The form is available from the editorial office of the journal. Authors must not assume that their manuscript has been withdrawn until they have received appropriate notification to this effect from the editorial office. In a case where a manuscript has taken more than six months time for review process, that allows the author to withdraw manuscript without paying any charges.
The author is allowed to withdraw the manuscript without paying any withdrawal penalty, if the author s requests a withdrawal of manuscript, within 48 hours of submission. If the author s requests a withdrawal of manuscript, after the peer review process or in the production stage Early Release or Ahead of publishing or published online; then authors need to make a withdrawal penalty. Withdrawal of manuscripts is only allowed after withdrawal penalty has been fully paid to the OA text Editorial Office.
If the author wish to withdraw paper from a journal, author needs to submit an " Article withdrawal Form" signed by all authors or the corresponding author of the manuscript stating the reasons for manuscript withdrawal. The form is available from the Editorial Office of the journal. It should not be essential to understanding the conclusions of the paper, but should contain data that are additional or complementary and directly relevant to the article content.
Authors are encouraged to take advantage of the opportunity to submit Supplementary data whenever appropriate; for example, when the amount of material is too great to warrant inclusion in the main body of the paper, or when the material is in a format that cannot be represented in print i. All material to be considered as Supplementary data must be submitted at the same time as the main manuscript for peer review. Please indicate clearly the material intended as Supplementary data upon submission.
Also ensure that the Supplementary data is referred to in the main manuscript at an appropriate point in the text. It cannot be altered or replaced after the paper has been accepted for publication. The word 'Supplementary' must not be used to describe this material. Please use words such as 'Supporting material' or 'Additional material'. Supplementary data should be submitted in a separate file s , in its final form.
Please note that Supplementary data will not be edited, so ensure that it is clearly and succinctly presented, and that the style of terms conforms to the rest of the paper. Also ensure that the presentation will work on any internet browser. Note: Supplementary data is considered as published material and is regulated by the same copyright and permissions rules as the published article to which it belongs. Although we do not limit the number or type of Supplemental Material items authors may include, we do require that they provide a relevant and useful expansion of the article, and that they be as well described as are figures and tables included within the body of the article.
All Supplemental Material should include the following:. All Supplementary data MUST be referred to in the main manuscript at an appropriate point in the text, just as main text figures and tables. This offers readers context and allows for seamless interlinking. Text citations should use the appropriate type and number designation e. Supplementary data should be made available by the publisher as online-only content, linked to the online manuscript.
Such data should consist of electronic files and should not merely be a link to another web site. The supplementary data should preferably be saved as one single PDF file, including all text, figures, tables and legends. If this is not possible, a maximum of 10 files is acceptable to make up the supplementary data unit for the article. We prefer that Supplemental Material files not exceed 10MB.
However, if that size limit results in a loss of quality e. Supplementary text should be submitted as text files in MS Word. And should be mentioned appropriately in text. Spreadsheet files in MS Excel. Where possible, combine all tables into a single Excel workbook, saving individual tables on separate clearly labelled worksheets tabs. Supplemental figures should be submitted as separate tif, gif or jpg files at a minimum resolution of ppi, just as with main figures please see our Figure Preparation section for detailed instructions on figure preparation.
We highly recommend videos to be submitted in MP4 formatand audio clips in mp3 format. Whatever format you use, videos must open and play in either QuickTime Player v. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the multimedia content and noting in the body text where it should be placed with its associated caption. If you require further help or information regarding submission or preparation of Supplementary data, please info oatext.
An inherent principle of publication is that others should be able to replicate and build upon the authors' published claims. Therefore, a condition of publication in a OA Text journal is that authors are required to make materials, data and associated protocols promptly available to readers without undue qualifications. Any restrictions on the availability of materials or information must be disclosed to the editors at the time of submission. Any restrictions must also be disclosed in the submitted manuscript, including details of how readers can obtain materials and information. If materials are to be distributed by a for-profit company, this must be stated in the paper.
Data sets will be made freely available to readers from the date of publication, and must be provided to editors and peer-reviewers at submission, for the purposes of evaluating the manuscript. For the following types of data set, submission to a community-endorsed, public repository is mandatory. Accession numbers must be provided in the paper. Examples of appropriate public repositories are listed below.
Sequence information, co-ordinates used to create molecular models described in a manuscript, and structural data must be submitted in electronic form, prior to acceptance, to the appropriate database for release no later than the date of publication of the corresponding article in the Journal. In cases where there may be no appropriate database, authors must make their data available on request. Atomic co-ordinates may be included in the publication as supplementary material.
Manuscripts will not be published until the Journal is in receipt of the deposition number. For sequences obtained from a public or private web site, it is the author's responsibility to ensure that any sequence used within the manuscript is deposited before publication. New sequence names and their accession numbers should be listed at the beginning of the Materials and Methods section to aid searches by readers.
In order to allow new methods of data search,NAR encourages authors to cite GenBank accession numbers when referring to established sequences within their manuscript. Electron microscopy-derived density maps and coordinate data must be deposited in EMDB. Manuscripts reporting new three-dimensional structures of small molecules from crystallographic analysis should include a. The structure factors for each structure should also be submitted. Both the strucure factors and the structural output must have been checked using the IUCR's CheckCIF routine, and a PDF copy of the output must be included at submission, together with a justification for any alerts reported.
Crystallographic data for small molecules should be submitted to the Cambridge Structural Database and the deposition number referenced appropriately in the manuscript. Full access must be provided on publication. The Nucleic Acid Database NDB is appropriate for atomic co-ordinate and structure factor data for crystal structures of nucleic acids. Protein sequences, which have been determined by direct sequencing of the protein, must be submitted to UniProt i.
Results from characterization experiments should also be submitted to UniProt : for novel sequences, these should be included with the sequence submission. Existing UniProt entries should also be updated. This can include information such as function, subcellular location, subunit, etc.
NAR also requires submission of microarray data to the GEO or ArrayExpress databases, with accession numbers at or before acceptance for publication. In addition to the above-mentioned mandatory requirements for data submission to community-endorsed public databases, Nature journals strongly recommend deposition of other types of data sets into appropriate public repositories that are at an earlier stage of development.
Examples of such repositories that facilitate sharing large data sets, some of which can offer the option of anonymous referee access to data before publication, include:. The manuscript preparation guidelines are adapted from those developed for International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Careful attention to these guidelines will help ensure that your manuscript will move through the peer-review process smoothly and quickly. The purpose of a reference list is to enable sources to be easily traced by another reader.
Different types of publication require different amounts of information but there are certain common elements such as authorship, year of publication and title. Any reference that is cited only in the tables or figures legends should be numbered according to the first identification of the table or figure in the main text in continuation with the sequence of citation numbering.
Place the reference immediately after the author name or if author name is not included in the sentence, at the end of the sentence after the punctuation mark. Each reference must have a reference number. Reference should not be used in titles, headings or abstract. Use complete names for non-indexed journals. Avoid citing unpublished data or manuscripts, personal communications, websites, conference papers and non-peer reviewed publications. Avoid citing very old references. The following guidelines, based on the CSE Manual, are intended to assist you in formatting references accurately and consistently.
The reference list appearing at the end of the article should be numbered in the order that they appear in the text. All references in text, tables, and legends must be identified by consecutive Arabic numerals in square brackets, listed immediately before the closing punctuation mark. Published works, works accepted for publication, and citable datasets should appear in the reference list. Mentions of unpublished work should be cited parenthetically within the main text of the article as personal communications.
Any in-text reference should include the authorship and the year of the work. When making reference to an author's work in your text, their name is followed by the year of publication of their work:. In general, when writing for a professional publication, it is good practice to make reference to other relevant published work. This view has been supported in the work of Cormack Where you are mentioning a particular part of the work, and making direct reference to this, a page reference should be included:. Cormack , pp. If you make reference to a work or piece of research without mentioning the author in the text then both the author's name and publication year are placed at the relevant point in the sentence or at the end of the sentence in brackets:.
Making reference to published work appears to be characteristic of writing for a professional audience Cormack, Where reference is made to more than one author in a sentence, and they are referred to directly, they are both cited:. When there are two or three authors for a work they should all be listed in the order in which their names appear in the original publication , with the name listed last preceded by an and.
Where there are several authors four or more , only the first author should be used, followed by et al. Where several publications from a number of authors are referred to, then the references should be cited in chronological order i. If more than one publication from an author illustrates the same point and the works are published in different years, then the references should be cited in chronological order i.
If you are quoting several works published by the same author in the same year, they should be differentiated by adding a lower case letter directly, with no space, after the year for each item:. Earlier research by Dunn a found that If several works published in the same year are referred to on a single occasion, or an author has made the same point in several publications, they can all be referred to by using lower case letters as above :.
References to the work of an author that appears as a chapter, or part of a larger work, that is edited by someone else, should be cited within your text using the name of the contributory author not the editor of the whole work. In the reference list at the end of your document, you should include details of both the chapter author and the editor of the entire work.
Smith, J. A source of information. In: W. Jones, ed. One hundred and one ways to find information about health. Oxford: Oxford University Press. If the work is by a recognised organisation and has no personal author then it is usually cited under the body that commissioned the work. This applies to publications by associations, companies, government departments etc. It is acceptable to use standard abbreviations for these bodies, e. RCN, in your text, providing that the full name is given at the first citing with the abbreviation in brackets:.
Note that the full name is the preferred format in the reference list. These should provide the full name Royal College of Nursing, Administering intravenous therapy to children in the community setting: Guidance for nursing staff. London: RCN. Some reports are written by specially convened groups or committees and can be cited by the name of the committee:.
If the author cannot be identified use 'Anonymous' or 'Anon' and the title of the work and date of publication. The title should be written in italics. Every effort should be made to establish the year of publication if you intend to use this work as supporting evidence in an academic submission. Including the page numbers of a reference will help readers trace your sources. This is particularly important for quotations and for paraphrasing specific paragraphs in the texts:. If you want to include text from a published work in your essay then the sentence s must be included within quotation marks, and may be introduced by such phrases as:.
On the topic of professional writing and referencing Cormack and Brown , p. In order for a reader to trace the quoted section it is good practice to give the number of the page where the quotation was found. The quotation should also be emphasized where it is 50 words or more by indenting it and enclosed in quotation marks. This clearly identifies the quotation as the work of someone else:.
Though sharing some of the facilities of the domestic services, particularly for news and current affairs output, the World Service has a separate Managing Director, and its operating costs have historically been funded mainly by direct grants from the UK government. These grants were determined independently of the domestic licence fee. A recent spending review has announced plans for the funding for the world service to be drawn from the domestic licence fee". Jones, , p. You may come across a summary of another author's work in the source you are reading, which you would like to make reference to in your own document; this is called secondary referencing.
Research recently carried out in the Greater Manchester area by Brown cited in Bassett, , p. In this example, Brown is the work which you wish to refer to, but have not read directly for yourself. Bassett is the secondary source, where you found the summary of Brown's work. It is important to realise that Bassett may have taken Brown's ideas forward, and altered their original meaning. If you need to cite a secondary reference it is recommended that, where possible, you read the original source for yourself rather than rely on someone else's interpretation of a work.
For this reason it is best to avoid using secondary referencing. When reproducing selected data, or copying an entire table or diagram, a reference must be made to the source. A reference within the text to a table taken from someone else's work, should include the author, date and page Smith, , p.
If the source of the data is not the author's own, but obtained from another source, it becomes a secondary reference and needs to be cited as such:. If the table is reproduced in its entirety, place the citation below the table. Be particularly careful to note the original source of data, as well as the authorship of the document you are using.
Full details should be included in the reference list. When citing material found on a website, you should identify the authorship of the website. This may be a corporate author, an organisation or a company; a guide to this can be found by looking at the URL or web address. To find the date of publication, reference to this might be found at the bottom of a web page relating to copyright, or from a date headline. Author s. Title of the book. Place of publication: Publisher: Extent. Use the title page, not the book cover, for the reference details. Only include the edition where it is not the first.
A book with no edition statement is most commonly a first edition. Author, Initials. Title of book. Redman, P. Good essay writing: a social sciences guide. London: Open University in assoc. Please note where there is likely to be confusion with UK place names; for USA towns include the State in abbreviated form e. Birmingham, AL. For books with multiple authors, all the names should all be included in the order they appear in the document.
Use an and to link the last two multiple authors. Authors, Initials. Adams, R. The World Health Organisation, its history and impact. London: Perseus. Barker, R. Narrative analysis. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Allouche, Jose. Corporate social resposibility, Volume 1: concepts, accountability and reporting. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Chapter author s surname s and initials.
Title of chapter followed by In: Book editor s initials first followed by surnames with ed. Year of book. Place of publication: Publisher. Chapter number or first and last page numbers followed by full-stop. Samson, C. Problems of information studies in history. In: S. Stone, ed. Humanities information research. Sheffield: CRUS. Where there are several works by one author and published in the same year they should be differentiated by adding a lower case letter after the date. Works by the same author should be displayed in the order referenced in your assignment, earliest first as above.
This also applies if there are several authors with the same surname. As an alternative their initials can be included in the citation. So for example, if you have sources written by George Soros and also by Manuel Soros, you would list them in alphabetic order:.
For works which have been translated the reference should include details of the translator, the suggested elements for such references being:. Translated from language by name of translator, initials first, then surname Place of publication: Publisher. Canetti, E. The voices of Marrakesh: a record of a visit. Translated from German by J. San Francisco: Arion. For major works of historic significance, the date of the original work may be included along with the date of the translation:.
Kant, I. Fundamental principles of the metaphysic of morals. Translated by T. New York: Prometheus Books. For works in an another language, reference these in the same manner as an English language work but provide a translation. Students should check with their Faculty the validity of including original language works.
For e-books accessed through a password protected database from the University Library the required elements for a reference are:. Fishman, R. The rise and fall of suburbia. Carlsen, J. Global wine tourism. Cookson, J. Leisure and the tourist. Followed by Available at: e-book source and web address [Accessed date].
Patterson, M. Lost places in dreams. Available at: Amazon. If you include a quotation from an ebook without page numbers, use the section heading or chapter heading as a guide to locating your quotation, if available. For a pdf version of, for example, a Government publication or similar which is freely available:. Authorship, Year. Title of documents. Followed by Available at: include web address or URL for the actual pdf, where available [Accessed date]. Bank of England, Inflation Report.
Available at: [Accessed 20 April ]. Department of Health, Health inequalities: progress and next steps. Title of article. Boughton, J. The Bretton Woods proposal: an brief look. Political Science Quarterly, 42 6 , p. Cox, C. What health care assistants know about clean hands. Nursing today, Spring Issue, pp. Perry, C. Nursing Times, 97 22 , pp. Ambio 36 8 : Shifts in breeding phenology as a response to population size and climatic change: A comparison between short- and long-distance migrant species. Auk 4 : For journal articles from an electronic source accessed through a password protected database from the University Library the required elements for a reference are:.
The Bretton Woods proposal: an in depth look. Political Science Quarterly, [e-journal] 42 6. Katchamart, W. Methotrexate monotherapy versus methotrexate combination therapy with non-biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs for rheumatoid arthritis. Currie, G.
For a journal abstract from a database where you have been unable to access the full article, the required elements for a reference are:. Abstract only.
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The Bretton Woods proposal: a brief look. Every effort should be made to read the article in full if you intend to use this work as supporting evidence in an academic submission. Title of article or column header. Full Title of Newspaper, Day and month before page numbers and column line. In the page reference. Times, Corporate manslaughter: responses from the legal profession Editorial comments , The Times, 8 Sep.
Author or corporate author, Year. Title of document or page. Name of newspaper, [type of medium] additional date information. Available at: [Accessed date]. Chittenden, M. Focus: 'Targetitis ails NHS. Times Online, [online]1 June. Coney, J. Daily Mail, [online] Last updated 9. Short title with key words capitalized , which includes the year followed by the chapter number in brackets. If you need to refer to a specific section and paragraph, include the section, paragraph number and subsection.
Finance Act Short title with key words capitalized. Authorship, which may be part of the title, Year. Title, in italics if a separate element, Offically assigned number such as a Command number as it is on the document, within brackets. Royal Commission on civil liability and compensation for personal injury, Pearson Report Cmnd. London: HMSO. Select Committee on nationalised industries , Consumers and the nationalised industries: prelegislative hearings HC , House of Commons, Home Affairs Committee, The Work of the Border Force.
It is recommended that you follow accepted legal citation, which is not part of the Harvard system. For this the required elements for a reference are:. Available at:. If you have used material from archives or special collections, the required elements for a reference are:. Title of document. Brown, P. An address to the Farmer. London: Holdbury Library. Corporate author, Year of Publication. Identifying letters and numbers and full title of Standard, Place of publication: Publisher. British Standards Institution, BS Recommendations for wiring identification.
Milton Keynes: BSI. International Standards Office, Geneva: ISO. Corporate author, Year. Identifying letters and numbers and full title of Standard. BS EN Timber structures. Test methods. Racking strength and stiffness of timber frame wall panels. Inventor name, Initials. Patent number status, if an application. Graham, C. Tableting sugar and compositions containing it.
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Leonard, Y. Tin can manufacture and method of sealing. Full title of conference report. Location, Date. Seoul, Republic of Korea, May New York: United Nations. Full title of conference paper. In: followed by editor or name of organisation, Full title of conference. Brown, J. Evaluating surveys of transparent governance. National service framework for older people. London: Department of Health. Coulter, A. Making shared decision-making a reality: no decision about me, without me. London: The King's Fund. Full title of report. Title of dissertation. Official name of University.
Richmond, J. Customer expectations in the world of electronic banking: a case study of the Bank of Britain. Anglia Ruskin University. Available at [Accessed on date]. Fisher, C. The legacy of leadership - a study of leadership influence within a single organisation. University of Sheffield. Available at: [Accessed The name of the Institution where the document originates e. It is important to check with the lecturer who has given the lecture that they are in agreement with course material being included in any Reference List.
If they are in agreement, and if it is not a publicly available document, it is important to provide a copy in the Appendix of your work. The citation to the course material in your Reference List should then also refer to the Appendix. It would also be advisable to follow up any sources mentioned in your lecture and read these for yourself. Title of item, Module Code Module title. HE Institution, unpublished. Williams, B. Guide to project management, BDS Management. Anglia Ruskin University, unpublished. Available at: web address if available over the internet, otherwise indicate if available through WebCT, SharePoint or other virtual learning environment address.
When reviewing a number of different plays it is essential to cite the title of the plays. If reviewing one play for example Twelfth Night it is not necessary to repeat the title in your citations. Published plays may contain line numbers, particularly in classic texts such as Shakespeare. If they exist it is good practice to include the line number, but Act and Scene numbers must always be included. Title of play. Editors, Edition.
Shakespeare, W. Twelfth Night. World's Classics series Warren, R. Much speculation has occurred when Malvolio imagines he might marry Olivia, "there is example for't; the Lady of the Strachy married the yeoman of the wardrobe" Shakespeare, Twelfth Night II,v, Where you have conducted an interview - using a primary source. You are recommended to check with your Faculty Office for detailed guidance on what you may include. Where you are conducting the interview, it is important to check with the person being interviewed that they will be in agreement with a transcript of the interview being made available.
Since this will not be a publicly available document, it may be included as a transcript within an Appendix in your piece of work. Interviewee's name. Year of interview. Title of interview. Interviewed by Together with the transcript. Interviewee name, Initials. Title of Interview. Ahern, B. Interview on Morning Ireland.
RCN, RCN praises health care staff as infections continue to fall. Press release, 18 June Corporate author of press release, Year. Available at: web address [Accessed date]. Act F. When you are quoting from a sacred text e. For other sacred texts, it is important that you clearly identify the location of the text that you cite using the appropriate numbering system.
Chambers, Chambers paperback dictionary thesaurus. London: Champers Harpers Publishers Ltd. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Avaialble through: encyclopaediabritannica. Where data it extracted from a data source such as Isurv or FAME, both the source with the year of currency for that data. More new homes. Where you have gathered and manipulated data from a data source like FAME or OECD and placed this in a table of your own making, we recommend that you give the source and year of currency, for the data, as an the intext reference and include a note to an appendix.
In the appendix you can reproduce the source tables you have used to create your table and include adequate details of how you generated the table you have used in your work. Title of program. Adobe Systems Incorporated, Adobe Air 3. Authorship or Source, Year. Title of web document or web page. If the URL appears to be exceedingly long, provide routing details which enable the reader to access the particular page via the site's homepage.
You may be taken to a particular page as a result of a search you performed, or be directed from a link to another place on a website. The resultant URLs may include specific data about your method of accessing that page that is not available to your reader. If this is the case use the homepage from which the reference can be found. NHS Evidence, National Library of Guidelines. Boots Group Plc. Corporate social responsibility. Available at: [Accessed 23 July ]. Defoe, D.
The fortunes and the misfortunes of the famous Moll Flanders.
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Available at: [Accessed 18 November ]. Healthcare for all. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines, Hypertension in the elderly. Particular care needs to be taken if you are quoting from these as they may include personal email addresses and be from a restricted source. Name of sender, email address, Year. Message or subject title from posting line. Date sent: Including time. Available at: URL e. Jones, P. Mobile phone developments. Schmit r. Sent Monday 7 June Available at: [Accessed 7 July ]. Copies of such correspondence should be kept, as these may need to be submitted as an appendix in an academic submission.
Title of individual blog entry. Blog title, [medium] Blog posting date. Whitton, F. Conservationists are not making themselves heard. Available at: [Accessed 23 June ]. Comment Author, Year. Blog title, [medium] Comment posting date. DGeezer, Author, Initial. Subject line, Title of Mailing List. Murrey, T. Sharing good practice, Forum for International Students. Title of page [Facebook]. Available from: [ Accessed date].
Andrews, A. Customer Focus Group [Facebook]. Available at: [Accessed 11 November ]. Full text of tweet [Twitter]. Available at: [Date accessed]. Big Red Corporation. New products for cars [Twitter]. You may occasionally have access to a document before it is published and may therefore not be able to provide full details:.
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Journal of Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing. Accepted for publication December Anglia Ruskin University, Using the Cochrane Library. Cambridge: Anglia Ruskin University. Where you refer to a more informal personal communication, e. Hindle, E. O'Sullivan, S. Discussion on citation and referencing. Full title of DVD or video. Year of release. Other relevant details. Great films from the 80s: a selection of clips from Warner Brothers top films from the s.
Health for all children 3: the video. Narrated by D. Series title and episode name and number if relevant, Year of broadcast. Little Britain, Available through: Box of Broadcasts database [Accessed 12 August ]. Title of image. Beaton, C. China A mother resting her head on her sick child's pillow in the Canadian Mission Hospital in Chengtu.
Dean, R. Tales from Topographic Oceans. Peeters, C. Still life of fish and lemons. Author, Year image created. Title of work. Where none of the usual details are known, such as author, date, or image title try to find the filename of the image for example by right clicking and looking at the properties of the file.
Global Trends of Fossil Fuel Reserves and Climate Change in the 21st Century
If none of the above is available begin the reference with the subject and title of the work. Map maker, Year of issue. Title of map. Map series, Sheet number, scale. Ordnance Survey, Chester and North Wales. Landranger series, Sheet , Southampton: Ordnance Survey. The required elements for Digimap are:. Map publisher origin , Year of publication.
Created map title, Scale. Source [online] Available through Library website [Accessed date]. Ordinance Survey, Anglia Ruskin University: Chelmsford Campus, Google Earth version if applicable , Year data released. Image details - location, co-ordinates, elevation. Google Earth 6. Available through: [Accessed 31 August ]. Programme title, Series Title. National Gallery, Screen name of contributor, Year. Video Title, Series Title. Mrgeorged, Top Gear The Stig revealed Full. Defra, Sustainable development: the bigger picture.
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Call for Papers Transplantation journal welcomes submissions related to all relevant disciplines of transplantation from authors worldwide. Indexed in. Aim and Scope Trends in Transplantation aims to serve as a channel of rapid communication for all those involved in the care of patients who require, or have had, organ or tissue transplants, including: kidney, intestine, liver, pancreas, islets, heart, heart valves, lung, bone marrow, cornea, skin, bone, and cartilage, viable or stored. Almalki Dr.
He has published many papers related to Kidney diseases, transplantation, haemodialysis, etc. Pamela S. Early outcomes of Basiliximab administration before and after lung allograft reperfusion John P. Is B-type natriuretic peptide clinically useful after pediatric heart transplantation? Management of heart transplant recipients with hemodynamically significant clinical rejection in the presence of antibodies against angiotensin II type 1 receptor: A retrospective study Puneet K Randhawa Mary Carmelle Philogene Melissa Jeresano Marc K.
This policy brief reviews the major demographic, economic, and fiscal trends and describes notable policy changes during his tenure. Growth rates are generally based on the year prior to Governor Cuomo taking office; this reflects calendar year , state fiscal year , school year , or federal fiscal year , depending on the data being analyzed. New York City grew more quickly than the rest of the state. Economically, the New York City metropolitan area has prospered, while upstate has faltered. The workforce has begun to grow again, but the savings from the employee benefit changes continue.
Increasing tax revenues have supported increased spending. Some tax rates have been reduced and generally are competitive with other states. Health: Medicaid spending in New York grew more slowly than in most other states, increasing by approximately 23 percent between fiscal years and , while enrollment grew by similar rates. New York also provides more financial support for public higher education than the national average, despite increased tuition at public colleges and universities over the last eight years.
Road surfaces have also improved, with 64 percent of state roads rated as excellent or good in , compared to 60 percent in Crime and Corrections: In New York and nationally, violent and nonviolent crime rates are down, and the prison population is also declining. At the same time the share of violent inmates in New York prisons and the ratio of corrections officers to inmates have increased.