Stereotyping and Prejudice: Changing Conceptions

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Questions of citizenship in relation to illegal immigration is a particularly controversial issue and a common source of political tension. The majority of immigrants have tended to settle in traditional gateway states such as Florida, New York, California, Illinois, Texas, and Massachusetts, where immigrants find large existing populations of foreign-born people.

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Recently, however, immigrants have increasingly been settling in areas outside these gateway states. Sociologists Mary Waters and Tomas R. Jimenez have suggested that these geographical shifts may change the way researchers assess immigrant assimilation, as immigrants settling in new areas may encounter different experiences than immigrants settling in more traditional gateways. Specifically, Waters and Jimenez identify three distinguishing characteristics in more recent, less traditional, immigration patterns: less established social hierarchies, smaller immigrant population size, and different institutional arrangements.

The theory of segmented assimilation for second generation immigrants is highly researched in the sociological arena. Segmented assimilation, researched by Min Zhou and Alejandro Portes, focuses on the notion that people take different paths in how they adapt to life in the United States.

Stereotyping and Prejudice

This theory states that there are three main different paths of assimilation for second generation immigrants. Some immigrants assimilate smoothly into the white middle class of America, others experience downward assimilation, and others experience rapid economic success while preserving the values of their immigrant community.

This theory also includes the concept of modes of incorporation, which are the external factors within the host community that affect assimilation. These factors are created by the underlying policies of the government, the strength of prejudice in the society, and the makeup of coethnic communities within the society. These modes of incorporation affect how a child will assimilate into U. Factors that enhance such vulnerability include racial discrimination, location, and changes in the economy that have made it harder for intergenerational mobility.

In addition, differing modes of incorporation make available certain resources that second generation immigrants can use to overcome challenges to the process of assimilation. If the child belongs to a group that has been exempt from the prejudice experienced by most immigrants, such as European immigrants, they will experience a smoother process of assimilation. A second generation immigrant can also make use of established networks in the coethnic community.

These networks provide these children with additional resources beyond those offered by the government, such as gateways into well paying jobs in businesses established by the ethnic community. Children of middle class immigrants have a greater likelihood of moving up the social ladder and joining American mainstream society than children of lower class immigrants, as they have access to both the resources provided by their parents and to the educational opportunities afforded to the middle class in the U.

Multiculturalism is an ideology that promotes the institutionalization of communities containing multiple cultures. Reconstruct the crux of the debate about multiculturalism, including its different forms and opposition to it.


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It is generally applied to the demographic make-up of a specific place, usually at the organizational level e. In a political context, the term is used for a wide variety of meanings.


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  • These can range from the advocacy of equal respect for the various cultures in a society, to a policy of promoting the maintenance of cultural diversity, to policies in which people of various ethnic and religious groups are addressed by the authorities according to the definition of the group to which they belong. A common aspect of many such policies is that they avoid presenting any specific ethnic, religious, or cultural community values as central.

    There is no single, agreed-upon definition for multiculturalism and different countries approach the issue in a variety of manners. However two main different and seemingly inconsistent strategies have developed through varied government policies and strategies. Political scholar Andrew Heywood distinguishes between two forms of multiculturalism: descriptive and normative:. Multiculturalism has been an official policy in several Western nations since the s, for reasons that vary from country to country, including the fact that many of the great cities of the Western world are increasingly made of a mosaic of cultures.

    The Canadian government has often been described as the instigator of multicultural ideology because of its public emphasis on the social importance of immigration. The Canadian Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism is often refered to as the origins of modern political awareness of multiculturalism. Multiculturalism is seen by its supporters as a fairer system that allows people to truly express who they are within a society, that is more tolerant, and adapts better to social issues. They argue that culture is not one definable thing based on one race or religion, but rather the result of multiple factors that change as the world changes.

    Multiculturalism in Western countries was seen as a useful set of strategies to combat racism, protect minority communities of all types, and to undo policies that had prevented minorities from having full access to the opportunities for freedom and equality promised by the liberalism that have been the hallmark of Western societies since the Age of Enlightenment. Critics of multiculturalism often debate whether or not the multicultural ideal of benignly co-existing cultures that interrelate and influence one another, and yet remain distinct, is sustainable, paradoxical, or even desirable.

    Harvard professor of political science Robert D. Putnam conducted a nearly decade-long study of how multiculturalism affects social trust. He surveyed 26, people in 40 American communities, finding that when the data were adjusted for class, income, and other factors, the more racially diverse a community is, the greater the loss of trust.

    Segregation is the division of human beings into separate groups based on any number of criteria, such as race, ethnicity, or nationality. Segregation is the social division of human beings based on any number of factors, including race, ethnicity, or nationality. It may apply to various situations of daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, using a public restroom, attending school, or going to the movies. Racial segregation is one of the most common forms of segregation and is generally outlawed, but can still exist through social norms even when there is no strong individual preference for it.

    Racial segregation has appeared in all parts of the world where there are multiracial communities. Even where racial mixing has occurred on a large scale, as in Hawaii and Brazil, various forms of social discrimination have persisted despite the absence of official segregationist laws.

    After the Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery in America, racial discrimination became regulated by the so-called Jim Crow laws—strict mandates on segregation of the races. Though such laws were instituted shortly after the war ended, in many cases they were not formalized until the end of Republican-enforced Reconstruction in the s and 80s. This legalized form of segregation into the mid s. As an official practice, institutionalized racial segregation ended in large part due to the work of civil rights activists Clarence M. Mitchell, Jr.

    Their efforts focused on acts of non-violent civil disobedience aimed at disrupting the enforcement of racial segregation rules and laws. Examples are holding sit-ins at all-white diners, or the widely publicized refusal of Rosa Parks to give up her seat on a bus to a white person. By all forms of segregation had been declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court, and by support for formal legal segregation dissolved.

    The Fair Housing Act of , administered and enforced by the Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity, prohibited discrimination in the sale and rental of housing on the basis of race, color, nationality, religion, sex, familial status and disability.

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    In the years since, African Americans have played a significant role throughout society, as leaders, public officials and heads of state. On the national level, they have worked in the Supreme Court, the House of Representatives, the Senate, and held top Presidential cabinet positions. Columbia University economist Rajiv Sethi has observed that black-white segregation is declining fairly consistently in most metropolitan areas of the U. Despite these overall patterns, changes in individual areas remain small.

    Prejudice and Stereotyping - Psychology - Oxford Bibliographies

    Racial segregation or separation can lead to social, economic and political tensions. In many areas, the United States remains a residentially segregated society. Blacks, whites, Hispanics and other racial groups inhabit different neighborhoods of vastly different quality. Population transfer is the movement of a large group of people from one region to another by state policy or international authority. Analyze why population transfers went from being an acceptable solution to problems of ethnic conflict to being unacceptable. Population transfer is the movement of a large group of people from one region to another by state policy or international authority, most frequently on the basis of ethnicity or religion.

    Often the affected population is transferred by force to a distant region, perhaps not suited to their way of life, causing them substantial personal and bodily harm and resulting in significant damage and loss of property. Population exchange is the transfer of two populations in opposite directions at about the same time. These exchanges have taken place several times in the 20 th century, such as during the partition of India and Pakistan. According to political scientist Norman Finkelstein, population transfer was considered as an acceptable solution to the problems of ethnic conflict up until around World War II and even a little afterward in certain cases.

    The feasibility of population transfers was hugely increased by the creation of railroad networks in the mid th century. Population transfer differs from individually motivated migration in more than just a technical sense, though at times of war the act of fleeing from danger or famine often blurs the differences.

    The view of international law on population transfer underwent considerable evolution during the 20 th century. Shapiro, J. From stereotype threat to stereotype threats: Implications of a multi-threat framework for causes, moderators, mediators, consequences, and interventions. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11 2 , — Spencer, S.

    Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination

    Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35 , 4— Work group diversity. Annual Review of Psychology, 58 1 , — Wood, W. Fiske, D. Lindzey Eds. Zhang, S. Barreto, M. Schmitt Eds. Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination by Dr.


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    • Rajiv Jhangiani and Dr. Skip to content Increase Font Size. Social Categorization and Stereotyping Describe the fundamental process of social categorization and its influence on thoughts, feelings, and behavior. Define stereotypes and describe the ways that stereotypes are measured. Review the ways that stereotypes influence our behavior. Ingroup Favoritism and Prejudice Review the causes and outcomes of ingroup favoritism. Outline the personality and cultural variables that influence ingroup favoritism.

      Reducing Discrimination Review the causes of discrimination and the ways that we can reduce it. Summarize the conditions under which intergroup contact does or does not reduce prejudice and discrimination. Learn more. Volume 30 , Issue 4. The full text of this article hosted at iucr. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account.

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      Changing Conceptions

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