Another method of protecting food from the heat while it is baking is to cook it en papillote French for "in parchment". In this method, the food is covered by baking paper or aluminium foil to protect it while it is being baked. The cooked parcel of food is sometimes served unopened, allowing diners to discover the contents for themselves which adds an element of surprise. Eggs can also be used in baking to produce savoury or sweet dishes. In combination with dairy products especially cheese , they are often prepared as a dessert.
For example, although a baked custard can be made using starch in the form of flour , cornflour , arrowroot , or potato flour , the flavor of the dish is much more delicate if eggs are used as the thickening agent. The cooking container is half submerged in water in another, larger one, so that the heat in the oven is more gently applied during the baking process. The oven temperature must be absolutely even and the oven space not shared with another dish. These factors, along with the theatrical effect of an air-filled dessert, have given this baked food a reputation for being a culinary achievement.
Similarly, a good baking technique and a good oven are also needed to create a baked Alaska because of the difficulty of baking hot meringue and cold ice cream at the same time. Baking can also be used to prepare other foods such as pizzas , baked potatoes , baked apples, baked beans , some casseroles and pasta dishes such as lasagne. The first evidence of baking occurred when humans took wild grass grains, soaked them in water, and mixed everything together, mashing it into a kind of broth-like paste.
Later, when humans mastered fire, the paste was roasted on hot embers, which made bread-making easier, as it could now be made any time fire was created. The world's oldest oven was discovered in Croatia in dating back years ago. The Ancient Egyptians baked bread using yeast, which they had previously been using to brew beer.
Baking flourished during the Roman Empire. Beginning around B. Thus, pastries were often cooked especially for large banquets, and any pastry cook who could invent new types of tasty treats was highly prized. Around 1 AD, there were more than three hundred pastry chefs in Rome, and Cato wrote about how they created all sorts of diverse foods and flourished professionally and socially because of their creations.
Cato speaks of an enormous number of breads including; libum sacrificial cakes made with flour , placenta groats and cress , spira modern day flour pretzels , scibilata tortes , savaillum sweet cake , and globus apherica fritters. A great selection of these, with many different variations, different ingredients, and varied patterns, were often found at banquets and dining halls. The Romans baked bread in an oven with its own chimney, and had mills to grind grain into flour. A bakers' guild was established in B. Eventually, the Roman art of baking became known throughout Europe and eventually spread to eastern parts of Asia.
By the 13th century in London, commercial trading, including baking, had many regulations attached. In the case of food, they were designed to create a system "so there was little possibility of false measures, adulterated food or shoddy manufactures. Beginning in the 19th century, alternative leavening agents became more common, such as baking soda.
This scene was so common that Rembrandt , among others, painted a pastry chef selling pancakes in the streets of Germany, with children clamoring for a sample. In London, pastry chefs sold their goods from handcarts. This developed into a delivery system of baked goods to households and greatly increased demand as a result. Every family used to prepare the bread for its own consumption, the trade of baking, not having yet taken shape. Mrs Beeton . Baking eventually developed into a commercial industry using automated machinery which enabled more goods to be produced for widespread distribution.
In the United States, the baking industry "was built on marketing methods used during feudal times and production techniques developed by the Romans. Baking has opened up doors to businesses such as cake shops and factories where the baking process is done with larger amounts in large, open furnaces. The aroma and texture of baked goods as they come out of the oven are strongly appealing but is a quality that is quickly lost.
Since the flavour and appeal largely depend on freshness, commercial producers have to compensate by using food additives as well as imaginative labeling. As more and more baked goods are purchased from commercial suppliers, producers try to capture that original appeal by adding the label "home-baked. Freshness is such an important quality that restaurants, although they are commercial and not domestic preparers of food, bake their own products. For example, scones at The Ritz London Hotel "are not baked until early afternoon on the day they are to be served, to make sure they are as fresh as possible.
Baking needs an enclosed space for heating — typically in an oven. The fuel can be supplied by wood, coal, gas, or electricity. Adding and removing items from an oven may be done by hand with an oven mitt or by a peel , a long handled tool specifically used for that purpose.
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Many commercial ovens are equipped with two heating elements: one for baking, using convection and thermal conduction to heat the food, and one for broiling or grilling, heating mainly by radiation. Another piece of equipment still used for baking is the Dutch oven. Asian cultures have adopted steam baskets to produce the effect of baking while reducing the amount of fat needed.
Eleven events occur concurrently during baking, some of which such as starch gelatinization would not occur at room temperature. The dry heat of baking changes the form of starches in the food and causes its outer surfaces to brown, giving it an attractive appearance and taste. The browning is caused by caramelization of sugars and the Maillard reaction. Maillard browning occurs when "sugars break down in the presence of proteins. Because foods contain many different types of sugars and proteins, Maillard browning contributes to the flavour of a wide range of foods, including nuts, roast beef and baked bread.
This is often an advantage, especially in situations where drying is the desired outcome, like drying herbs or roasting certain types of vegetables. The baking process does not require any fat to be used to cook in an oven. When baking, consideration must be given to the amount of fat that is contained in the food item. Higher levels of fat such as margarine , butter , lard, or vegetable shortening will cause an item to spread out during the baking process. With the passage of time, breads harden and become stale.
This is not primarily due to moisture being lost from the baked products, but more a reorganization of the way in which the water and starch are associated over time. This process is similar to recrystallization and is promoted by storage at cool temperatures, such as in a domestic refrigerator or freezer. Baking, especially of bread, holds special significance for many cultures. It is such a fundamental part of everyday food consumption that the children's nursery rhyme Pat-a-cake, pat-a-cake, baker's man takes baking as its subject.
Baked goods are normally served at all kinds of parties and special attention is given to their quality at formal events. They are also one of the main components of a tea party , including at nursery teas and high teas, a tradition which started in Victorian Britain, reportedly when Anna Russell, Duchess of Bedford "grew tired of the sinking feeling which afflicted her every afternoon round 4 o'clock In , she plucked up courage and asked for a tray of tea, bread and butter, and cake to be brought to her room.
Once she had formed the habit she found she could not break it, so spread it among her friends instead. Crack a few eggs in a bowl or cup, add a dash of milk and whisk. Pour onto a hot frying pan and leave to cook on a low heat. Flip over and cook the other side and ta-dah, you? Once you've mastered making the basic omelette you can add veggies, cheese and different fillings to make your omelette extra special.
Try mushrooms, peppers and onions too. If your omelette breaks when you flip it you can avoid this by popping it under the grill. Try our classic burrito recipe Skill level: Medium.
A Mexican favourite can now become your favourite with our basic burrito recipe. Burritos are tortilla wraps packed with minced beef, rice, a variety of spices and served alongside fresh guacamole, salsa and soured cream. It doesn? You can get your family and friends to assemble their own burritos too which means less time in the kitchen and more time chilling out with loved ones.
Once you've mastered making a classic burrito you can try other versions like our vegetarian burritos packed with rice, kidney beans and tomato puree. You could swap the beef mince for pork, turkey or even Quorn. You could make super spicy burritos or mildly spiced for the kids. Try our classic rocky road recipe. If you've never made rocky road before then you're missing out. Melted chocolate and lots of little treats broken up into pieces like Maltesers, marshmallows and ginger biscuits, it's a heavenly sweet treat.
The only hard part of this recipe is having patience whilst it sets in the fridge! Once you've mastered rocky road you could try making white chocolate rocky road instead or you could push the boat out even further and make a rocky road cheesecake - how good does that sound? If you can't get enough of our classic rocky road recipe then experiment with different flavours adding other ingredients to the mix like nuts, dried fruit or other chocolate sweets.
Try our classic toad in the hole recipe. Sausages,Yorkshire pudding and onion gravy, toad in hole is the ultimate comfort food. Learn how to make the perfect Yorkshire pudding batter and how to get those sausages crisp on the outside but tender in the inside with our classic recipe. Once you've mastered a toad in the hole you can try all sorts like wrapping your sausages in bacon, seasoning your Yorkshire pudding mix with herbs or swapping those pork sausages for veggie ones instead.
Try our classic roast potato recipe. The best part of any roast dinner well, one of the best bits anyway! When it comes to roast potatoes it? A dash of oil heated in the oven will make your potatoes extra crisp. Once you've mastered the art of roasting potatoes you can add other veggies to the dish too like onions and garlic for more flavour. You could try using butter instead of oil for a richer texture or you could also cook your potatoes in goose fat.
Want an extra naughty treat? Top your cooked roasties with cheese and pop back in the oven. Try our classic chicken tikka masala recipe. When it comes to a Saturday night we can often go for the easy option, the takeaway. But once you've made a curry from scratch you'll be rather surprised how good it tastes and how easy it is to make and much healthier too!
A chicken tikka masala is the most classic curry there is and perfect for beginners. Once you've mastered this classic you can move onto other curries like our lamb jalfrezi. You could even try making some side dishes to accompany your curry like our onion bhajis. They'll be no need for a takeaway once you start making everything yourself Try our classic white bread recipe.
Fancy trying something new this month? How about baking your own bread? Nothing beats the smell of warm bread baking in the oven. It might sounds daunting to make with all the kneading and proving and yeast action going on, but bread is actually rather simple to make. Once you've mastered our classic white loaf bread recipe you'll be ready to give Paul Hollywood a run for his money!
You can make individual bread rolls, you could try making soda bread or you could take your skills to the next level and make a delicious Italian focaccia. Try our classic beef stew with dumplings recipe. An absolute essential in the colder months and let's face it, we see our fair share of those , a rich beef stew with homemade dumplings will keep the whole family warm. If you've never made a stew before, our favourite recipe, courtesy of James Martin, combines tender chunks of beef with a rich stock and homemade dumplings. Once you've mastered this delicious stew you can try other alternatives.
Swap the beef for lamb, chicken or pork. Take the beef out of the recipe and add in heaps of mushrooms and veggies to make a vegetarian option. Try our classic cupcake recipe. If the thought of making cupcakes scares you - think again! You might have seen all those professional looking ones in the bakeries or online but don't worry they're not as complicated as they look especially when you start with the basic recipe. You could be a cupcake pro in no time. Once you've mastered making the sponge for the cupcakes you can move onto decorating them.
Start off easy by using icing sugar, food colours, icing pens and sugar strands. Then you can move onto fondant and sugar paste and begin to get crafty with your designs. Don't forget flavour is just as important as looks so why not try making chocolate cupcakes or even gluten-free! Try our classic Coq au vin recipe. You might automatically assume that because coq au vin sounds fancy that it's going to be complicated to make too - but you'd be wrong. This traditional French dish combines chicken on the bone, with wine and veggies.
It takes a while to cook, but there's very little preparation involved and makes a great meal for the whole family or when friends come over. Once you've mastered this French favourite you could try different variations of sauce testing different brands of red wine and other types of mushrooms too like shitake and chestnut. You could also swap the chicken for beef steak or lamb instead, of course this will change the name of the recipe, but we won't tell if you don't! Try our classic beef stroganoff recipe. We all love stews and casseroles, but if you don't have the time to prepare one, a beef stroganoff is a delicious meaty alternative and ready in just 30 mins.
Stroganoff has a light creamy mushroom-infused sauce which brings the whole dish together nicely. Once you've mastered a beef stroganoff you can swap the meat for others like pork, lamb or chicken. We've also got a mushroom stroganoff too for a meat-free alternative. The easy mushroom sauce would also work well with pasta. Try our classic carrot cake recipe. If you love baking cakes, you're going to love making a delicious carrot cake.
It's soft, moist and full of spices and carrots of course! Follow our step-by-step video recipe which will guide you every step of the way. Once you've mastered this favourite you'll want to make it time and time again! You can give it a twist too by turning it into a tray bake or adding some pineapple or banana to the recipe.
Try our classic fish pie recipe. A buttery mash potato topping and a creamy, white sauce turns your simple piece of fish into a dinner fit for royalty. If you head towards the fish counter when you buy your fish you're more than likely going to get a better deal than buying already prepared fish pie mix so shop around before you buy. Once you've mastered a delicious fish pie you can add some veggies into the sauce like spinach, asparagus or mushrooms - it's the perfect way to sneak vegetables into your kid's diet.
You could also add cheese or breadcrumbs to the top of your mash and pop under the grill for the last 5 minutes of cooking for an extra crispy finish. Try our classic sticky toffee pudding recipe. This classic British pud is perfect for serving on the weekend's after a hearty meal with the family and nothing beats the homemade version. It can be tempting to just nip out to the shops and buy a readymade one but trust us when we say, making it from scratch is so much better. A soft, moist sponge with a light, golden toffee sauce - what's not to like? It's time to roll up those sleeves and get making!
Once you've mastered the classic you can get fancy and make apple and sticky toffee mini puds. You could even make sticky toffee brownies. Yes, really! We've even got a recipe for sticky toffee cupcakes! The possibilities are endless. Try our classic eggs Benedict recipe. Fried, scrambled or boiled, there are so many ways to cook your eggs and poaching your eggs using this classic recipe is one of our favourite ways.
Topped with a homemade Hollandaise sauce and served with streaky bacon and soft spinach leaves, what's not to love about eggs Benedict? If you still haven't had a chance to make it, now is your chance. Once you've mastered our classic eggs Benedict you can try all sorts of weird and wonderful egg recipes like our poached egg and bacon salad - ready in 20 mins!
Or you could take it one step further and make your own homemade scotch eggs. Try our classic steak and kidney pie recipe. You may have made chicken pie before, you might even have made a sweet apple pie, but nothing compares to the deliciousness that is a steak and kidney pie especially when it's packed with succulent pieces of steak and not forgetting the thick, rich gravy. If you love pie, you really should try making this classic. Once you've mastered a steak and kidney pie you can try different versions like a steak and ale pie.
You could also add your favourite veggies into the filling and you could even make the pastry from scratch too. See our step-by-step how to recipe guides 50 healthy family meals Get a new idea for dinner everyday with our dinner of the day. Try our classic chilli con carne recipe. Chilli is super easy to make and is the perfect choice for feeding a lot of people, quickly. You can add in as much spice as you like when making the sauce from scratch plus you'll know exactly what ingredients are going into it. Once you've mastered this classic recipe you can try different variations.
Why not use turkey mince instead of beef for a lower-fat option? Or you could even bake your chilli in the oven with thin slices of potato and plenty of cheese on top. We've also got a veggie chilli con carne for anyone who prefers a meat-free option. Try our classic pasta bake recipe. When it comes to feeding a lot of hungry people, a pasta bake is top of the list.
Topped with cheese and packed with tender meat and veggies, pasta bake is the saviour of mid week meals. It's very simple to make and is a great way of serving your pasta - especially if you're running low on ideas. Once you've mastered our delicious chicken pasta bake you can try other variations swapping the chicken for other meats like beef or fish like tuna. Try different sauces too, like a rich cheese and tomato sauce, a cream sauce or pesto based sauce. Try our classic burger recipes.
Homemade burgers are so much juicer than shop-bought and are easy to make too. If you've never made burgers before it's best to start off small and work your way up. Beef mince, onions and egg make up the basis of a good burger - not forgetting the golden burger buns and ketchup to serve. Once you've mastered the challenge that is making a burger you can add loads of different flavours and fillings to the basic mix, like spices to give the meat an kick or chopped mushrooms to get some more veggies into your kids diet. Swap the mince for pork, turkey or Quorn for the veggie option.
Try our classic lemon meringue pie recipe. Why not push your baking skills to the next level and make this beauty? If you've never made a lemon meringue pie before we'd recommend you make the meringues first for practise before taking on the pie as a whole. But don't let that put you off, the meringue is the only tricky part in this recipe that's why we rated it a medium! Once you've mastered a lemon meringue you could exchange the lemon for lime or orange for a citrusy twist.
You could also add food colouring to the meringue to give it an extra jazz of life. And if that's not enough you could make the pastry from scratch too! Try our classic meatball recipe. Meatballs are so simple to make especially with our step-by-step picture guide and are perfect if you fancy something different at dinner time.
The fresher the mince you use, the better the meatballs are going to taste so bare this in mind when it comes to choosing your mince. All you need is tomato sauce, fresh herbs and pasta to serve - simple, delicious and sure to become a family favourite. Once you've mastered making meatballs you can try out different recipes like our chilli con carne meatballs or our meatball pasta bake. You can swap the mince for turkey or even Quorn mince for a vegetarian option. Home Food Recipe Collections. Credit: TI Media Limited. Latest Stories. Natural cough remedies: cure a cough from the comfort of your home.
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This is an image 1 of Try our classic Victoria sponge recipe Skill level: Easy Everyone loves a classic Victoria sponge, especially when it's homemade. This is an image 2 of Try our classic cottage pie recipe Skill level: Medium Smothered with a creamy mash topping and packed full of tender meat and gravy, cottage pie is another classic dish to master. This is an image 3 of Try our classic chocolate chip cookies recipe Skill level: Easy A batch of freshly made chocolate chip cookies will beat a pack of shop-bought any day.
This is an image 4 of Try our classic lasagne recipe Skill level: Medium A lasagne is perfect for preparing in advance, in fact it usually tastes better when made the morning before. This is an image 5 of Try our classic roast chicken recipe Skill level: Medium There's nothing quite like a traditional roast chicken with all the trimmings to get the whole family round the table on a Sunday.
This is an image 6 of Try our classic stuffed chicken breast recipe Skill level: Medium If you fancy trying something new with your chicken breasts, stuffing them is a great choice. This is an image 7 of Try our classic chicken and mushroom pie recipe Skill level: Medium Pies are much easier to make than you may think especially if you cheat and use ready-made pastry shhh, we won't tell if you don't!
This is an image 8 of Try our classic chocolate fudge cake recipe Skill level: Easy Love chocolate? This is an image 9 of Try our classic chicken stir-fry recipe Skill level: Easy They're quick and easy to make and great for the whole family as you can pretty much put whatever you like into a stir-fry.
This is an image 10 of Try our classic macaroni cheese recipe Skill level: Easy If you loved macaroni cheese as a kid, what's to say you're not going to love it today This is an image 11 of Try our classic apple pie recipe Skill level: Medium If you've never made apple pie from scratch before, you should definitely give it a go.
This is an image 12 of Try our classic rhubarb crumble recipe Skill level: Easy Nothing beats a delicious, buttery crumble packed with fresh fruit and topped with a crisp combination of flour, oats, butter and sugar. This is an image 13 of Try our classic mushroom risotto recipe Skill level: Medium Risotto is much easier to make than you may think.
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This is an image 14 of Try our classic blueberry muffins recipe Skill level: Easy Whether you opt to eat your muffins for a breakfast treat or an afternoon snack, everyone should know how to bake muffins as they're super easy to make. This is an image 15 of Try our classic spaghetti Bolognese recipe Skill level: Easy An Italian dish that's become a firm favourite with British mums, a good spaghetti Bolognese recipe is a must in everyone's list of trusted meals.
This is an image 16 of This is an image 17 of Try our classic salad recipes Skill level: Easy Salads are one of the simplest recipes everyone should know how to cook. This is an image 18 of Try our classic flapjack recipe Skill level: Medium Everyone loves a gooey, sticky flapjack - especially when it's homemade.
This is an image 19 of Try our classic brownie recipe Skill level: Medium Brownies are just delicious. This is an image 20 of Try our classic beef Wellington recipe Skill level: Medium A beef Wellington doesn't have to just be for Christmas or special occasions.
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This is an image 21 of Try our classic cream of tomato soup recipe Skill level: Easy If you've never made your own tomato soup before and always opt for shop-bought - step away from the tinned soup. This is an image 22 of Try our classic fish cakes recipe Skill level: Easy Lots of kids won't eat fillets of fish, but fish cakes in breadcrumbs always go down well.
This is an image 23 of Try our classic chicken casserole recipe Skill level: Medium If you've got a large family, casseroles are a great way of feeding everyone in the winter time. This is an image 24 of Try our classic steak recipe Skill level: Medium Steak is usually saved for special occasions like Valentine's Day or dinner parties. This is an image 25 of Try our classic trifle recipe Skill level: Medium There's only one reason we've rated this classic a medium in terms of skill level and that's because it's all about timings and being patient.
This is an image 26 of Try our classic spaghetti carbonara recipe Skill level: Medium When it comes to spaghetti we usually always opt for Spag Bol but you can actually make more than you think with this delicious ingredient including a classic spaghetti carbonara. This is an image 27 of Try our classic pizza recipe Skill level: Easy There's more to pizza than a takeaway. This is an image 28 of Try our classic cauliflower cheese recipe Skill level: Easy Cauliflower cheese is the perfect side dish to serve alongside your Sunday roast.
This is an image 29 of Try our classic mash potato recipe Skill level: Easy Everyone loves a creamy, buttery mash potato with their meals every now and then. This is an image 30 of Try our classic omelette recipe Skill level: Easy Never made an omelette before? This is an image 31 of Try our classic burrito recipe Skill level: Medium A Mexican favourite can now become your favourite with our basic burrito recipe. This is an image 32 of Try our classic rocky road recipe Skill level: Easy If you've never made rocky road before then you're missing out.
This is an image 33 of Try our classic toad in the hole recipe Skill level: Medium Sausages,Yorkshire pudding and onion gravy, toad in hole is the ultimate comfort food. This is an image 34 of Try our classic roast potato recipe Skill level: Easy The best part of any roast dinner well, one of the best bits anyway! This is an image 35 of Try our classic chicken tikka masala recipe Skill level: Easy When it comes to a Saturday night we can often go for the easy option, the takeaway.
This is an image 36 of Try our classic white bread recipe Skill level: Medium Fancy trying something new this month? This is an image 37 of Try our classic beef stew with dumplings recipe Skill level: Medium An absolute essential in the colder months and let's face it, we see our fair share of those , a rich beef stew with homemade dumplings will keep the whole family warm.
This is an image 38 of Try our classic cupcake recipe Skill level: Easy If the thought of making cupcakes scares you - think again! This is an image 39 of Try our classic Coq au vin recipe Skill level: Medium You might automatically assume that because coq au vin sounds fancy that it's going to be complicated to make too - but you'd be wrong. This is an image 40 of Try our classic beef stroganoff recipe Skill level: Medium We all love stews and casseroles, but if you don't have the time to prepare one, a beef stroganoff is a delicious meaty alternative and ready in just 30 mins. This is an image 41 of