The Taktika of Leo VI

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Many civil disturbances that occurred during the time of the Byzantine Empire were attributed to political factions within the E.

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Its name, like the Latin bandus and bandum "ensign, banner" , had a Germanic origin. Greek military ranks. Imperial guards, 8th—10th centuries In later Byzantine usage, the term came to refer exclusively to the professional, standing troops, garrisoned in and around the capital of Constantinople. By the 7th century, these had declined to little more than parade troops, meaning that the. As a youth he was taken into the personal retinue of Emperor Basil I the Macedonian, rising quickly to the posts of protostrator and then governor of Charsianon, whence he fought with success against the Arabs.

In ca. After his return, he was raised to the post of Domestic of the Schools, in effect commander-in-chief of the army, which he led with success against the Arabs in the east and the Bulgarians of Tsar Simeon in the Balkans.

The Taktika of Leo VI

Contemporaries and later historians lauded him for his military ability and charact. It first appeared in the mid-to-late 10th century, and by the 13th century had become the most frequent term used for the Byzantine army's standing regiments, persisting until the late 14th century. Origin of the term The term means "rotation of duties",[1][2] and first appears in the Tactica of Leo VI the Wise in the early 10th century for a generic body of troops. This battle is one of the greatest examples of the success of the famous feigned retreat tactic used by nomadic warriors, and an example of how psychological warfare can be used effectively.

The battle appears as the first Battle of Augsburg[3] in Hungarian historiography.

Byzantine military manuals

The chronicle named Annalium Boiorum VII, written in the 16th century by the Bavarian humanist Johannes Aventinus is also a very important source of this battle, b. This is an alphabetical index of people, places, things, and concepts related to or originating from the Byzantine Empire AD — Feel free to add more, and create missing pages. You can track changes to the articles included in this list from here.

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Note: People are listed by first name. Like the empire it served, it was a direct continuation from its Imperial Roman predecessor, but played a far greater role in the defence and survival of the state than its earlier iteration. While the fleets of the unified Roman Empire faced few great naval threats, operating as a policing force vastly inferior in power and prestige to the legions, the sea became vital to the very existence of the Byzantine state, which several historians have called a "maritime empire". The re-establishment of a permanently maintained fleet and the introduction of the dromon galley in the same period also marks the point when the Byzantine navy began departing from its late Roman roots and developing its own characteristic identity.

This process would be furthered with. A turma Latin for "swarm, squadron", plural turmae was a cavalry unit in the Roman army of the Republic and Empire. In the Byzantine Empire, it became applied to the larger, regiment-sized military-administrative divisions of a thema.

The Taktika of Leo VI -

The word is often translated as "squadron" but so is the term ala, a unit that was made up of several turmae. Roman army Republic In the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC, the time of the Punic Wars and Rome's expansion into Spain and Greece, the core of the Roman army was formed by citizens, augmented by contingents from Rome's allies socii. The organization of the Roman legion of the period is described by the Greek historian Polybius cf.

This contingent was divided into ten turmae.

This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in the 10th century. The Byzantine army evolved from that of the late Roman Empire. The language of the army was still Latin though later and especially after the 6th century Greek dominates, as Greek became the official language of the entire empire but it became considerably more sophisticated in terms of strategy, tactics and organization.

Unlike the Roman legions, its strength was in its armoured cavalry Cataphracts, which evolved from the Clibanarii of the late empire. Infantry were still used but mainly in support roles and as a base of maneuver for the cavalry. Most of the foot-soldiers of the empire were the armoured infantry Skutatoi and later on, Kontarioi plural of the singular Kontarios , with the remainder being the light infantry and archers of the Psiloi.

The Byzantines valued intelligence and discipline in their soldiers far more than bravery or brawn. The Battle of Wlndr was fought in between the allied Hungarian-Pecheneg army and an army composing of the forces of the Byzantine Empire and First Bulgarian Empire, somewhere in the territory which belonged to the Bulgarian empire, near a big city called W. Al-Masudi's account of the battle is one of the greatest descriptions of the nomadic war tactics. Sources The account of the battle and its causes can we learn from the II.

The exact location of the battle is not known. Contemporary sources say it took place at "Brezalauspurc", but where exactly Brezalauspurc was is unclear. An important result of the Battle of Pressburg was the Kingdom of East Francia could not regain control over the Carolingian March of Pannonia, including the territory of the later marchia orientalis March of Austria , lost in Tactica Italian edition, Religious service for Byzantine soldiers and the possibility of Martyrdom, c. Sohail H.

10 Different Types of Leo

Hashmi Oxford University Press, , Edward N. It is one of the most important treatises on politica Folders related to On War: books Revolvy Brain revolvybrain German-language literature Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Unfinished books Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. The impression made by Greek fire on the western European Crusaders was such that the name was applied to any sort of incendiary weapon, including those used by Folders related to Greek fire: Ottoman Empire Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Military equipment of the Ottoman Empire Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Lost inventions Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.

Aelianus Tacticus topic In hoc codice continentur Helianus De instruendis aciebus et Onosander De optimo imperatore, ca. Byzantine military manuals topic This article lists and briefly discusses the most important of a large number of treatises on military science produced in the Byzantine Empire. Although not being directly applicable to the contemporary battlefield, the text was undoubtedly motivated by his consciousness of being a ruling emperor, and can be regarded as useful instruction in this sense.

On the other hand, from a purely military aspect, most of the information can be evaluated as having been impractical , as it would have been obsolete or visionary.

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The fact that the Taktika contains contemporary military information, especially concerning warfare with foreign peoples, cannot be overlooked, even though such content exists only to a restricted extent. The discussion of warfare against the Arabs in the eastern borderland in chapter XVIII is especially noteworthy, as it includes detailed descriptions of tactics, equipment and the nature of the people and the frontier.

Crete and southern Italy. The concreteness of tactics is one of the most notable features of this passage, and it apparently represents the actual circumstance of the eastern borderland. As evident in the text, these lines represent strategies for guerrilla counterattacks , and are written under the assumption that the Arabs make expeditions seeking plunder. One can further explore the nature of Byzantine military actions depicted here, especially concerning those carrying out these tactics.

The interceptions described here were presumably made by local commanders with the troops at their disposal, since their actions required prompt responses. Furthermore, in sections — Leo VI indicates the deployment he believes to be most profitable for waging warfare against Arabs. In such a case it is also questionable whether he finds it necessary to direct these arrangements, as one might reasonably presume that such plans had been crafted during the continual conflicts with Muslims.

In other words, the Taktika might include an aspect of the ratification of the status quo of the autonomous defence in the eastern frontier , and this could be located within the wider historical context. The situation in the east at that time seems to have needed a quite autonomous system for a long time, and this is likely to be what chapter XVIII of the Taktika actually reflects. Of course, large-scale raids into Muslim-controlled regions are occasionally recorded, but these were an exceptional occurrence.

This may be partly because Byzantine resources were engaged against other opponents, such as the Bulgarians , leaving little remaining to dedicate to the east. Rather, under circumstances where opponents made continual attacks on a moderate scale in a remote area far from the centre, one can assume that prompt reactions by locally based troops were probably more effective. In fact, some information implies that these autonomous defensive operations were actually carried out by the military aristocracy, by an army of thema , or even by quasi-independent Armenian frontiersmen on the Byzantine eastern frontier.

During the middle Byzantine period, the state was divided into military-administrative units called themata sg. The eastern borderland was not an exception to this. This occurred after the mobile forces comitatenses under the command of each magister militum in Armenia, Oriens, Thrace and the praesental armies retreated to Anatolia after being defeated by Muslims, and were given jurisdictions there in order to meet their logistical needs. Around the ninth century, noticeable changes occurred in the east, as armies of themata and kleisourai directly opposed the Muslim forces there.

Some of this segmentation can certainly be perceived as an intensification of central government control, as the force of larger themata was thereby reduced. One cannot overlook the role of military aristocracy as officers , who arose during the period in question. During this period on the eastern frontier, such magnates primarily occupied official positions in themata.

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  8. This seems to have been well practised after the reign of Leo VI. One of the aims of this treatise was to recall the previous warfare in the eastern frontier, including the time of Leo VI, undertaken by the local commanders in the east, especially by those from the Phokas family. In addition to military aristocracy, similar duties could potentially be fulfilled by others, such as Armenian potentates. admin