Western Conceptions of the Individual

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Although informed by an anthropological perspective, the author draws on material from all the major intellectual disciplines that have contributed to this tradition and offers biographical and theoretical vignettes of all the major Western scholars.

By scrutinizing the classical texts of the Western tradition, he succeeds in delineating the differing conceptions of the human individual which emerge from these writings, and gives a guide to the most important ideas in Western cultural traditions. You can unsubscribe from newsletters at any time by clicking the unsubscribe link in any newsletter.

For information on how we process your data, read our Privacy Policy. This website uses cookies to improve user experience. By using our website you consent to all cookies in accordance with our Cookie Policy. They are afraid to accept their own experiences as valid, so they distort them, either to protect themselves or to win approval from others. The self-categorization theory developed by John Turner states that the self-concept consists of at least two "levels": a personal identity and a social one.

In other words, one's self-evaluation relies on self-perceptions and how others perceive them. Self-concept can alternate rapidly between the personal and social identity. The self-concept is an internal model that uses self-assessments in order to define one's self-schemas.

Modern concepts of health – from individual to societal risks and back to the individual

A collection of self-schemas make up one's overall self-concept. For example, the statement "I am lazy" is a self-assessment that contributes to self-concept. Statements such as "I am tired", however, would not be part of someone's self-concept, since being tired is a temporary state and therefore cannot become a part of a self-schema. A person's self-concept may change with time as reassessment occurs, which in extreme cases can lead to identity crises.

According to Carl Rogers , the self-concept has three different components: [14] [15]. Researchers debate over when self-concept development begins. Some assert that gender stereotypes and expectations set by parents for their children affect children's understanding of themselves by approximately age 3. At this point, children are developmentally prepared to interpret their own feelings and abilities, as well as receive and consider feedback from peers, teachers, and family.

Generally, self-concept changes more gradually, and instead, existing concepts are refined and solidified. For example, while children might evaluate themselves "smart", teens might evaluate themselves as "not the smartest, but smarter than average. Academic self-concept refers to the personal beliefs about their academic abilities or skills. Some researchers suggest that, to raise academic self-concept, parents and teachers need to provide children with specific feedback that focuses on their particular skills or abilities.

Physical self-concept is the individual's perception of themselves in areas of physical ability and appearance. Physical ability includes concepts such as physical strength and endurance, while appearance refers to attractiveness.

The bodily changes during puberty, in conjunction with the various psychological of this period, makes adolescence especially significant for the development of physical self-concept. It has even been suggested that adolescent involvement in competitive sports increases physical self-concept.

Worldviews about one's self in relation to others differ across and within cultures.

Western Concepts of God

This is not to say those in an independent culture do not identify and support their society or culture, there is simply a different type of relationship. Additionally, one's social norms and cultural identities have a large effect on self-concept and mental well-being.

One of the social norms within a Western, independent culture is consistency, which allows each person to maintain their self-concept over time. A small study carried out in Israel showed that the divide between independent and interdependent self-concepts exists within cultures as well. Researchers compared mid-level merchants in an urban community with those in a kibbutz collective community. When asked to describe themselves, they primarily used descriptions of their own personal traits without comparison to others within their group.

They used hobbies and preferences to describe their traits, which is more frequently seen in interdependent cultures as these serve as a means of comparison with others in their society. There was also a large focus on residence, lending to the fact they share resources and living space with the others from the kibbutz. These types of differences were also seen in a study done with Swedish and Japanese adolescents. Along with viewing one's identity as part of a group, another factor that coincides with self-concept is stereotype threat.

Many working names have been used for this term: "stigmatization" , "stigma pressure", "stigma vulnerability" and "stereotype vulnerability". The terminology that was settled upon [ by whom? For one group a stereotype threat was introduced while the other served as a control. The findings were that academic performance of the African American students was significantly lower than their White counterparts when a stereotype threat was perceived after controlling for intellectual ability. Since the inception [ by whom? When one's actions could negatively influence general assumptions of a stereotype, those actions are consciously emphasized.

Instead of one's individual characteristics, one's categorization into a social group is what society views objectively - which could be perceived as a negative stereotype, thus creating a threat. The same prejudice that exists in stereotype threat also exists in the education system as it serves its communities, families, and individuals. These discriminatory practices in schools are the center of various educational and psychological researches. The research aims to increase equity in the classroom as well as academic achievement among students in minority groups.

The presence of stereotype threat perpetuates a " hidden curriculum " that further marginalized minority groups. Hidden curriculum refers to a covert expression of prejudice where one standard is accepted as the "set and right way to do things". More specifically, the hidden curriculum is an unintended transmission of social constructs that operate in the social environment of an educational setting or classroom. In the United States ' educational system, this caters to dominant culture groups in American society.

It is in these programs that teachers learn that poor students and students of color should be expected to achieve less than their 'mainstream' counterparts. For example, the model of "teacher as the formal authority" is the orthodox teaching role that has been perpetuated [ by whom? As part of the 5 main teaching style proposed by Anthony Grasha, a cognitive and social psychologist until his death in , the authoritarian style is described as believing that there are "correct, acceptable, and standard ways to do things".

This opens up a pathway for deficit thinking to rule and where a growth mindset is diminished.

Research from , inspired by the differences in self-concept across cultures, suggested that men tend to be more independent, while women tend to be more interdependent. Women utilize relational interdependence identifying more with one-to-one relationships or small cliques , while men utilize collective interdependence defining themselves within the contexts of large groups. For instance, in a study conducted in , men were found to consider themselves more achievement and financially oriented as well as more competitive than their female counterparts.

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In contrast to this, the women were more likely to view themselves as sociable, moral, dependent and less assertive than the men. These differences potentially affect the individual's subjective well-being. Gender differences in interdependent environments appear in early childhood: by age 3, boys and girls choose same-sex play partners, maintaining their preferences until late elementary school.

Girls tend to prefer one-on-one dyadic interaction, forming tight, intimate bonds, while boys prefer group activities. During this developmental stage, boys who develop early tend to have a more positive view of themselves as opposed to early developing females who view themselves more negatively. The largest difference during this developmental stage between males and females is the way they view their appearance.

It is assumed at this age that a more attractive person has more social power. By the time they reach college-age, females continue to have lower physical self-concepts than males. Girls are more likely to wait their turn to speak, agree with others, and acknowledge the contributions of others. Boys, on the other hand, build larger group relationships based on shared interests and activities. Boys are more likely to threaten, boast, and call names, suggesting the importance of dominance and hierarchy in groups of male friends. Several studies have shown a difference between men and women based upon their academic self-concept.

In general, men are more likely to view their overall academic self-concept higher, especially in the areas of math, science and technology. Women tend to have higher perceived abilities in their language related skills. This differing view of academic abilities has resulted in an academic achievement gap in countries such as Norway.

These perceived self-concepts tend to reflect the typical gender stereotypes that are featured prominently in most cultures.

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Many factors play a role in females adjusting their self-concept to accommodate more positive views of math and science such as; gender stereotypes, family influence and personal enjoyment of the subject. This leads females to, in general, be less successful in the STEM area as there aren't as many of the gender compared to males. Why do people choose one form of media over another? According to the Galileo Model, there are different forms of media spread throughout three-dimensional space.

The farther away from each form of media is in space, the least similar the source of media is.

God, Western Concepts of | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

For example, mobile and cell phone are located closest in space where as newspaper and texting are farthest apart in space. The study further explained the relationship between self-concept and the use of different forms of media. The more hours per day an individual uses a form of media, the closer that form of media is to their self-concept. Self-concept is related to the form of media most used.

If you consider yourself old fashioned, then you will use a magazine more often than you would instant message. In this day and age, social media is where people experience most of their communication. With developing a sense of self on a psychological level, feeling as part of a greater body such as social, emotional, political bodies can effect how one feels about themselves. In the United Kingdom, a study about changing identities revealed that some people believe that partaking in online social media is the first time they have felt like themselves, and they have achieved their true identities.


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They also revealed that these online identities transferred to their offline identities. A study was done on adolescents aged 12 to 18 to view the ways in which social media affects the formation of an identity. The study found that it affected the formation in three different ways: risk taking, communication of personal views, and perceptions of influences. When it came to communication about personal views, half of the participants reported that it was easier to express these opinions online, because they felt an enhanced ability to be creative and meaningful.

When it came to other's opinions, one subject reported finding out more about themselves, like openness to experience, because of receiving differing opinions on things such as relationships. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.



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