Brief description This Master program conveys basic and applied knowledge of aquatic ecosystems streams and lakes. Admission requirements The following learning outcome is required for admission of Bachelor degree program graduates: Students need to be familiar with scientific basics and skills; be able to identify and systematically categorize essential groups of plants and animals, as well as describe their anatomical and physiological characteristics, and to understand similarities and differences; comprehend significant interrelations between organisms and their environment on the level of autecology, synecology and population ecology, as well as evaluate their basic roles for the functioning of ecosystems; be familiar with the basics of inorganic and organic chemistry, as well as understand essential physiological and biochemical processes; be familiar with the general principles of physics and comprehend essential environmental processes e.
Basic Data Programm classification no. Study Programme Coordinator Assoc. Wolfram Graf.
Widespread loss of lake ice around the Northern Hemisphere in a warming world
Establishing a management strategy using Establishing a management strategy using a multidisciplinary approach ensures the sustainability of water resources. The present and future work being done in the field of limnology is necessary for preserving and protecting our freshwater ecosystems. In this respect, limnology is a rapidly developing science that has many significant aspects. The scope of this book covers all aspects of freshwater environment studies, from physical and chemical to biological limnology. This book provides useful information on basic, experimental, and applied limnology to researchers and decision makers.
By Cleber Fernando M. Macente, Kifayat U. Fernandes, Danila Fernanda R. Frias and Marta V. This is made possible by the EU reverse charge method. Within the past 15 years, three new North American societies have formed, each resulting from the expanding activities in a particular aspect of limnology and its related aquatic sciences:. The North American Benthological Society NABS expanded from an older regional organization the Midwest Benthological Society in , emphasizing stream ecology and processes occurring at the interface between water and land.
The North American Lake Management Society NALMS was established in as an outgrowth of expanding interest in restoring and rehabilitating lakes and reservoirs degraded by human activity. The Society of Wetland Scientists SWS was founded in to promote research for understanding and managing wetlands. Many limnologists also belong to SIL and to discipline-based societies. The aquatic section of the Ecological Society of America, for example, has more than 1, members although many of these individuals also belong to one or more of the five primary limnological societies listed above.
The scholarly and technical journals published by the limnological societies continue to grow in circulation and pages published annually see Table , and several new journals that focus on different aspects of limnology for example, Lake and Reservoir Management, Ecological Engineering , and Wetlands have appeared within the past two decades. Moreover, annual meetings of the societies attract growing numbers of presentations and attendees. For example, the number of presentations at the annual meeting of NABS increased from to between and , while the number of papers at the annual SWS meeting increased.
It is apparent from this growth in presentations and publications that activity in limnology is continuing to increase. Limnology courses continue to be offered at most major research universities. For example, 59 of 69 universities surveyed for this report indicated that they offer an introductory limnology course for undergraduates see Appendix A.
Furthermore, introductory limnology courses at major universities generally have stable or increasing enrollments; 55 of 57 universities responding to a survey question about student interest in limnology reported that interest is increasing or holding steady see Appendix A. Graduate training in limnology is available at many of these institutions, even though only a few universities have distinct degrees or programs called limnology. In addition, during the past decade or so an increasing number of colleges and non-Ph. Several new textbooks on stream and wetland limnology have been published, as have new editions of popular limnology books that focus on.
However, not all is well in limnology. Indeed, some of the positive characteristics of limnology at the close of the twentieth century can also be interpreted as indicators of underlying problems. For example, the formation of new societies is symptomatic of increased fragmentation, as well as an unwillingness on the part of the original society ASLO to embrace fully some of the newer aspects of the field, in particular applied limnology, resource management-oriented activities, and wetland ecology.
In general, problems in the conduct of modern limnology can be grouped into six major areas:. Limnologists have not been reluctant to express concerns about the viability of their field. Discussions on these issues have appeared in limnological journals over the past decade, most notably in Limnology and Oceanography e.
These discussions have led to several studies dedicated to critical self-examination and to the development of recommendations to overcome perceived deficiencies and problems. Major self-analyses include 1 the Freshwater Imperative Naiman et al. As discussed in this chapter, much of the recent research support for limnology has been tied to targeted research programs in mission-oriented agencies focused on practical pollution problems.
Although there is much to be gained from the focus that such programs provide, their funding. This approach simply is not adequate to support the basic scientific research and consistent training of new generations of scientists needed if limnology is to play a role in supporting wise and sustainable management of inland aquatic ecosystems. Some contend that the lack of a central federal program for limnology has led to a lack of research funding opportunities in limnology and has contributed to a decline of this field in academia Jumars, Others disagree with this pessimistic attitude and point to the many advances in understanding and practical accomplishments achieved by limnologists in recent decades.
To a certain extent, these diverging opinions reflect basic philosophical differences is the ''limnological cup" half full or half empty? Nonetheless, it is likely that few regard current mechanisms for funding limnological research as optimal. Within the National Science Foundation NSF , there is no program that deals specifically with limnology in its broad definition. In contrast, NSF has a specific division Ocean Sciences devoted to the study of oceanography, which is bolstered by a similar funding program administered by the Office of Naval Research Jumars, As a result, support for research in chemical and physical limnology is not emphasized, and opportunities for support of interdisciplinary and long-term research have been limited.
For example, 90 percent of NSF's grants on subjects directly or indirectly related to limnology in included work with a biological component, but only 25 percent supported studies with a chemical component and only 2 percent supported studies with a physical focus Firth and Wyngaard, One encouraging sign of change to promote interdisciplinary research on aquatic ecosystems within NSF is its new "Water and Watersheds" initiative.
In terms of generating proposals, the first competition announced in February was overwhelmingly successful: more than proposals were submitted for review. Financial limitations meant that only about 30 proposals roughly 5 percent received funding. Nonetheless, the large response to the call for proposals suggests that the program addresses a major, unmet research need. The Water and Watersheds research initiative. Consequently, it is premature to conclude that this program will provide a long-term source of funds for interdisciplinary research in limnology, but developing a permanent program to fund such research should be a priority.
Over the past decade or two, limnological programs have been eliminated or significantly downsized at some leading research universities as prominent faculty limnologists retired. Notable examples include G. Hutchinson of Yale University Box ; D. Frey of Indiana University, highly regarded for his examination of biological remains in sediments to chronicle past histories of lake conditions; and W.
Edmondson of the University of Washington, noted for his pioneering studies of eutrophication in Lake Washington see Chapter 4. Although Frey retired and was not replaced, Indiana University still offers a limnology course through its Department of Public and Environmental Affairs, but Yale no longer offers courses or employs faculty in limnology. The University of Washington offered a course in limnology for more than 30 years through the Department of Zoology, but when Edmondson's retirement was followed by cuts in state funding, the frequency of the course was reduced, and it was taught by visiting professors for several years in , the university again hired a limnologist to serve on its faculty.
On a national basis, it is fair to say that some faculty positions have been lost because of declining financial resources in some universities, but in other cases, positions vacated by limnologists have been converted to other subject areas, usually some aspect of subcellular biology, which reflects a trend in many academic biology programs away from organismal and higher-level biology and toward subcellular and molecular scales.
Limnology, 15 cr
The loss of highly visible academic positions in biological limnology probably is the single most important factor contributing to the perception among academic limnologists that all is not well within their profession, but in some respects the concern about lost positions may not be well founded. As limnological positions have been los tin traditional biology departments, others have been added in departments and colleges of environmental science and engineering, fisheries science, natural resources, and other resource-oriented programs.
It is possible that larger numbers of faculty are involved in teaching and research across the broad field of limnology at research universities in the s than ever before. However, they are dispersed more widely across departments and colleges than they were in earlier decades, when limnology was a narrower and simpler field that focused on temperate lakes.
In summary, the elimination or deemphasis of limnology in the biology departments of major research universities has left a leadership vacuum in limnology, at least at many institutions, as well as a vacuum in the training of biologists. Overall, the dispersion of limnology into so many different academic programs in universities has led to severe fragmentation of the field. Few universities are producing limnologists with truly interdisciplinary backgrounds, an ecosystem perspective, and an ability to integrate across the sciences and major categories of aquatic ecosystems. In addition, most universities do not provide adequate course offerings in limnology at the general education level.
The fragmentation of limnologists during their education continues at the professional level. There is no limnological society or organization that represents the field and its practitioners as a whole. Although most, if not all, of the traditional journals publish occasional articles on streams and wetlands, their focus generally is on lake science. There is no journal that covers both the fundamental and applied aspects of limnology and all major categories of water bodies within the domain of limnology. Lake, stream, and wetland limnologists and fisheries scientists largely go their separate ways when joining professional societies, attending conferences, and publishing scientific papers.
Although the Ecological Society of America includes theoretical and applied ecologists in its membership and has a special applied ecology section, fundamental and more practical, management-oriented aspects of limnological science are covered by separate societies ASLO and NALMS. Both aspects of limnology have much to gain from closer interactions. Limnologists involved in research on the Great Lakes also have their own society and journal, a situation that is particularly ironic given that ASLO combines limnologists and oceanographers.
As noted earlier, Great Lakes research combines elements of both limnology and oceanography the latter particularly in terms of the scale of research vessels and equipment needed to conduct the research. The American Fisheries Society combines interests in fundamental science fish physiology and genetics with fisheries management, and it formulates and publicizes positions on the application of science to resource management issues.
Nonetheless, fisheries science is not well integrated into limnology at the professional level or for that matter in academic programs , in spite of the fact that fish are obviously integral components of aquatic food webs.
Although limnology is a diverse field, it is no more so than many other fields that have managed to bring their varied elements under the umbrella of one professional society that provides a sense of identity and public visibility to the field. Civil engineering, for example, sometimes is referred to as a "holding company" rather than a discipline because of the breadth and diversity of activities in which civil engineers are engaged. Nonetheless, one society, the American Society of Civil Engineers, represents the entire field.
Similar situations prevail in chemistry, where the American Chemical Society includes theoretical and applied chemists working in. The fragmentation of limnology at the educational and professional levels has left the field with an identity crisis. Limnology is poorly understood by scientists and the general public. Even many aquatic scientists do not realize their ties to the general field of limnology or in some cases their effective involvement in limnological research. This problem of visibility tends to relegate limnologists and their science to secondary positions in public policy debates and decisions about aquatic resource management—situations in which their expertise is highly relevant.
Root causes of the problems described in preceding paragraphs are numerous and include factors that are internal to the field of limnology and external factors over which limnologists have had little control. Professional fragmentation—exemplified by the lack of a single society and single journal that represents all major areas of the field—would seem to be a problem of limnologists' own making.
In part, it reflects an unwillingness by the older limnological societies and journals to diversify themselves and fully embrace some of the newer trends, such as the emphasis on restoration- and management-oriented activities that spawned the formation of organizations such as NALMS and SWS. Clearly, limnologists have it within their own power to overcome this professional fragmentation, and indeed only they can do so. Causes of educational fragmentation are complicated and more difficult to assign. In large part, they reflect the long developmental history of academic disciplines and department structures within universities that have been defined for many decades by a primary orientation toward the basic science disciplines.
Limnology, defined by the objects it studies inland aquatic ecosystems , is inherently multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary, and components of the field have developed in many departments. The problems of academic limnology are a mirror of the problems of water science as a whole in higher education: water science is an interest within many fields, but it is not the primary focus of any of the traditional departments or disciplines.
Moreover, "turf" problems inhibit any existing department from assuming too strong a leadership role over the entire field. At the same time, there probably is little enthusiasm among university administrators deans and department heads in this time of declining financial resources for reorganizations that would remove limnologically oriented faculty from existing programs and place them in new administrative units.
It is interesting to note that the fragmentation typically found in water resource science and limnological programs in academic institutions does not hold for natural resource subjects that traditionally have been linked. For example, soil science is an inherently multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary subject, but it has achieved departmental status in many land-grant universities. A similar situation exists in the field of forestry. No one considers it unusual or improper to have microbiologists, chemists, and physicists in the same department of soil science; it should not be so difficult to convince university faculty and administrators that broad-based departments or schools of aquatic science are both feasible and desirable.
Other recent critical examinations of limnology have dealt with the broad array of deficiencies and problems that face the field e.
Consequently, this report focuses on educational issues in limnology. In this context, the committee that wrote the report examined both the training of professional limnologists at all levels B. Although the major emphasis of this report is education, the problems of limnology cannot be solved in academia alone. Also needed are improved links between those who conduct research in limnology and those who manage water resources.
The professional societies in limnology have a critical role to play in helping to develop these links and in serving as advocates for the discipline of limnology as a whole. Allan, J. New York: Chapman Hall. Beckel, A. Breaking New Waters. Madison, Wisc. Bradbury, J. Stratigraphic record of pollution in Shagawa lake, northeastern Minnesota. The impact of European settlement on Shagawa Lake, northeastern Minnesota. Birks and R. West, eds. Oxford, England: Blackwell. Brezonik, P. Eaton, T. Frost, P. Garrison, T. Kratz, C. Mach, J. McCormick, J.
Perry, W. Rose, C. Sampson, B. Shelley, W. Swenson, and K.
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Wetlands, 2nd ed.
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