AIX 5L Basics. Student Notebook

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Notes: A problem can be identified by just about anyone who has use of or a need to interact with the system. If a problem is reported to you, it may be necessary to get details from the reporting user and then query others on the system for additional details or for a clear picture of what happened.

Define the Problem 2 of 2 Ask questions: What is the problem?

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What is the system doing or NOT doing? How did you first notice the problem? When did it happen? Have any changes been made recently? Define the Problem 2 of 2 AU Notes: Ask as many questions as you need to in order to get the entire history of the problem. Uempty Collect System Data How is the machine configured? What errors are being produced?

What is the state of the OS? Is there a system dump? What log files exist? Collect System Data AU Notes: Some information about the system will have already been collected from the user during the process of defining the problem. By using various commands, such as lsdev, lspv, lsvg, lslpp, lsattr and others, you can gather further information about the system configuration.

LVM error logs commands. Problem Determination Tools AU Uempty Resolve the Problem Use the information gathered. Use the tools available--commands documentation, downloadable fixes and updates. Contact IBM Support, if necessary. Keep a log of actions taken to correct the problem. Resolve the Problem AU Notes: After all the information is gathered, select the procedure necessary to solve the problem.

Keep a log of all actions you perform in trying to determine the cause of the problem, and any actions you perform to correct the problem. It provides a link to the entire pSeries library. Notes: Once you have determined the nature of your problem, you should try searching the Web site to see if you are experiencing known problems for which a fix has already been made available.

SUMA can also be configured to periodically check the availability of specific new fixes and entire maintenance levels, so that the time spent on such system administration tasks is cut significantly. The SUMA implementation allows for multiple concurrent downloads to optimize performance and has no dependency on any Web browser.

All SUMA modules and the suma executable itself are contained in the bos. SUMA is implemented using the Perl programming language and therefore the Perl library extensions fileset perl. Highlights of this new feature include:. For example, download the latest critical fixes weekly. Upload Fix Requests.

Download Fix Requisites. Download module The download module provides functions related to network activities and is solely responsible for communicating with the IBM EServer pSeries support server. This communication manifests itself in two different transaction types. In the first a list of filesets is requested from the fix server based on the SUMA task data passed to download module. Manage configuration module The manage configuration module represents a utility class containing global configuration data and general-purpose methods.

These methods allow for the validation of field names and field values since this information is predefined, meaning that there is a known set of. This module provides the interface to the global configuration database file. Messenger module The Messenger module provides messaging, logging, and notification capability. Messages will be logged or displayed when their specified verbosity level is not greater than the threshold defined by the SUMA global configuration.

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The log files themselves will be no larger than a known size by default, 1 MB , as defined by the SUMA global configuration facility. When the maximum size is reached, a backup of the file will be created, and a new log file started, initially containing the last few lines of the previous file. Backup files are always created in the same directory as the current log file.

Therefore, minimum free space for log files should keep this in mind. The download history file is appended when a new file is downloaded. The messenger module relies on contact information e-mail addresses from the notification database file which is managed by the notify module. Notify module The notify module manages the file which holds the contact information for SUMA event notifications. All SUMA task related information is stored in a dedicated and private task database file.

Inventory module The inventory module returns the software inventory installed or in a repository of the local system localhost or a NIM client. If the system specified to the module is not local then the system must be a NIM client of the local system. To immediately execute a task that will preview downloading any critical fixes that have become available and are not already installed on your system:. To create and schedule a task that will download the latest fixes monthly For example, on the 15th of every month at AM :. Use suma -D to display the default configuration options.

The second example creates a new SUMA task and a crontab job. These tasks can be listed with suma -l. Relevant Documentation AU Through high-performance and flexibility between AIX and Linux operating environments, IBM pSeries delivers reliable, cost-effective solutions for commercial and technical computing applications in the entry, mid-range and high-end UNIX segments. IBM Cluster lets customers consolidate hundreds of applications and manage from a single point of control.

IBM clustering hardware and software provide the building blocks, with availability, scalability, security and single-point-of-management control, to satisfy these needs. Uempty Interconnecting two or more computers into a single, unified computing resource offers a set of system-wide, shared resources that cooperate to provide flexibility, adaptability and increased availability for services essential to customers, business partners, suppliers, and employees.

AIX 5L 5. Also, add the following: Logical partitioning is a server design feature that provides more end-user flexibility by making it possible to run multiple, independent operating system images concurrently on a single server. Dynamic Logical Partitioning DLPAR increases the flexibility of partitioned systems by enabling administrators to add, remove, or move system resources such as memory, PCI Adapters, and CPU between partitions without the need to reboot each partition. This allows a systems administrator to assign resources where they are needed most, now dynamically, without having to reboot a partition after it is modified.

In addition, system administrators can adjust to changing hardware requirements within an LPAR environment, without impacting systems availability. Dynamic CuOD enables a customer to order and install systems with additional processors and keep those resources in reserve until they are required as future applications workloads dictate. To enable the additional resources, the system administrator can. Uempty dynamically turn on the resources and then use dynamic LPAR services to assign those resource to one or more partitions without having to bring the system down.

In addition, Dynamic CPU Guard is an important solution that can automatically and dynamically remove failing processors from a system image before they can cause a system failure. If spare processors are available on the systems, they can automatically replace the failing processors. The LPAR information available on the links provided on this web site apply to all these servers unless otherwise noted. The Advanced POWER Virtualization optional feature includes: Firmware enablement for Micro-partitions Micro-partitioning is a mainframe-inspired technology that is based on two major advances in the area of server virtualization.

There are several advantages associated with this technology, including finer grained resource allocations, more partitions, and higher resource utilization. The virtualization of processors requires a new partitioning model, since it is fundamentally different from the partitioning model used on POWER4 processor-based servers, where whole processors are assigned to partitions. These processors are owned by the partition and are not easily shared with other partitions.

They may be assigned through manual. Uempty dynamic logical partitioning LPAR procedures. In the new micro-partitioning model, physical processors are abstracted into virtual processors, which are assigned to partitions. These virtual processor objects cannot be shared, but the underlying physical processors are shared, since they are used to actualize virtual processors at the platform level.

This sharing is the primary feature of this new partitioning model, and it happens automatically. PLM allocates resources to partitions on-demand, within the constraints of a user-defined policy. It assigns resources from partitions with low usage to partitions with a higher demand, improving the overall resource utilization of the system.

PLM works with both dedicated and shared processor environment partitions. The only restriction is that all partitions in a group must be of the same type. In dedicated LPARs, it will work by adding or removing real processors. In shared processor LPARs, it will work by adding or removing processing units from the capacity entitlement.

Enables inter-partition communication. In-memory point to point connections Physical network adapters are not needed. Similar to high-bandwidth Ethernet connections. Virtual Ethernet AIX 5. Notes: The Virtual Ethernet enables inter-partition communication without the need for physical network adapters in each partition. The Virtual Ethernet allows the administrator to define in-memory point to point connections between partitions. Virtual Ethernet does not require the purchase of any additional features or software, such as the Advanced Virtualization Feature.

Uempty Checkpoint Questions What are the four major problem determination steps? Who should provide information about the problems? Checkpoint Questions AU Exercise 1 AU Uempty Unit Summary Having completed this unit, you should be able to: Understand the role of problem determination Provide methods for describing a problem and collecting the necessary information about the problem in order to take the best corrective course of action.

Unit Summary AU Also, the meaning of the most important ODM files is defined. What Is the ODM? Physical and logical device information is stored and maintained as objects with associated characteristics. Devices Software. During the course many other ODM classes are described. Notes: This page identifies the basic components of ODM.

Your instructor will complete this page. Please complete the picture during the lesson. For safety reasons the ODM data is stored in binary format. It is not possible to update ODM files with an editor. Software vital product data history, inventory, lpp, product. In this unit we concentrate on ODM classes that are used to store device information and software product data. At this point you see ODM classes that contain predefined device configuration and others that contain customized device configuration. What is the difference between both? Predefined device information describes all supported devices.

Customized device information describes all devices that are actually attached to the system. It is very important that you understand the difference between both classifications. The classes themselves are described in more detail in the next topic of this unit. Predefined Databases PdDv. Configuration Manager cfgmgr. Device Configuration Summary AU Notes: This page shows the ODM object classes used during the configuration of a device. When an AIX system boots, the cfgmgr is responsible for configuring devices.

Configuration Manager AU The root part of the software contains files that must be installed on the target system. To access information in the other directories this directory contains symbolic links to the predefined devices object classes. It contains the part of the product that cannot be shared among machines.

Each client must have its own copy. Most of this software requiring a separate copy for each machine is associated with the configuration of the machine or product. They can be shared among several machines, even if the machines have a different hardware architecture. An example for this are terminfo files that describe terminal capabilities. Notes: This visual summarizes how ODM classes act together. A device can be defined by either the cfgmgr if the device is detectable , or by the mkdev command.

At this point you only have default attribute values in PdAt, which means for a terminal you could not login default is disable and the terminal type is dumb. If you change the attributes, for example, login to enable and term to ibm, you get objects describing the nondefault values in CuAt. Filesystem information? Queues and? Undefined Defined Available. AIX Kernel Applications. Notes: Please answer the following questions. Please put the answers in the picture above.

If you are unsure about a question, leave it out. Which command configures devices in an AIX system? Note: This is not an ODM command? Which ODM class contains all devices that your system supports? Which ODM class contains all devices that are configured in your system? Which programs are loaded into the AIX kernel that control access to the devices?

If you have a configured tape drive rmt1, which special file do applications access to work with this device? Notes: For each ODM component different commands are available: 1. You can create ODM classes using the odmcreate command. Usually these files have the suffix. Your exercise manual contains an optional part, that shows how to create self-defined ODM classes.

To delete an entire ODM class use the odmdrop command. Be very careful with this command. It removes the complete class immediately. Usually system administrators work with objects. The odmget command queries objects in classes information just provided by the odmshow command. To add new objects use odmadd, to delete objects use odmdelete and to change objects use odmchange.

Working on the object level is explained in more detail on the next pages. Changing Attribute Values AU Notes: The ODM objects are stored in a binary format; that means you need to work with the ODM commands to query or change any objects. In this instance only one record should be matched. The information is redirected into a file which can be changed using an editor.

The first object found will be used and can be quite confusing. This is why it is important to delete an entry before adding a replacement record. The final operation is to add the file into the ODM. As with any database you can perform queries for records matching certain criteria. The tests are on the values of the descriptors of the objects. Notes: The example shows how the odmchange command can be used instead of the odmadd and odmdelete steps as in the previous example. Notes: Whenever installing a product or update in AIX, the installp command uses the ODM to maintain the software vital product database.

Uempty The Software Vital Product Data is stored in the following ODM classes: lpp The lpp object class contains information about the installed software products, including the current software product state and description. Notes: The AIX software vital product database uses software states that describe the status information of an install or update package: 1. When installing a PTF program temporary fix or update package, you can install the software into an applied state.

Software in an applied state contains the newly installed version which is active and a backup of the old version which is inactive. This gives you the opportunity to test the new software. If it works as expected, you can commit the software which will remove the old version. Install packages cannot be applied. These will always be committed. Once a product is committed, if you would like to return to the old version, you must remove the current version and reinstall the old version. If an installation does not complete successfully, for example, if the power fails during the install, you may find software states like applying, committing, rejecting, or deinstalling.

To recover from this failure, execute the command installp -C or use the. After a cleanup of a failed installation, you might detect a broken software status. In this case the only way to recover from this failure is to remove and reinstall the software package. Notes: The Predefined Devices PdDv object class contains entries for all devices supported by the system.

The attributes you should know about are: type Specifies the product name or model number for example 8 mm tape. A functional class is a group of device instances sharing the same high-level function. For example, tape is a functional class name representing all tape devices. The subclass scsi specifies all tape devices that may be attached to an SCSI system. For example, rmt is the prefix name assigned to tape devices. Names of tape devices would then look like rmt0, rmt1, or rmt2.

A base device is any device that forms part of a minimal base system. During system boot, a minimal base system is configured to permit access to the root volume group and hence to the root file system. The device shown in the picture is not a base device. This flag is also used by the bosboot and savebase command, which are introduced in the next unit.

A device whose presence and type can be determined by the cfgmgr once it is actually powered on and attached to the system, is said to be detectable. A value of 1 means that the device is detectable, and a value of 0 that it is not for example, a printer or tty. The value stored is decimal, the value shown on the LEDs is hexadecimal is in hex. These two descriptors are used to lookup the description in a message catalog. The LANG variable on a system controls which catalog file is used to show a message.

DvDr Identifies the name of the device driver associated with the device for example, tape. Device drivers are loaded into the AIX kernel when a device is made available. Define Names the define method associated with the device type. This program is called when a device is brought into the defined state. Configure Names the configure method associated with the device type. This program is called when a device is brought into the available state. Change Names the change method associated with the device type. This program is called when a device attribute is changed via the chdev command.

Unconfigure Names the unconfigure method associated with the device type. This program is called when a device is unconfigured by rmdev -l. Undefine Names the undefine method associated with the device type. This program is called when a device is undefined by rmdev -l -d. Start, Stop Few devices support a stopped state only logical devices. A stopped state means that the device driver is loaded, but no application can access the device. These two attributes name the methods to start or stop a device. Objects use this descriptor as pointer back to the device description in PdDv.

The key is a concatenation of the class, subclass and type values. Notes: The Predefined Attribute object class contains an entry for each existing attribute for each device represented in the PdDv object class. The extract out of PdAt shows three attributes block size, physical volume identifier and terminal name and their default values. The meanings of the key fields shown on the visual are as follows: uniquetype This descriptor is used as a pointer back to the device defined in the PdDv object class. This is the name that can be passed to the mkdev or chdev commands.

Nondefault values are stored in CuAt. Notes: The Customized Devices CuDv object class contains entries for all device instances defined in the system. As the name implies, a defined device object is an object that a define method has created in the CuDv object class. A defined device object may or may not have a corresponding actual device attached to the system. CuDv object class contains objects that provide device and connection information for each device. Each device is distinguished by a unique logical name.

The customized database is updated twice, during system bootup and at run time, to define new devices, remove undefined devices and update the information for a device that has changed. The key descriptors in CuDv are: name A customized device object for a device instance is assigned a unique logical name to distinguish the device from other devices.

The visual shows two devices, a tape device rmt0 and a tty, tty0. The diagnostics facility uses this flag to validate system configuration. It specifies the name of the device driver that is loaded into the AIX kernel. The location code is a path from the system unit through the adapter to the device.

In case of a hardware problem, the location code is used by technical support to identify a failing device. For example, the parent device of rmt0 is scsi0. For example, the device rmt0 uses the SCSI address 1,0. PdDvLn Provides a link to the device instance's predefined information through the uniquetype descriptor in the PdDv object class. Notes: The Customized Attribute object class contains customized device-specific attribute information. There is an entry in the CuAt object class for attributes that take customized values. Attributes taking the default value are found in the PdAt object class.

Each entry describes the current value of the attribute. These objects out of the CuAt object class show two attributes that take customized values. The attribute login has been changed to enable. The attribute pvid shows the physical volume identifier that has been assigned to disk hdisk0. Notes: PdCn The Predefined Connection PdCn object class contains connection information for adapters or sometimes called intermediate devices.

This object class also includes predefined dependency information. For each connection location, there are one or more objects describing the subclasses of devices that can be connected. The example objects show that at the given locations all devices belonging to subclass SCSI could be attached. This object class describes the dependence links between logical devices and physical devices as well as dependence links between logical devices, exclusively.

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Physical dependencies of one device on another device are recorded in the Customized Device CuDep object class. The example object show the dependencies between logical volumes and the volume groups they belong to. These special files are used from applications to access a device driver that is part of the AIX kernel. The attribute value1 is called the major number and is a unique key for a device driver.

The attribute value2 specifies a certain operating mode of a device driver. The example objects reflect the device driver for tape rmt0. The major number 22 specifies the driver in the kernel, the minor numbers 0 and 1 specify two different operating modes. The operating mode 0 specifies a rewind on close for the tape drive, the operating mode 1 specifies no rewind on close for a tape drive. When an error occurs with a specific device the vital product data is shown in the error log.

Exercise 2 The ODM. Next Step AU Uempty Checkpoint 1. What is the difference between state defined and available? Checkpoint AU Unit Summary The ODM is made from object classes, which are broken into individual objects and descriptors. The meaning of the LED codes is described and how they can be analyzed to fix boot problems. System Initialization Part I Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. Unit Objectives After completing this unit, students should be able to: Describe the boot process to loading the boot logical volume Describe the contents of the boot logical volume Interpret LED codes displayed during boot and at system halt Re-create the boot logical volume on a system which is failing to boot.

Notes: Boot problems are the most frequent errors that occur. Hardware and software problems might cause a system to stop during the boot process. This unit describes the boot process of loading the boot logical volume and provides the knowledge a system administrator needs to have to analyze the boot problem.

Check and initialize the hardware POST. Locate the BLV using the boot list. Load the BLV and pass control. Configure Devices cfgmgr. Notes: This is the basic overview of the boot process. After powering on a machine the hardware is checked and initialized. The goal of the POST is to verify the functionality of the hardware. During a normal boot, the location of the BLV is usually a hard drive.

This is the case when booting into maintenance or service mode. To use an alternate boot location you must invoke the appropriate boot list by depressing function keys during the boot process. There is more information on boot lists, later in the unit. Uempty Passing control to the boot logical volume means that one component of the boot logical volume, the AIX kernel, gets control over the boot process.

The components of the BLV are discussed later in the unit. All devices are configured during the boot processes. This is done in different phases by the cfgmgr. Loading of a Boot Image AU Notes: This picture shows how the boot logical volume is found during the AIX boot process. Machines use one or more boot lists to identify a boot device. The boot list is part of the firmware.

The hardware is not bound to the software. The first bytes contain a bootstrap code that is loaded into RAM during the boot process. The bootstrap code gets control. The task of this code is to start up the operating system - in some technical manuals this second part is called the Software ROS. In the case of AIX, the boot image is loaded. During the boot process the boot logical volume is uncompressed and the AIX kernel gets boot control. AIX Kernel rc. Reduced Boot commands ODM. Notes: This picture shows the components of the boot logical volume.

The AIX kernel is the core of the operating system and provides basic services like process, memory and device management. The AIX kernel is always loaded from the boot logical volume. The boot commands are programs that are called during the boot process. Examples are bootinfo, cfgmgr and more. The boot logical volume contains a reduced copy of the ODM.

During the boot process many devices are configured before hd4 is available. For these devices the corresponding ODM files must be stored in the boot logical volume. After starting the kernel, the boot script rc. Select Volume Group that contains hd5. Notes: If a boot logical volume is corrupted for example, bad blocks on a disk might cause a corrupted BLV , a machine will not boot.

To fix this situation, you must boot your machine in maintenance mode, from a CD or tape. By the way, that's what you would do on an SP node if an SP node does not boot. Some machines support a normal and service boot list. If your model supports this, you will use a function key during bootup to select the appropriate list. Normally, pressing F5 when you hear the first tones during bootup, will force the machine to use the firmware default bootlist which lists media devices first.

So it will check for a bootable CD or Tape before looking for a disk to boot. More on this later. Uempty AIX 5. We will cover this later in this unit. After accessing the rootvg, you can repair the boot logical volume with the bosboot command. All changes need to be written from memory to disk. The bosboot command requires that the boot logical volume hd5 exists. If you ever need to re-create the BLV from scratch - maybe it had been deleted by mistake or the LVCB of hd5 has been damaged - the following steps should be followed: 1. Remove the old hd5 logical volume.

Clear the boot record at the beginning of the disk. Create a new hd5 logical volume: one physical partition in size, must be in rootvg and outer edge as intrapolicy. Specify boot as logical volume type. Run the bosboot command as described on the foil. Check the actual bootlist. Write data immediately to disk. Shutdown and reboot the system. Notes: You can use the command bootlist or diag from the command line to change or display the boot lists.

SMS is covered on the next page. All rights reserved. Note to U. Contents Notices. System administration differences. Introduction to IBM System p. Operating system installation. Disks and file systems. Software management. Device management. Network services.

Boot and system initialization. Managing system resources. Printing services. Users and groups. Monitoring and performance. Security and hardening. Backup and restore. High availability and clustering overview. Tasks reference.

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Quick reference: Comparable commands and configuration files. IBM may not offer the products, services, or features discussed in this document in other countries. Consult your local IBM representative for information on the products and services currently available in your area. Any reference to an IBM product, program, or service is not intended to state or imply that only that IBM product, program, or service may be used. Any functionally equivalent product, program, or service that does not infringe any IBM intellectual property right may be used instead. However, it is the user's responsibility to evaluate and verify the operation of any non-IBM product, program, or service.

IBM may have patents or pending patent applications covering subject matter described in this document. The furnishing of this document does not give you any license to these patents. Some states do not allow disclaimer of express or implied warranties in certain transactions, therefore, this statement may not apply to you. This information could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors.

Changes are periodically made to the information herein; these changes will be incorporated in new editions of the publication. Any references in this information to non-IBM Web sites are provided for convenience only and do not in any manner serve as an endorsement of those Web sites. The materials at those Web sites are not part of the materials for this IBM product and use of those Web sites is at your own risk. IBM may use or distribute any of the information you supply in any way it believes appropriate without incurring any obligation to you.

Information concerning non-IBM products was obtained from the suppliers of those products, their published announcements or other publicly available sources. IBM has not tested those products and cannot confirm the accuracy of performance, compatibility or any other claims related to non-IBM products. Questions on the capabilities of non-IBM products should be addressed to the suppliers of those products. This information contains examples of data and reports used in daily business operations. To illustrate them as completely as possible, the examples include the names of individuals, companies, brands, and products.

All of these names are fictitious and any similarity to the names and addresses used by an actual business enterprise is entirely coincidental. You may copy, modify, and distribute these sample programs in any form without payment to IBM, for the purposes of developing, using, marketing or distributing application programs conforming to the application programming interface for the operating platform for which the sample programs are written.

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You may copy, modify, and distribute these sample programs in any form without payment to IBM for the purposes of developing, using, marketing, or distributing application programs conforming to IBM's application programming interfaces. Patent and Trademark Office. Intel, Intel logo, Intel Inside logo, and Intel Centrino logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States, other countries, or both. Linux is a trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States, other countries, or both.

Other company, product, or service names may be trademarks or service marks of others. This book presents a system administrator view of the technical differences that exist and the methods that are necessary to complete a successful migration to AIX 5L-based systems. Important: This book is designed primarily as a reference for experienced Sun Solaris 8 or 9 system administrators who will be working with AIX 5L.

This book is not an AIX 5L administration how-to book for system administrators who are beginners, but rather a guide for experienced administrators who have to translate a given Solaris system administration task to AIX 5L. The chapters in this Part focus on specific configuration management tasks and system functions for which a system administrator is typically responsible.

In each chapter, topics are discussed with the goal of identifying the major differences between how the tasks and functions are managed on Solaris and on AIX 5L. Because it is impossible to provide a comprehensive reference about each topic in a single volume, references are provided for finding more detailed information about the topics presented in each chapter. In her current position, she provides hands on technical support and consulting services to IBM customers worldwide. Jan has over 20 years experience in the IT industry, including five years at the University of Texas Center for High Performance Computing, where she provided technical support to the community of researchers and students using the Cray, Convex, AIX 5L, Sun, and Silicon Graphics-based computing systems.

He provides technical and problem-solving support for EDS customers, handling complex and critical scenarios. He has experience in working on cross UNIX platforms on many migration and consolidation projects. In his current role, Chris specializes in managing content development projects focused on Linux and AIX 5L systems engineering. Become a published author Join us for a two-week to six-week residency program!

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This chapter provides the fundamental technical background that is necessary for system administrators to understand the differences between Solaris and AIX 5L. Solaris relies heavily on text-based configuration files to hold its system configuration. When making changes to a Solaris system, the administrator usually looks for the relevant configuration file to edit.

The administrator then determines the action that must be taken for the changes to take effect. The ODM is a binary database that cannot be edited with a text editor. However, there are a few AIX 5L settings that require manual text editing. The tools provide a listing of all the parameters, and perform some validation on the inputs to these parameters. An example An example of a networking-related task that a Solaris or AIX 5L system administrator must perform routinely is defining a new network interface for an existing system. In Solaris, this requires manual editing of configuration files to make the interface definition consistent across reboots, and manual configuration of the interface to make the interface active without a reboot.

Even if the update to the system can be performed online, it is a good practice to reboot the system to ensure that the changes to the configuration files are correct and will remain after reboot. The SMIT updates the configuration for the interface in the system configuration and brings the interface online. Because the SMIT combines both the steps into one validated command, it is not necessary to perform a reboot to verify that the system configuration is correct and that the interface persists across reboots. For more details about this, refer to Chapter 7. When you work with AIX 5L, you will notice that just about all the errors from commands have a number associated with them Example You can refer to these message numbers in the AIX 5L documentation if you require more information about the cause of the error message and the solution to the error message.

AIX 5L and Solaris: Approaches to administration 5 Figure shows how to use the message center to query for information about the seven-digit error message shown in Example It allows an administrator who is new to AIX 5L to quickly perform tasks without spending time looking through manuals for the required command and syntax. For its part, AIX 5L has an integrated task-based tool. One of the best things about SMIT is that it is task-based. If you know what you want to do, but do not know Chapter 1. AIX 5L and Solaris: Approaches to administration 7 the command to perform this, you can easily find your way through the menus to the required task.

A selector screen is a special version of a dialog screen in which there is only one value to change. This value of the object is used to determine which subsequent dialog screen is displayed. A dialog screen allows you to enter input values for the selected operation. Some fields already have the default values in the system. Usually, you can change these values. To enter data, move the highlighted bar to the value you want to change and then, either enter a value or select one from a pop-up list. Fields that you can type into are indicated by square brackets [].

Add a Group Type or select values in entry fields. Special symbols on the screen are used to indicate how data must be entered. A value must be entered here before you commit the dialog and execute the command. To access a pop-up list, press F4. A ring is a special type of list. If a fixed number of options are available, you can press Tab to cycle through the options. In the Motif version, a list button is displayed. You can use the following keys when viewing the menus and the dialog screens. Some keys are only valid in particular screens. Table provides an overview of all the function keys.

The output is displayed in the body section of this screen. In Figure , there are no error messages. Figure shows the Web-based System Manager. Solaris depends heavily on text-based configuration files for its system settings. You can also use it to manage data for application programs.

In such instances, the ODM takes precedence over the items stored in the configuration files. If you have a command available to update an AIX 5L configuration setting, use the command instead of manually changing the contents of the configuration files. This way, you can leverage the ODM to make sure that it performs all the necessary updates to the system.

You can access the AIX 5L error log using the errpt command. To enable this, perform the following tasks to add an entry to the ODM, instructing the AIX 5L error daemon to forward all the errors to syslog: 1. When seen in syslog, these messages appear as shown in Example These messages, which are passed to syslog from the error log, are quite basic and only include the headers from the error messages. There are a number of options to the errpt command refer to the man page for the complete list.

Example and Example show the output of the errpt and errpt -a commands when test messages are sent to the error log using the errlogger command. Refer to the syslog man page for information about the configuration of syslog for AIX 5L. There are additional options for syslog for AIX 5L for the management and rotation of the log files. Log files in AIX 5L can be automatically rotated, based on either the size of the file, a time duration, or both. You can specify the number of files that are kept and the compression and archiving options.

The options for log file management are explained in the default syslog. Example shows an AIX 5L syslog. The second entry for user. Chapter 1.

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Example AIX 5L syslog configuration file 34 1. Each line can contain an optional part: 3 Rotation. The fields must be separated by one or more tabs or spaces. If compress option is specified then the logfile names will be generated with a ". Z" extension. The files keyword will be applicable to the logfiles which are currently under rotation. For example if we specify the compress option then only fileis with ". Any logfiles with an extension other than ". Similarly if we remove the compress option then the files which have been generated with ".

The minimum size that can be specified is 10k, the minimum number of files that can be specified is 2. The compress option means that rotated log files that are not in use will be compressed. The default is not to rotate log files. File must exist. The operator panel is used to display the hardware status and diagnostic codes during system POST. It displays various status and error codes during the boot up and operation of AIX 5L. Refer to Chapter 8. The inittab file Do not edit with a text editor. There are specialized commands for editing the inittab on an AIX 5L system.

Many administrators who are new to AIX 5L have ended up with a nonbootable system because they manually edited the inittab Chapter 1. Instead, always use the system commands for modifying the system init behavior. For more information, refer to 8. It is always best to modify AIX 5L settings using commands. However, always refer to the AIX 5L documentation for the correct method of modifying a system setting.

Do not just edit a file if the setting exists in a file. AIX 5L dynamically adjusts its settings for shared memory, messages queues, and semaphores. System dump configuration A common postinstallation task on a Solaris machine involves ensuring that crash dump is configured.

There is no requirement to manually configure the system dump as part of a postinstallation customization process. AIX 5L and Solaris: Approaches to administration 23 You can view and alter the system dump settings using the sysdumpdev command. Refer to the sysdumpdev man page or the AIX 5L information center for more information. A flashing on the operator panel of the machine indicates that a system dump has taken place. SRC controls the startup, shutdown and restarting of these services in a way that is very different than the rc. The Resource monitoring and control subsystem Monitoring a condition such as file system full, for example, on Solaris requires the use of either a script or other vendor-supplied software.

AIX 5L has an inbuilt subsystem that can also be used to monitor for a condition. RMC comes with a number of predefined conditions, but it is also possible to define custom conditions that can be used to monitor a custom application. RMC conditions can be used as triggers to perform an action, for example, to grow a file system when it hits a defined threshold.

Open Chapter 1. This book assumes that the reader is an experienced Solaris system administrator who is undertaking or considering a migration to AIX 5L. Therefore, each chapter assumes reader knowledge about how the task topic is performed on a Solaris system and compares that with the procedures for performing a similar task on AIX 5L. The chapters also describe the differences in or lack of comparable functionality. Motorola introduced a broad range of desktop and server systems, and other companies such as Bull, Canon, and FirePower have announced or shipped PowerPC-based systems.

However, the latest models no longer support this. The MCA systems are sometimes referred to as classical systems. These were very popular. MCA machines can be easily recognized by the physical key in front of the machines. However, there are differences in the startup procedure. The initial models had clock speeds of MHz and MHz. The POWER3 microprocessor introduced a new generation of bit processors designed specially for high-performance and visual computing applications. Chapter 2. This type of microprocessor is widely used in areas such as the oil and gas industry, reservoir simulation, seismic processing, and weather forecast prediction.

This processor operates between MHz and MHz. This alliance established a rapidly expanding market for RISC-based hardware and software. The IBM PowerPC architecture has an entire range of variants, most of which are still used in workstation and server products. Both the processors have a bit architecture, and both the processors provide the support required to support graphics, computation, and multimedia-intensive applications. This is a second bit implementation, clocked between - MHz.

There are four generations of this processor. This chip also has an 8 MB cache, which is double the earlier size. They achieve high performance on real applications because of their low latency design and the superior silicon technology from IBM. It was produced using a 0. Business applications include attributes from both commercial and technical workloads. Binary compatibility with bit PowerPC architecture is maintained. Fast path is designed to take over tasks that are usually handled by software applications.

POWER5 can perform some software tasks that are commonly handled by an operating system, such as the packaging of data that is to be sent to networks. POWER6 will add more fast path enhancements. LPARs can be said to provide a finer level of control over the allocation of system resources. Open 2. This section focuses on the p5 series of servers on which AIX 5L is normally found.

Monolithic stand-alone In a monolithic installation, AIX 5L owns the entire server and all its resources. Note: IBM System p is initially preconfigured for monolithic operation. By using LPAR, a single physical system can be divided into multiple logical partitions, each running their own OS image. Logical partitioning is the ability to make a server run as if there were two or more independent servers. When you logically partition a server, you divide the resources on the server into subsets called logical partitions.

Use tools to partition the IBM System p. Use the HMC to specify to the server firmware how you want resources to be allocated among the logical partitions on the managed system. Also use the HMC to start and stop the logical partitions, update the server firmware code, manage IBM eServer Capacity on Demand, and transmit service information to service and support if there are any hardware problems with your managed system. The server firmware is code-stored in system flash memory on the server. The server firmware directly controls the resource allocations on the server and the communications between the logical partitions on the server.

The HMC connects with the server firmware and specifies how the server firmware allocates resources on the server. If you use a single HMC to manage a server, and the HMC malfunctions or becomes disconnected from the server firmware, the server continues to run, but you will not be able to change the logical partition configuration of the server or manage the server. If necessary, attach an additional HMC to act as a backup and to provide a redundant path between the server and IBM service and support.

Each logical partition that uses the shared processor pool is assigned a specific amount of processor power from the shared processor pool. If the logical partition requires more processor power than its assigned amount, the logical partition is set by default to use the unused processor power in the shared processor pool.

The amount of processor power that the logical partition can use is limited only by the virtual processor settings of the logical partition and the amount of unused processor power available in the shared processor pool. This enables you to share devices that logical partitions use occasionally, for example, if the logical partitions on your server use an optical drive occasionally, you can assign a single optical drive to multiple logical partitions as a desired device. The optical drive will belong to only one logical partition at a time, but you can use dynamic logical partitioning to move the optical drive between logical partitions, as required.

On servers that are managed using the Integrated Virtualization Manager, dynamic logical partitioning is supported only for the management partition. Dynamic logical partitioning is not supported on servers that are managed using the Virtual Partition Manager. If one of the logical partitions on the server has a physical Ethernet adapter that is connected to an external network, you can configure the OS of that logical partition to connect the virtual LAN with the physical Ethernet adapter.

This enables the logical partitions on the server to share a physical Ethernet connection to an external network. Identify the hardware requirements for each logical partition based on the hardware configuration of the server. Identify whether the partitions will communicate with other partitions, servers, or workstations using physical or virtual Ethernet connections. Specifically, it covers network planning.

Figure illustrates how these requirements can be provided in a logical network view. Hardware management subnet It is recommended that you establish a dedicated hardware management subnet. Use this subnet to access the management module Web interface and command-line interface CLI. Restrict the access to this subnet to those management systems, system administrators, and operators who have the responsibility of managing the BladeCenter infrastructure.

However, this configuration is not recommended. Assign a unique range of IP addresses to this subnet for use by the SoL remote text console function. Important: An IP address is required for each blade server. Specify only the starting IP address within the range of IP addresses that you assign into the management module. The management module then automatically assigns consecutive IP addresses from the starting address that you provide to each blade server that you have installed.

Operating system management subnet We expect most environments that use the BladeCenter JS20 to rely on the network installation procedure to install the OS. Many applications have requirements to communicate with other systems. Use one or more application subnets for this purpose. Each BladeCenter JS20 is connected to the appropriate application subnet based on the applications that are installed on the blade server.

It is used in situations where two or more IBM System p machines or LPARs require high-bandwidth, low-latency intercommunications that cannot be provided by other means. Introduction to IBM System p 45 2. Operating system installation This chapter describes the difference between the way Solaris and AIX 5L perform their installations.

Both have the option of using either a text-based installation or a graphical user interface GUI installation format and allow installation from different media sources. Solaris and AIX 5L offer other types of installation methods too. These are described in 3. The installation program prompts for information when required. An options menu is presented in some parts for you to make the appropriate choices. As with a Solaris installation, AIX 5L too performs the following operations: Note: The following list is not in any specific order and is not a complete list of the options that will be presented to you.

It is a representation of the basic information that will be presented. When using another installation method, these prompts might not be displayed if they are preconfigured in the installation procedure, or you might have extra options. Operating system installation 49 Figure shows a flowchart outlining the steps involved in a Base Operating System BOS installation.

As with Solaris on some scalable processor architecture SPARC platforms, you have the choice of using a graphical console to perform the installation. Even if you are on a graphical console, you have the choice of selecting a text-based installation. In Solaris, when installing from a CD set, the installation CD always starts a graphical installation and CD 1 starts a text-based installation. On a DVD, you will be prompted for the type of installation to use. After the client is installed, you will have access to the available frames and partitions.

After you have the HMC and the partitions set up with the required devices, you are ready to start the installation: a. Open a window by right-clicking the partition. From the Web-based System Management Console restart the partition. When the partition restarts, the following line appears: memory keyboard network scsi speaker Chapter 3.

Operating system installation 51 c. This brings you to the System Management Services screen Figure Figure System Management Services main menu This section is important for setting up the initial program load IPL parameters because these are required for future network-based boots, installations, and upgrades. Here, things such as IP parameters, boot server parameters, network adapter configuration, bootlist order, and boot devices are set.

After all the configurations are completed, exit from the System Management Services screen. The server starts from the CD, and the OS installation begins. Figure Installation settings for the BOS installation 3. In this case, the hard disk or disks on which you are installing the BOS are empty, and this is the only possible installation method for a new machine. This might, for example, occur if your root volume group is corrupted. Note: The new and complete overwrite installation overwrites all the data on the selected destination disk.

This means that after the installation is complete, you must manually configure your system using the configuration assistant application, or smitty, or the command line. Chapter 3. Operating system installation 53 3. In most cases, user configuration files from the earlier version of a product are saved.

Therefore, software support for non-IBM device drivers must be reinstalled. Therefore, any user data in these directories is lost. These file systems are removed and recreated. Therefore, any other licensed program products LPPs or file sets that you installed on the system will also be lost. Think of a Preservation Installation as an overwrite installation for these file systems.

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System configuration must be performed after preservation installation is carried out. The desktop option is for graphical systems. Solaris and AIX 5L both offer other ways to source the installation software. Operating system installation 55 3. The result is a significant reduction in downtime. It also allows large facilities to better manage an upgrade because systems can be installed over a longer period of time. While the systems are still running at the previous version, the switch to the newer version can happen at the same time.

This concept is called alternate disk installation. Benefits of alternate disk installation If you already have an AIX 5L version installed, you can choose alternate disk installation to transition your site through the upgrade process more smoothly. With this option, you can stabilize your environment before implementing the installation on other machines. The mksysb command creates a backup of the OS the root volume group. You can use this backup to reinstall a system to its original state if gets corrupted. If you create the backup on tape, the tape is bootable and includes the installation programs required to install from the backup.

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This is an important and useful command. After you have installed these file sets, the alternate disk installation functions are available to you in the Software Installation and Maintenance menu. Operating system installation 57 Figure shows the Alternate Disk Installation screen. Alternate Disk Installation Move cursor to desired item and press Enter. Finally, the boot list is updated to boot from the new device.

The system runs uninterrupted during this time. When it is rebooted, the system boots from the newly updated rootvg for testing. If the updates cause problems, the old rootvg can be retrieved by resetting the boot list and rebooting. With the primary rootvg currently running on hdisk0 and hdisk1, make a clone to the second set of drives, hdisk2 and hdisk3.

It is here that the new MLs are located. Operating system installation 59 Perform the following tasks: 1. Clone the rootvg to an Alternate Disk Type or select values in entry fields. SAVE replaced files? Customization script Set bootlist to boot from this disk on next reboot? Reboot when complete? Verbose output? Debug output? After completing the operation, verify the boot list with the following command: bootlist -m normal -o 3. The boot list is set to hdisk2 hdisk3. Issuing an lspv command provides you with the output shown in Example The changes are activated at the next reboot.

After the reboot, issue the oslevel command or complete the appropriate verifications to ensure that the upgrade is performed as expected. Issuing the lspv command provides you with the output shown in Example Installing an mksysb image on another disk An alternate mksysb install involves installing an mksysb image that is already created, from another system to an alternate disk of the target system.

Press Enter. Install mksysb on an Alternate Disk Type or select values in entry fields. This completes your alternate mksysb installation. Operating system installation 63 3. There is no requirement to boot from install media, and the majority of processing occurs on the NIM master. In the event of serious migration installation failure, the failed migration is cleaned up, and the administrator does not have to take further action.

In the event of a problem with the new migrated level of AIX 5L, the system can be quickly returned to the premigration OS by booting from the original disk. The total amount of required space depends on the original system configuration and migration customization.

Reboot NIM Client when complete? This creates two bootable instances of BOS on a given rootvg. You can boot from either instance of a BOS by specifying the respective BLV as an argument to the bootlist command, or by using system firmware boot operations. You can simultaneously maintain two bootable instances of a BOS. Only two instances of BOS are supported per rootvg. The multibos utility allows you to access, install, maintain, update, and customize the standby BOS either during setup or during any subsequent customization operations. The multibos utility has the ability to copy or share logical volumes and file systems.

You can make copies of additional BOS objects see the —L flag. All the other file systems and logical volumes are shared between the instances of the BOS. NIM also permits the customization of machines both during and after the installation. The Chapter 3. NIM allows one machine to act as a master in the environment. This machine is responsible for storing information about the clients it supports, the resources that it or the other servers provide to these clients, and the networks on which they operate. A new server can be set up and running in just over an hour.

This helps to create more reliable NIM environments. If, for example, a client is unavailable at the time of the installation, you can initiate an installation when it is back online. Alternatively, if there is less traffic on your network at a certain time, you can have the installations occur at that time. Among other things, it allows you to customize an installation, initiate a nonprompted installation, or install additional software. You have client machines accessing resources that are remotely held on servers.

In the NIM environment, there is also the additional requirement that these resources bring stand-alone, dataless, and diskless machines to a running state. It is obvious then, that certain resources are required to support the operation of systems within the NIM environment. It is somewhat similar to chkconfig in Linux. AIX 5. Bash 3. MC can also be found in precompiled form. Here is some information about precompiled binaries location of same OSS tools that you might be interested in:. In some way, AIX is really underappreciated flavor of Unix. For example, it attempted some unification of motley crew of Unix commands idea of ch and ls prefixes and more sensible configuration files structure.

You can choose which fixes to apply for your maintenance level. You can test a fix by applying it only. Then, if the fix does not help in your environment, you can back out of it. Rejecting a fix is a simple process when done through SMIT. Type the following fast path: smitty reject You can update to the next maintenance level while your current AIX version is still running. Only a reboot is required at the end of the upgrade. Either product media or update media can be used with this feature. Convenient Backup.

AIX gives you the option of backing up your system to CD. Compared to other backup media, CDs are portable, cheap, and highly reliable. You can create a bootable root-volume group backup or user-volume group backup. You can list the contents of a system backup and choose to restore only selected files on a running system. The Network Installation Manager NIM lets you centralize installation administration for multiple machines and schedule those installations to minimize disruptions and inconvenience.

You can choose to install all networked machines at the same time or stagger those installations. You can make a system backup to a NIM server using the mksysb command and use that backup to install another machine cloning. If you already have an AIX version installed, you can choose an alternate disk installation to transition your site through the upgrade process more smoothly. You can test your applications against the new version on an alternate disk. With this option, you can stabilize your environment before implementing the installation on other machines.

The System Resource Controller SRC is useful if you want a common way to start, stop, and collect status information on processes. It was designed to minimize the need for operator intervention. The SRC provides a set of commands and subroutines to make it easier for the system manager and programmer to create and control subsystems.

A subsystem is any program or process or set of programs or processes that is usually capable of operating independently or with a controlling system. A subsystem is designed as a unit to provide a designated function. Data on logical volumes appears to be contiguous to the user, but might not be contiguous on the physical volume.

This allows file systems, paging space, and other logical volumes to be resized or relocated, span multiple physical volumes, and have their contents replicated for greater flexibility and availability. The native file system type is called the journaled file system JFS.

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It supports the entire set of file system semantics. To use the BSD form, simply leave off the minus sign for the command options, for example:. Both of the above commands provide, among other things, the priority and nice values for each process. The nice value is part of the calculation for the priority value, whose range is 0 to The lower the priority value, the more frequently the process is scheduled. Higher numbers mean lower priority. The nice command follows the BSD value range of to 20, again with the larger number representing the lower priority.

Though the AIX man page does not say so, the nice command syntax takes two forms: nice - value and nice -n value. The latter is easier when you have to use negative values. Otherwise, to set the nice value to , you have to type:. The renice command, unlike in HP-UX, does not take a -n option. The syntax of renice is:. The signals for each differ. For example:. AIX also has a killall command that any user can run to kill all of his or her processes except the sending process. The syntax is:. Instead of typing the name of a daemon to start it, or instead of using the kill command to stop a daemon, you use an SRC command that does it for you.

In this way you don't have to remember, for example, whether to use an ampersand when starting a daemon, or what signal to use when killing one. SRC also allows you to stop and start groups of related daemons with one command. Daemons at the lowest levels are subservers. On a newly loaded system the only subservers are those of the inetd subsystem: ftp, telnet , login, finger, etc. To view these subservers, use the odmget command:.

The next level is that of subsystem. In the above command, we have the inetd subsystem listed in each of the subserver stanzas. To see a list of all subsystems, use the odmget SRCsubsys command:. Related subsystems form a subsystem group , the highest level of the SRC. Subsystem groups can be ascertained from the above command by means of the grpname descriptor. Thus the above output shows the lpd subsystem being part of the spooler subsystem group, and inetd a subsystem of the tcpip subsystem group. An easier way to view all the subsystems and subsystem groups is to use the lssrc -a command:.

The most commonly used SRC commands are startsrc , stopsrc , and refresh , each of which takes the following options:. The names of these commands imply their purpose: to start a subserver, subsystem, or subsystem group, use the startsrc command. For example, to start the rpc. This command starts all the subsystems daemons that comprise the nfs subsystem group: nfsd , biod , rpc.

To stop a subsystem or subsystem group, use the stopsrc command in exactly the same way. AIX also supports a convenient option to the crontab command: the -e option. This option will load the contents of your crontab file into an editing session. Once you save and exit from the editing session, your changes become your new crontab file and take effect immediately.

Commands like ls , cd , ps , df , su , vi , tar , man , chmod , and chown work in the same fashion, with a few minor flag differences. But once you start diving deeper than a basic user level, idiosyncrasies emerge. Three main areas of basic administration will help facilitate understanding all other areas of AIX systems administration. First, the two operating systems have a different logical layout for systems administration commands. Those in RHEL4 have a suffix-based nomenclature, where there is a common command or concept followed by the purpose of that command, such as vgdisplay , vgcreate , and vgreduce.

AIX has a prefix-based nomenclature , such as lsvg , mkvg , and reducevg. If you understand the basic prefixes, including ls- list, display , ch- change, modify , mk- create, make , rm- remove, delete , finding one keyword can lead to other related commands. This metastructure stores information about what software is installed on the server, the server's host name, device-tuning parameters, networking routing, and many other facets of the operating system. In the older days of AIX, you would have modified this database using low-level commands that involved a high degree of risk to the server, where one typo could wreck the operating system.

Fortunately, because things have evolved over the years, the mid- and high-level commands automatically interact with the ODM, reducing hands-on manipulation to a near-nonexistent level. But, without understanding the idea of the ODM, much of the rest of this article would not make sense.

Third, RHEL4 has a variety of helpful administrative tools that handle specific parts of the operating system. These tools begin with the prefix of system-config- formerly redhat-config-. This interactive menu system goes into most areas of systems administration, from changing the maximum number of processes per user ID to changing the speed of a network interface.

There are some cases where you will always use SMIT because of the complexity and length of commands like those for network administration or creating file systems. But, be cautious and do not let it become a crutch to your systems administration abilities; you can always click the F6 key to see the actual commands that are run.

AIX systems administrators can generally tell serious administrators from the inexperienced by the amount of times they rely on SMIT. With these three points in mind, any RHEL4 systems administrator should be able to step in and start managing servers with a good degree of success. But now, let's dive more into the concepts and nuances of the various pieces of AIX. During the installation, multiple options are available. You can select or omit specific software, determine the file system layout, choose user ID authentication methods, and even set the root user's password.

Comparatively, AIX offers fewer options. If you use standard CDs or DVDs, some options for changing such settings as language preferences and choice of disk are available, but AIX does not offer the versatility of the Linux installation process. AIX does, however, have a more versatile Network Installation Manager NIM tool that provides some options that RHEL4 does not, such as installing from an operating system backup and grabbing necessary driver software along the way. The rpm command can query individual packages, determine requisite software, and see which files are contained within what package.

It tracks which software is installed, the versions, dependencies, and other, similar attributes like RPM. Unlike RHEL4, though, AIX uses a variety of commands-provided later in this article-to install, view, and prepare filesets for installation. But two facets of AIX are worth mentioning with respect to software management. First, AIX allows you to install software in one of two states: applied or committed. Software that is committed is in a static state and can only be removed. Applied software preserves the underlying committed fileset and can be rejected without harming the last committed fileset.

This behavior can allow software to be backed out without damaging underlying software structures. Second, AIX breaks down its versioning into four levels of granularity: version, release, technology level formerly maintenance level , and service pack. You can find the particular version of AIX by using the oslevel -s command. If not all filesets are present in the particular technology level or service pack, only the prior complete software set level will be displayed. Here's how things are laid out:. Both types of file systems can be dynamically increased in size, but with AIX 5.

The format is different, however-a paragraph-structured delineation rather than a single line per file system. AIX has a variety of robust tools for managing devices. Simply put, if the appropriate device fileset is installed on the server, AIX can automatically detect and establish settings for it. And even if the fileset is not installed, AIX will tell you what is needed to make it work.

You manage devices are through the ODM, and you can set them in a defined or available state. Defined devices have registered components in the ODM but cannot be actively used, because they have been removed or are otherwise disabled. Available devices can be used and configured.

Devices can be hierarchical in how they are linked together, and some devices have both physical and logical representations. For example, the first Fibre Channel card defined on a server appears as fscsi0. The logical representation of this device is fcs0. And hard disks assigned through a SAN will have the same device address as the card. The underlying devices cannot be removed until the child devices are deleted first.

The customizable settings for each device are called attributes. Some device attributes cannot be modified dynamically while a device is active, such as network link speeds or Fibre Channel heartbeats, but the changes can be made if the device is changed to the defined state, or you can set changes to take place after a reboot. Their locations and formats are slightly different, however.

In RHEL4, the automation of operating system processes is handled through Services and configurable through the chkconfig and services commands. Processes that the SRC manages are broken into groups, such as rcnfs for NFS-related processes, and then into individual subsystems, such as automountd for automounter processes. Each process managed by the SRC correlates with at least one process on the normal process table ps.

The structure for paging space is specialized LVs. Paging space is not managed through the -lv commands but instead through specialized commands that help register information with the ODM. However, paging space can be manipulated with some of the more specialized LVM commands, such as moving them from disk to disk. admin