Reason and Society in the Middle Ages

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The mean speed theory described the motion of a free falling body but no one seems to have realised this. Typically new students arrived at university at the age of fifteen and were matriculated into the university Arts Faculty. Here, they would be taught the subjects viewed as essential to tackle everything else: logic and natural philosophy based on the works of Aristotle. After three or four years of study the student had to settle a disputation and, if successful, became a Bachelor of the Arts.

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Then, after another year or two, he took part in a final disputation with his Master and was incepted as a Master of the Arts. This meant the student could now do two things to continue his academic career, either become a teacher a Regent Master in the Arts Faculty at any university as allowed by the ius ubique docendi the right to teach anywhere or start to study for a doctorate at one of the higher faculties of Medicine, Civil and Canon Law or Theology. Whereas most universities had an Arts Faculty, few could boast all of the higher subjects, which tended to be more specialised.

For instance, Bologna and Padua were renowned for their law schools, Paris for its theologians and Salerno for medicine. Oxford, at least, seemed to have possessed faculties in all subjects before After many more years of study in the higher faculty, the student could finally be admitted to the degree of Doctor that meant they could join the faculty and start practising. Prior to achieving the relevant professional degree, many jurisdictions forbade an individual to practice, write or research on the topic.

University students studied natural philosophy by listening to a lecturer read them texts and then explain them. Again, practical work was unheard of at least outside the medical faculty although the actual methods of teaching remain too obscure to make a sound judgement as to the extent that students were encouraged to think critically about what they were taught. The earliest version dates from and includes the old logic that had been translated into Latin by Boethius in the sixth century and the new logic which was not available until the twelfth century as well as grammar from Priscian and Donatus.

The late Renaissance syllabus of sees the inclusion of the Latin classics as well, especially Virgil and Cicero, probably under the influence of the humanists [NOTE] p xcii, Strickland Gibson ed. We should not get the impression from this list that the program was only updated every years but the fact that the same books were studied for hundreds of years does not suggest a rapidly changing body of knowledge.

The greatest privilege of being a student or teacher at university was that of being treated as a clergyman under law, which meant they had a high level of immunity to secular justice and were instead tried by the much gentler ecclesiastical courts [NOTE] p 36, Edward Grant, Foundations of Modern Science in the Middle Ages Cambridge, Furthermore, an advantage of being self-governing corporations was that a university was responsible for its own disciplinary arrangements and rarely had to deal with outside authorities.

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Hence, university discipline was largely in-house and followed the forms of canon law as set out by Gratian in his Decretum. Students were subject to discipline under university statutes and, needless to say, most cases heard at this level involved drunkenness, fornication and revelry of the sort that students have been indulging in since they were first gathered together away from home. Under certain circumstances, one could appeal to the court of the local bishop who had responsibility for the university and then ultimately to the curia.

Examinations for the MA involved an oral disputation on set texts in which required the candidate to defend a given position while also enunciating opposing views. But for a Doctorate of Theology there is evidence that written work had to be produced which could then be carefully scrutinised by the examiners for orthodoxy as well as signs of scholarly aptitude [NOTE] p , William Courtenay, "Inquiry and Inquisition: Academic Freedom in the Medieval Universities" Church History 58, So, not only were most disciplinary matters dealt with by the university, also the consequences rarely made themselves felt outside it.

Once a list of errors had actually been extracted from the work of a scholar, often his commentary on the Sentences of Peter Lombard, he had the chance to reply and there were a number of defences open to him.

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Jean gave either a flat out denial, with no further explanation, that he had said what he was accused of saying this defence was successful in all five cases he used it , an explanation of what he really meant, an insistence that the alleged error was not in fact heretical at all or an appeal to the authority of the Church fathers. He was successful in having half the articles struck out but it was also open to the prosecution to add more errors at this stage. So, whereas Jean was able to deflect about thirty accusations, he found himself faced with an additional fifteen of them.

By the end of the Middle Ages, the universities found that they had largely preserved their autonomy and their reputations were such that others wanted to make use of their expertise. This was especially so for the Theology Faculty of the University of Paris which came to be regarded almost as the very font of orthodoxy and was frequently consulted about related matters.

The case of Simon de Phares from the end of the fifteenth century is illustrative of this. Simon was the proprietor of an up market astrology practice in Lyons that was so successful that even the King himself came to call. This led to friction with the local clergy, who were usually in a state of armed truce with astrologers, so that Simon was hauled before the court of the Archbishop.

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Here, he was probably found to have been using magic, forbidden to practice and had his library confiscated. Simon appealed to the Parlement in Paris rather than to the Pope in order to get his books back and they turned the case over to the Theology Faculty as they probably had no idea what any of the books were about, let alone if they should be condemned. Simon had his appeal rejected with costs but does not appear to have got into any more serious trouble. It was the potentially dangerous subject of theology that concerned the Church far more than natural philosophy and most examples of discipline relate to the former.

These systems were essentially the internal disciplinary procedures of the universities and, as we have seen, the usual sanction was little more than having to recant the error and amend ones work to correct it. Matters would only usually leave the auspices of the university if there was an appeal or if the matter became notorious and widely known as, for example, in the case of the Amalricians of Paris where the teaching of a university theologian threatened to produce a heretical sect [NOTE] TMMH Thijssen "Master Amalric and the Amalricians: Inquisitorial Procedure and the Suppression of Heresy at the University of Paris" Speculum As mentioned above, many academics were also members of the mendicant orders so they were also under the governance of their order and could face disciplinary proceedings from this direction.

The most infamous agents of medieval church discipline, the inquisitors, do not appear to have had a major role in dealing with academics but could become involved in certain cases. Word that someone had been teaching heretical opinions could reach the ear of the local inquisitor who would investigate and, on finding the allegations to be true, get the teacher to admit and recant his error before handing down his penance.

As the inquisitor was not part of the university it is likely that the case would already have acquired a degree of notoriety, perhaps due to public disputations or lectures, before he heard of it and having done so he would be obliged to act. Unfortunately, the condemnation does not tell us what the offending utterances were, although later authorities, such as the fifteenth century inquisitor, Franciscus Florentinus, mention that he had taught and written that Jesus lived and suffered the way he did because he was born under a special star which had also led the magi from the East [NOTE] p vol IV, Lynn Thorndike, History of Magic and Experimental Science New York, - Contrary to what Franciscus insists, Cecco does not mention any such thing in his extant books even those that were burnt with him so his utterances were in all likelihood verbal and made in lectures.

As Cecco was not more severely punished we can also assume he confessed to and repented of his errors. This wilful disobedience immediately marked him out as a recalcitrant heretic and when he found himself before the Florentine inquisitor, Accursius, it is no surprise that the he was handed over to the secular arm. As burning was the expected fate of a re-offender the judicial machinery seems to be working as expected.

The boundaries set by the church pertinent to natural philosophy and science appear to have been quite well defined and mainly involved avoiding matters that might have theological significance. In astrology, it was forbidden to claim a completely deterministic model where the influence of the stars overrode free moral choice or, like Cecco was supposed to have done, to start casting horoscopes for Jesus.

In physics, it was fine to put most things down to secondary natural causes but not to claim that miracles were impossible. Neither the eternity of the world nor the existence of other worlds could be espoused in cosmology and metaphysics as an actual fact. Finally, it was never acceptable to claim that the natural world had to be the way it is and that God could not have created it differently if he wished to, or could not upset the natural order if he so pleased [NOTE] p , Edward Grant, God and Nature in the Middle Ages Cambridge, There were certainly controversialists who would have liked the boundaries to have been drawn much tighter, but the points mentioned above seem to have been roughly the position for much of the period concerned.

This does not mean that all cases when the boundary was crossed resulted in prosecution or even a warning, but that one could expect to stay out of trouble by keeping within them. Furthermore, a wide variety of formulae existed that allowed ostensibly forbidden topics to be discussed at length. For instance, while it was prohibited to claim different universes actually existed, one could say God could create such universes if he wished and then discuss them at length.

Likewise, the Question, a common format in academic writing at the time and the written equivalent of the Disputation, required one to give the arguments for both sides before settling on an answer that did not contradict the faith [NOTE] p , Edward Grant, God and Nature in the Middle Ages Cambridge, In the meantime one could air as many heretical opinions as desired and give all the arguments in favour of them. Finally, a work could be written in such dense and obscure language that a censor would never have the faintest idea what was actually being claimed.

Traditional positivist histories of science have tended to either ignore or denigrate the achievements of medieval natural philosophers and, to be fair, there certainly seems to be a radical difference between the scholastics and the proponents of the new philosophy of the seventeenth century.

Historians have yet to agree on how this change came about but there is an increasing awareness that its roots can be found in the Middle Ages. As we saw above, Pierre Duhem saw in the condemnations of the rejection of the idea that the universe had to be the way Aristotle thought it had to, and the birth of the realisation that the workings of the universe had to be empirically determined.

The neo-Platonism of Copernicus and Kepler had developed in Italy through the late Middle Ages while the insistence on an intelligible and rational universe is found throughout scholastic natural philosophy. As is the often the case, the debate has been characterised as polarised between two positions - the continuity of science through the Middle Ages and into the early modern period, and the scientific revolution marking a decisive break from the earlier traditions.

AC Crombie is a leading member of the continuity school, tracing the experimental method back to Robert Grosseteste and Roger Bacon. Edward Grant sees modern science built on the solid medieval foundations of the separation of science from religion, rationality and university education. The great temptation for the proponents of continuity, which not all of them successfully resist, is to read modern scientific ideas into the work of earlier ages. The comments of Roger Bacon on experiment have also tended to be overemphasised, especially as there is little evidence he ever did anything much in that direction himself.

One does not want to take these criticisms too far, however, as the academic framework of the universities certainly produced most of the individuals who worked on science in the early modern period even with the essentially medieval syllabus [NOTE] p , John Gascoigne "A reappraisal of the role of the universities in the scientific revolution" in Reappraisals of the Scientific Revolution Cambridge, Despite the huge volume of modern scholarship on the scientific revolution, there is no agreed answer to the question of why it happened in Western Europe in the seventeenth century and not elsewhere or earlier.

No single theory has proved entirely satisfactory or convincing, as they tend to look either at internal or external causes rather than a combination. For the external environment, the medieval contribution might have come from the institution of the university, the reception of Greek and Arabic thought and the worldview of a rational creator God. Internal to medieval science, there is the work of developing, criticising and discarding hypotheses begun by scholastic natural philosophers and still ongoing.

Natural philosophy, as taught in the Arts Faculties of the universities, was seen as an essential area of study in its own right and for moving onto higher subjects. It was an independent field, separated from theology, which enjoyed a good deal of intellectual freedom as long as it was restricted to the natural world. In general, there was religious support for natural science by the late Middle Ages and a recognition that it was an important element of learning. The extent to which medieval science led directly to the new philosophy of the scientific revolution remains a subject for debate, but it certainly had a significant influence.

Petrarch's original metaphor of light versus dark has expanded over time, implicitly at least. Even if later humanists no longer saw themselves living in a dark age, their times were still not light enough for 18th-century writers who saw themselves as living in the real Age of Enlightenment, while the period to be condemned stretched to include what we now call Early Modern times.

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Additionally, Petrarch's metaphor of darkness, which he used mainly to deplore what he saw as a lack of secular achievement, was sharpened to take on a more explicitly anti-religious and anti-clerical meaning. Nevertheless, the term 'Middle Ages', used by Biondo and other early humanists after Petrarch, was in general use before the 18th century to denote the period before the Renaissance. The earliest recorded use of the English word "medieval" was in The concept of the Dark Ages was also in use, but by the 18th century it tended to be confined to the earlier part of this period.

In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the Romantics reversed the negative assessment of Enlightenment critics with a vogue for medievalism. This stimulated interest in the Middle Ages, which for the following generation began to take on the idyllic image of an "Age of Faith". This, reacting to a world dominated by Enlightenment rationalism , expressed a romantic view of a Golden Age of chivalry.

The Middle Ages were seen with nostalgia as a period of social and environmental harmony and spiritual inspiration, in contrast to the excesses of the French Revolution and, most of all, to the environmental and social upheavals and utilitarianism of the developing Industrial Revolution. Just as Petrarch had twisted the meaning of light versus darkness, so the Romantics had twisted the judgment of the Enlightenment.

However, the period they idealized was largely the High Middle Ages , extending into Early Modern times.

Women in Medieval Literature and Society

In one respect, this negated the religious aspect of Petrarch's judgment, since these later centuries were those when the power and prestige of the Church were at their height. To many, the scope of the Dark Ages was becoming divorced from this period, denoting mainly the centuries immediately following the fall of Rome. The term was widely used by 19th-century historians. In , in The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy , Jacob Burckhardt delineated the contrast between the medieval 'dark ages' and the more enlightened Renaissance , which had revived the cultural and intellectual achievements of antiquity.

The historian Denys Hay spoke ironically of "the lively centuries which we call dark".

Science and Church in the Middle Ages

Most modern historians do not use the term "dark ages", preferring terms such as Early Middle Ages. But when used by some historians today, the term "Dark Ages" is meant to describe the economic, political, and cultural problems of the era. Since the archaeological evidence for some periods is abundant and for others scanty, there are also archaeological dark ages. Since the Late Middle Ages significantly overlap with the Renaissance , the term 'Dark Ages' has become restricted to distinct times and places in medieval Europe. Thus the 5th and 6th centuries in Britain , at the height of the Saxon invasions, have been called "the darkest of the Dark Ages", [44] in view of the societal collapse of the period and the consequent lack of historical records.

Further south and east, the same was true in the formerly Roman province of Dacia , where history after the Roman withdrawal went unrecorded for centuries as Slavs , Avars , Bulgars , and others struggled for supremacy in the Danube basin, and events there are still disputed. However, at this time the Arab Empire is often considered to have experienced its Golden Age rather than Dark Age; consequently, usage of the term must also specify a geography.

While Petrarch 's concept of a Dark Age corresponded to a mostly Christian period following pre-Christian Rome, today the term mainly applies to the cultures and periods in Europe that were least Christianized, and thus most sparsely covered by chronicles and other contemporary sources, at the time mostly written by Catholic clergy. However, from the later 20th century onwards, other historians became critical even of this nonjudgmental use of the term, for two main reasons. Secondly, 20th-century scholarship had increased understanding of the history and culture of the period, [45] to such an extent that it is no longer really 'dark' to us.

Science historian David C. Lindberg criticised the public use of 'dark ages' to describe the entire Middle Ages as "a time of ignorance , barbarism and superstition " for which "blame is most often laid at the feet of the Christian church , which is alleged to have placed religious authority over personal experience and rational activity". Around the eleventh and twelfth centuries in the High Middle Ages stronger monarchies emerged; borders were restored after the invasions of Vikings and Magyars ; technological developments and agricultural innovations were made which increased the food supply and population.

And the rejuvenation of science and scholarship in the West was due in large part to the new availability of Latin translations of Aristotle. Another view of the period is reflected by more specific notions such as the 19th-century claim [52] [53] that everyone in the Middle Ages thought the world was flat. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the history of the concept. For a history of the period, see Early Middle Ages.

For other uses, see Dark Ages disambiguation. Term for the Middle Ages. See also: Medievalism. See also: Medieval studies. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Grand Rapids, MI: Erdmans. Petrarch was the very first to speak of the Middle Ages as a 'dark age', one that separated him from the riches and pleasures of classical antiquity and that broke the connection between his own age and the civilization of the Greeks and the Romans. Baronius , Caesar. Annales Ecclesiastici , Vol.

Roma, , p. The dark ages. New York: C. Scribner's Sons, p. But they have come to be distinguished, and the Dark Ages are now no more than the first part of the Middle Age, while the term mediaeval is often restricted to the later centuries, about to , the age of chivalry, the time between the first Crusade and the Renaissance. This was not the old view , and it does not agree with the proper meaning of the name. In: Grey Matter. Cambridge University Press, , Over the last century, the sources of evidence have increased dramatically, and the remit of the historian broadly defined as a student of the past has expanded correspondingly.

In explaining his approach to writing the work, Snyder refers to the "so-called Dark Ages", noting that "Historians and archaeologists have never liked the label Dark Ages Dictionary of the Middle Ages , Supplement 1. Verdun, Kathleen, "Medievalism" pp. Same volume, Freedman, Paul , "Medieval Studies", pp. Retrieved 14 August In Barker, Graeme ed. Companion Encyclopedia of Archaeology.

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Abingdon, England: Routledge. History Workshop Journal. Apologia cuiusdam anonymi Galli calumnias Defence against the calumnies of an anonymous Frenchman , in Petrarch, Opera Omnia , Basel, , p. This quotation comes from the English translation of Mommsen's article, where the source is given in a footnote. Africa , IX, This quotation comes from the English translation of Mommsen's article.

Oakley, The medieval experience: foundations of Western cultural singularity University of Toronto Press, , pp. The High Middle Ages. The Teaching Company. They, too, turned to the study of the Middle Ages, going back to prove that, far from being a period of religious corruption, the Middle Ages were superior to the era of the Protestant Reformation, because the Middle Ages were free of the religious schisms and religious wars that were plaguing the 16th and 17th centuries.

In Chisholm, Hugh ed. Cambridge University Press. Lectures on Modern History , p. Later historians, e. Marco Porri in his Catholic History of the Church Storia della Chiesa or the Lutheran Christian Cyclopedia "Saeculum Obscurum" Archived at the Wayback Machine , have tended to amend it to the more historically significant date of , often rounding it down further to The first weeks of witnessed both the final break-up of the Carolingian Empire and the death of its deposed ruler Charles the Fat. admin