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Sign up for email notifications and we'll let you know about new publications in your areas of interest when they're released. Get This Book. Visit NAP. Looking for other ways to read this? No thanks. Page 1 Share Cite. Page 2 Share Cite. Page 3 Share Cite. What is the purpose of this guide? To help designers and developers create consumer health IT applications that are easy to use by people with a wide range of life situations. To assist home health professionals in selecting tools to complement professional home health care services.
What is covered in this guide? An overview of health and health care at home, including who is involved and what they do; Encouragement to create new kinds of consumer health information technologies to help people reach their health goals; and Strategies to make consumer health information technologies more acceptable and useful to people with different life situations.
Who should use this guide? Software designers, Hardware and device designers, Product marketing teams, Information systems staff in health care organizations who want patients to make use of their portals, and Home health professionals responsible for selecting health tools for patients to use. What are some examples of consumer health information technologies? Page 4 Share Cite. A simple way to think about human factors and health at home Human factors is an engineering science dedicated to understanding and improving the way people use technology and other things in the environment.
Page 5 Share Cite. Who is the consumer who will use consumer health IT? To achieve this purpose, designers and developers should understand that there are many types of people involved in achieving health in everyday living: People who are well. These individuals engage in health practices in the home e.
People who are ill or managing complex diseases. Half of all households have a resident with a health problem e. These individuals are the most common users of many consumer health information technologies. Such technologies as games for health or interesting Websites can guide kids, sick or well, in the process of making healthy choices or help them keep track of complex medical regimens they need to sustain life. People with disabilities.
Such technologies as talking computers or motion-sensitive faucets make everyday life easier for people with physical or cognitive limitations. People who are older. Today, 1 in 10 persons is over the age of 65; in 20 years, that number will grow to 1 in 8. Most older people have skills and strengths that can be enhanced by well-designed consumer health information technologies.
Some individuals will use these applications alone, others with the help of caregivers. Page 6 Share Cite. What equipment and technologies are used in the home? Page 7 Share Cite. What tasks are conducted in the home? Individuals engage in a number of everyday tasks characterized by the attributes in the circle diagram in addressing their health and health care, which may be supported by appropriate design of equipment and technologies: Self-monitoring.
Self-monitoring includes paying attention to the cues of health in everyday living. This may be done informally e. Self-care activities are undertaken in collaboration with health professionals. These may include taking medication, exercising to maintain muscle strength, or preparing appropriate meals. Disease management. Disease management varies with the extent and severity of a health problem and may include following complex breathing treatments, changing bandages, monitoring for signs of infection, or operating household objects safely when confusion or dementia limits judgment.
It requires close coordination with health professionals and many times also requires specialized equipment. Communication activities can range from informal, day-to-day conversations with a close family member to deliberate the next course of action, to coordination of complex care activities after a major accident.
Communication with health providers, for example, sending a series of blood pressure readings to evaluate the effects of a new medicine, is also very important and could benefit from good design. Page 8 Share Cite. Page 9 Share Cite. Page 10 Share Cite. Page 11 Share Cite. Page 12 Share Cite. Page 13 Share Cite. Page 14 Share Cite. Page 15 Share Cite.
Page 16 Share Cite. Page 17 Share Cite. Why is culture important? Users Language. Page 18 Share Cite. Physical Environment Use of physical space. Social and Community Environment Care management. Page 19 Share Cite. Yes: Cognitive Abilities Device is designed to facilitate appropriate automatic responses by taking advantage of affordances cues built into the device and appropriate mapping relationship between control and resulting action Device provides feedback to users and is tolerant of user error Device interfaces are consistent throughout a single device and across devices Content is presented as simply as possible e.
Page 20 Share Cite. Yes: Layout of the Home Product contains layout templates to help users choose space wisely Device includes storage containers for the device and its attachments to reduce space requirements when not in use Device is durable, waterproof, and easily cleaned Device minimizes power demand through the use of long-acting batteries or chargers Device contains packing labels that alert consumers to the need for grounded outlets when needed for its operation Services to the Home Device is useable both online and offline Device is designed to facilitate different ways of transferring data from the home to the health care system e.
Page 21 Share Cite. Page 22 Share Cite. Page 23 Share Cite. All rights reserved. Page 24 Share Cite. Login or Register to save! Stay Connected! Design considerations to meet the varying physical environmental aspects of users. Device is designed to facilitate appropriate automatic responses by taking advantage of affordances cues built into the device and appropriate mapping relationship between control and resulting action. Device is customizable to accommodate variations in anthropometric measurements, such as height, reach, and grip size, and ranges of motion, such as finger dexterity, neck movement, and walking distance.
Device is customizable to account for diverse sensory and perceptual abilities e. Device is flexible and uses redundancies e. Device includes storage containers for the device and its attachments to reduce space requirements when not in use. The use of health information lies at the root of evidence-based policy and evidence-based management in health care. Increasingly, information and communication technologies are being utilised to improve health systems in developing countries through: the standardisation of health information; computer-aided diagnosis and treatment monitoring; informing population groups on health and treatment.
The management of any health system is typically directed through a set of policies and plans adopted by government, private sector business and other groups in areas such as personal healthcare delivery and financing, pharmaceuticals , health human resources , and public health. Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. The population in question can be as small as a handful of people, or as large as all the inhabitants of several continents for instance, in the case of a pandemic.
Public health is typically divided into epidemiology , biostatistics and health services. Environmental , social, behavioral , and occupational health are also important subfields. Today, most governments recognize the importance of public health programs in reducing the incidence of disease, disability, the effects of ageing and health inequities , although public health generally receives significantly less government funding compared with medicine. For example, most countries have a vaccination policy , supporting public health programs in providing vaccinations to promote health.
Vaccinations are voluntary in some countries and mandatory in some countries. Some governments pay all or part of the costs for vaccines in a national vaccination schedule.
Barriers to Adoption of Consumer Health Informatics Applications for Health Self Management
The rapid emergence of many chronic diseases , which require costly long-term care and treatment , is making many health managers and policy makers re-examine their healthcare delivery practices. Its incidence is increasing rapidly, and it is estimated that by the year , this number will double. A controversial aspect of public health is the control of tobacco smoking , linked to cancer and other chronic illnesses.
Antibiotic resistance is another major concern, leading to the reemergence of diseases such as tuberculosis. The World Health Organization , for its World Health Day campaign, is calling for intensified global commitment to safeguard antibiotics and other antimicrobial medicines for future generations. Since , more and more initiatives have been taken at the international and national levels in order to strengthen national health systems as the core components of the global health system.
Having this scope in mind, it is essential to have a clear, and unrestricted, vision of national health systems that might generate further progresses in global health.
The elaboration and the selection of performance indicators are indeed both highly dependent on the conceptual framework adopted for the evaluation of the health systems performances. An increasing number of tools and guidelines are being published by international agencies and development partners to assist health system decision-makers to monitor and assess health systems strengthening  including human resources development  using standard definitions, indicators and measures. In response to a series of papers published in by members of the World Health Organization's Task Force on Developing Health Systems Guidance, researchers from the Future Health Systems consortium argue that there is insufficient focus on the 'policy implementation gap'.
Recognizing the diversity of stakeholders and complexity of health systems is crucial to ensure that evidence-based guidelines are tested with requisite humility and without a rigid adherence to models dominated by a limited number of disciplines. Although many deliver improved healthcare a large proportion fail to sustain.
Numerous tools and frameworks have been created to respond to this challenge and increase improvement longevity. One tool highlighted the need for these tools to respond to user preferences and settings to optimize impact.
Telehealth: Technology meets health care - Mayo Clinic
Health Policy and Systems Research HPSR is an emerging multidisciplinary field that challenges 'disciplinary capture' by dominant health research traditions, arguing that these traditions generate premature and inappropriately narrow definitions that impede rather than enhance health systems strengthening. In using this approach, HPSR offers insight into health systems by generating a complex understanding of context in order to enhance health policy learning. Health systems can vary substantially from country to country, and in the last few years, comparisons have been made on an international basis.
The World Health Organization , in its World Health Report , provided a ranking of health systems around the world according to criteria of the overall level and distribution of health in the populations, and the responsiveness and fair financing of health care services. There have been several debates around the results of this WHO exercise,  and especially based on the country ranking linked to it,  insofar as it appeared to depend mostly on the choice of the retained indicators. Direct comparisons of health statistics across nations are complex.
The Commonwealth Fund , in its annual survey, "Mirror, Mirror on the Wall", compares the performance of the health systems in Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Germany, Canada and the United States Its study found that, although the United States system is the most expensive, it consistently underperforms compared to the other countries.
The OECD also collects comparative statistics, and has published brief country profiles. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Health care provider. See also: Single-payer health care , Universal health care , and National health insurance. Main articles: Health care delivery , Health information management , Health informatics , and eHealth. Main articles: Health policy , Public health , Health administration , and Disease management health. See also: Health services research. See also: List of countries by quality of health care , List of countries by health expenditure covered by government , Health care systems by country , Health care prices in the United States , and Healthcare in Europe.
Acronyms in healthcare Catholic Church and health care Community health Comparison of the health care systems in Canada and the United States Consumer-driven health care Cultural competence in health care Global health Health administration Health care Health care provider Health care reform Health crisis Health economics Health human resources Health insurance Health policy Health services research Healthy city Medicine National health insurance Occupational safety and health Philosophy of healthcare Primary care Primary health care Public health Publicly funded health care Single-payer health care Social determinants of health Socialized medicine Timeline of global health Two-tier health care Universal health care.
Med Princ Pract. Retrieved 6 August World Health Report — Health systems: improving performance. PLoS Med. And . Retrieved 18 August Accessed 20 March Social Science and Medicine. Retrieved 26 May Accessed 5 July Buckingham: Open University Press Human Resources for Health Development. OECD's iLibrary. Retrieved 24 April A conceptual framework to measure performance of the public health system.
What is health literacy?
American Journal of Public Health , , 91 8 : — Health Policy and Planning. Retrieved 18 May Monitoring the building blocks of health systems: a handbook of indicators and their measurement strategies. Geneva, WHO Press, Handbook on monitoring and evaluation of human resources for health.
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