for observing the internal pig organs. Why is surface area important? See for yourself what the cerebrum, cerebellum, spinal cord, gray and white matter, and other parts of the brain look like with this sheep brain dissection guide!

The best sleeping position for back pain, neck pain, and sciatica - Tips from a physical therapist - Duration: Students will research an organ system contains your organ, the organ's main functions, ow does your organ works with other systems to keep the body healthy, which diseases or disorders affects your organ, and can a person live without the organ. Anatomy and Physiology "The human body is the only machine for which there are no spare parts. Crayfish dissection 8. Frog Dissection Guide Purpose: 1. Pig Heart Dissection Procedure Fetal Pig Dissection Guide with Index is a pictorial guide, specifically As an added bonus, common lab dissections such as sheep heart, kidney, brain and eye.


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