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Citing Literature. Volume 22 , Issue 1 March Pages Confucius The Analects. Confucianism's Prospects A Reassessment.
John Dewey in China: To Teach and to Learn
Galia Patt-Shamir. Ebrahim E. William Theodore De Bary. Confucian Tradition and Global Education.
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Mencius and Early Chinese Thought. Jackson Sc Brooks A. Herrlee Glessner Creel. Richard John Lynn. Ta Hsueh Chung Yung. Confucianism and Human Rights. Confucius E. Bruce Brooks A. Taeko Brooks. They are an encumbrance; they are the chief obstacle to the formation of a new individuality integrated within itself and with a liberated function in the society 14 wherein it exists. One can reasonably doubt whether there can be any interplay of Confucian and Deweyan ideas unless 17 based on a critical stance towards tradition.
American pragmatism is the one philosophy that in contrast to the European continental traditions has already early not only acknowledged democracy and pluralism but has also given them a central systematic status in its theory, linking together its epistemology, its understanding of truth, its educational approach, its attitude towards religion and, of course, its political position.
It has done so against the background of a de facto existing state with democratic 19 institutions. Tan, Confucian Democracy, pp. A Confucianism that builds its political theory on the family model can hardly be a discussion partner of pragmatism. Autonomy According to Hall and Ames, the autonomy of the individual is anathema both to pragmatism and to Confucianism, since both philosophies emphasize making laws and carrying on governmental administration by means of popular suffrage and elected officers. It is that, of course my italics.
But it is something broader and deeper than that. It is not, however, belief in equality of natural endowments. Those who proclaimed the idea of equality did not suppose they were enunciating a psychological doctrine, but a legal and political one. All individuals are entitled to equality of treatment by law and in its administration. Each one is affected equally in quality if not in quantity by the institutions under which he lives and has an equal right to express his judgment, [.
To my mind, this view is corroborated by neither pragmatism 24 nor Confucianism.
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It is rooted in the misunderstanding of autonomy as autarky and the claim to self-fulfillment at will rather than to the sovereignty of moral judgment and of a moral life. Hall and Ames rightly insist on the view of the human being as a relational being, which they regard as a common basis of Confucianism and pragmatism. However, it should not be overlooked that the relational paradigm as developed by pragmatism does not abandon but rather transforms the older philosophy of subject Subjektphilosophie.
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There is no simple alternative here, and Confucianism, too, cannot be smoothly coopted for an intersubjectivity without autonomous subjects. If Confucianism can be reconstructed as an intersubjective ethics, then not without a strong notion of a human subject. The communication paradigm was in particular elaborated by George 24 For autonomy in Confucianism, cf. Augustin: Academia, , pp. However, this does not rule out autonomy, which does not depend on the problematic notion of an atomistic human being. DD, p. It links the fulfillment 31 of roles to the preservation of personal moral integrity, and it addresses itself as well as the other not only as a specific person-in-context, but at the same time as a human being in general.
If this architecture can be described with the conceptual tools of Mead, it is precisely because of its double structure. Rouner, ed.
Roger T. Ames
I do not play or perform these roles; I am these roles. The community which the American pragmatists refer to is not any historic community, it is the American society which in contrast to ancient China has already incorporated universalistic values of the Enlightenment in its constitution and is politically organized as an institutionalized democracy, however imperfect. Moreover, not only with regard to its concrete historical background— the American society—but for principal reasons, the pre-Rortyan pragmatist notion of community is not contextually limited.
Peirce, p. The indefinite community is not only the anchorage of the conception of reality and 35 the possibility of truth. Sociality, in turn, is empirically indispensable for the development of universality. Thus, the very origin of the conception of reality shows that this conception essentially involves the notion of a COMMUNITY, without definite limits, and capable of a definite increase of knowledge.