On the remaining foundations, uncovered in the mids, an open-air exhibition describes what went on there in grim detail. Even so, the city and the federal government went ahead, and in May , after many delays, the new Holocaust memorial was inaugurated. It is an undulating labyrinth of 2, concrete blocks on a site the size of a football field near the Brandenburg Gate. It is a place where visitors are meant to feel unsettled, lost and frightened, as the murdered Jews did. And the development of the memory landscape continues: at the end of September a new glass-covered courtyard opened at the Jewish Museum Berlin, a building inspired by the sharpness and angles of barbed wire.
Last March a Jewish museum opened in Munich.
New York Jews see Germany with mixed feelings
Germany's new Jews are not especially interested in any of this. Most of them suffered not under Hitler but under Stalin, who murdered millions of Soviet citizens or sent them to brutal labour camps. For them, Hitler was the enemy only in a military sense. Each year in early May, when everybody else in Germany solemnly commemorates the country's unconditional surrender, the Russian war veterans among Germany's Jews march around with their military decorations to celebrate the victory over Nazi Germany. German Jews complain that the newcomers have only the faintest notion of Judaism and Jewish traditions.
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Berlin's Jewish community is now troubled, not just by its cultural divide but also by mismanagement and corruption, involving both Russians and Germans, which have tainted its reputation. Most of the running costs of Jewish synagogues, schools, cemeteries, libraries, hospitals and nursing homes are met by the German state as an atonement for the past. He believes this encourages misuse of the funds by Jews, both old and new.
Although many German Jews concede that strengthened numbers—of both real and purported Jews—will reinvigorate their previously tiny community, many complain that they no longer feel at home in their community centres and synagogues, where Russian has become the language of choice. The Berlin Jews' monthly magazine is now published in both Russian and German.
In spite of the government's offer of free language lessons, many older incomers—and most of them were already over 45 when they arrived—have not bothered to learn more than rudimentary German. Nora Gaydukova, a sociologist who left St Petersburg in with her husband, a doctor, came in the hope of a better life and a western education for her second daughter, who is Her older daughter, who is 35, stayed in Russia.
During her first years in Germany she felt terribly unhappy; she missed her friends and her job. Her Soviet diplomas were worthless. The German authorities, who offered her lessons in German, English and computer skills on condition that she found a job, discouraged her from retaking the sociology exams. She is employed as a social worker by a Russian cultural association, her daughter is at a bilingual German and Spanish high school and she has found new friends, though she admits that most of them are foreigners as well.
The Lubavitcher community centre attracts many Jews from the former Soviet Union who, like Ms Gaydukova, are keen to learn more about Judaism. On the day before the mid-November election of the head of the Jewish community in Berlin, Gideon Joffe, fighting for re-election after two controversial years in the job, came to address members of the congregation while they shared a meal with their rabbis, who come from Israel and America.
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He was gently teased for coming only when he is campaigning for votes. He retorted that Berlin has nine synagogues and countless community meetings. She had campaigned for unity of the Jewish community and pleaded with Mr Schoeps, Mr Meyer and other alienated Germans to avoid a split. In his view, the definition of Jewishness according to religious criteria is a chief cause of division; because the newcomers tend to be secular, it only alienates them further. The newcomers pose a difficulty for gentiles, too.
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Although the immigration authorities admit Jews under ethnic guidelines ie, the father or mother have to be Jewish , most non-Jewish Germans insist on defining Jewishness in purely religious terms. Most Germans believe that it is wrong to think of a Jew in terms other than adherence to the Jewish religion. Yet the fact is that times have changed.
Germans will have to adapt to having a big, largely secular Jewish community. Established Jews will have to accept that the glory days of sophisticated German Jewry—from Albert Einstein to Kurt Weill—are gone forever. The titles of the two most recent books about Jews in Germany since both of which were published last September suggest that Germany cannot be the long-term home of a forward-looking Jewish community.
That is, where Peck employs such concepts as hybridity and diaspora to advance the argument that Jewishness can mean almost anything today, other scholars, such as the Boyarins or Susannah Heschel, adopt postcolonial language but insist that Judaism remains unaffected by Christian hegemony. This volume, then, is that rare example of a book in Jewish Studies in which postmodernism is taken to its logical conclusion.
- The “New Germany” and the Kippah.
- Our Antennae Are Up: Rise in Anti-Semitism Unsettles Germany.
- Kauders on Peck, 'Being Jewish in the New Germany'.
- Encyclopedia of the Blues.
- Whos Real, What Matters.
Peck not only proffers the idea of the decentered subject whose "identity" always retreats beyond its grasp, he also concludes that today's decentered subjects construct decentered Judaisms from various decentered bits and pieces, memories and projections, traditions and impositions. In terms of postmodern logic, this stance is absolutely convincing. But questions remain. First, idealizations of diaspora existence sideline the fact that minorities have often had to suffer in diaspora settings.
In the case of Germany, many Jews remain steadfast in linking their "German-Jewish identity" with the capacity of the Federal Republic to fight antisemitism and other forms of prejudice. In other words, however much bagels and museums and klezmer may contribute to new Jewish spaces, once democracy is at risk, Jewishness immediately revolves around the question of powerlessness and persecution. Second, there is a tendency to make claims for the privileged visionary potential of diaspora existence, although it is well known that the diaspora does not necessarily entail the subversion of racism or nationalism within minority cultures themselves or in their relationships with other minorities in a given state.
Finally, the potential benefits of hybridity notwithstanding, it is simply unrealistic to assume that Jews will stop saying what Jewishness is not--or stop wondering where it might begin and where it might end. Even if Peck is right in arguing that essentialism and authenticity are hopelessly outmoded concepts in today's postmodernist West, self-understanding implies that groups reflect on how they might differ from other groups within society. And it is fair to say that, in the case of Germany, bagels and klezmer are still not very high on the list of Jewish prerogatives.
Citation: Anthony Kauders. Review of Peck, Jeffrey M. Members of the Jewish community in several German cities organised protests at which people were invited to wear the kippah in solidarity. Other incidents have included attacks on Jewish children in Berlin schools as well as the bullying of a Dresden schoolgirl who reported outbreaks of antisemitic rhetoric in the classroom. She was awarded for her bravery before heading off for a sabbatical in New Zealand.
The fact is that Jews in Germany are in danger. The writer had not put this in quotes in the story.