Surgery of the Male Reproductive Tract

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Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Male reproductive system 1. Head acrosome, nucleus : contains DNA Acrosome — a vesicle that contains hyaluronidase and proteinases, enzymes that aid penetration of the sperm cell into the secondary oocyte 2. Midpiece mitochondria — carry on metabolism that provides ATP for locomotion 3.

Tail — a typical flagellum that propels the sperm cell along its way. Medical and Surgical Nursing 2 Abejo 3. Risk Factors Hypospadias is a congenital present at birth anomaly abnormality , which means that the malformation occurs during fetal development. As the fetus develops, the urethra does not grow to its complete length. Also during fetal development the foreskin does not develop completely, which typically leaves extra foreskin on the topside of the penis and no foreskin on the underside of the penis.

Signs and Symptoms Abnormal appearance of foreskin and penis on exam. Abnormal direction of urine stream. The end of the penis may be curved downward. The surgical repair can usually be done on an outpatient basis. Hernia repair or other surgery in the inguinal area resulted in trapping of a testis above the scrotum. Exposure to regular alcohol consumption during pregnancy 5 or more drinks per week Exposure to pesticides Gestational diabetes Being a twin Women who drink caffeine at least 3 drinks per day [2]. Medical and Surgical Nursing 3 Abejo 4.

Urologists recommend that men who underwent the operation should first expel the sperm cells stuck in their vas deferens after the operation because it will still contain some sperm cells. A reminder as well that vasectomy has a low chance of being reversed and that your testicle will be blue as a blueberry but really painful after the operation. So males should really think about this before going through the operation. Although the end gain is that you could have intercourse with a female without getting her pregnant.

Disclaimer: Vasectomy only protects you from having children with a woman but not from venereal diseases so don't act like a dog and hump everyone you butt sniff after the recovery from the operation. The sterilization of the male reproductive system with surgery to what organ? Jun 11, Answer: The answer to what organ is operated on a male to make him sterile is the Vas Deferens. Suggested anesthetic protocols for cesarean section are provided in Table See pp.

Meloxicam is approved for single use only in cats in the United States. Perioperative antibiotics are not necessary for elective OHE or castration. Antibiotic choice should be based on culture and susceptibility or on expected pathogens in patients with pyometra, metritis, or bacterial prostatitis. Until culture results are available, antibiotics used to treat pyometra should be efficacious against Escherichia coli because this is the most common pathogen. Aminoglycosides are nephrotoxic and should be avoided when possible because of the renal dysfunction seen in pyometra.

Antibiotic selection for prostatic diseases should be based on culture results and expected blood-prostate barrier penetration. Those with a high degree of lipid solubility are best at crossing the blood-prostate barrier. Antibiotics with a high pKa are less ionized at physiologic conditions and concentrate in the prostate.

Prostatic infections produce acidic prostatic fluid that helps trap antibiotics in the fluid. Basic antibiotics that concentrate in the prostate include erythromycin, clindamycin, and trimethoprim Box Enrofloxacin and doxycycline achieve high prostatic fluid concentrations and are effective against some resistant Gram-negative urogenital pathogens. Dogs: The female reproductive tract includes the ovaries, oviduct, uterus, vagina, vulva, and mammary glands.

The ovaries are located within a thin-walled peritoneal sac; the ovarian bursa is located just caudal to the pole of each kidney. The uterine tube or oviduct courses through the wall of the ovarian bursa. The right ovary lies further cranially than the left. The right ovary lies dorsal to the descending duodenum, and the left ovary lies dorsal to the descending colon and lateral to the spleen.

Male Reproductive Issues

Medial retraction of the mesoduodenum or mesocolon exposes the ovary on each side. Each ovary is attached by the proper ligament to the uterine horn and via the suspensory ligament to the transversalis fascia medial to the last one or two ribs. The ovarian pedicle mesovarium includes the suspensory ligament with its artery and vein, ovarian artery and vein, and variable amounts of fat and connective tissue.

Canine ovarian pedicles contain more fat than feline ovarian pedicles, making it more difficult to visualize the vasculature. The ovarian vessels take a tortuous path within the pedicle. Ovarian arteries originate from the aorta. The left ovarian vein drains into the left renal vein; the right vein drains into the caudal vena cava. The suspensory ligament is a tough, whitish band of tissue that diverges as it travels from the ovary to attach to the last two ribs.

The broad ligament mesometrium is the peritoneal fold that suspends the uterus. The round ligament travels in the free edge of the broad ligament from the ovary through the inguinal canal with the vaginal process. The uterus has a short body and long narrow horns. The uterine arteries and veins supply blood to the uterus. The cervix is the constricted caudal part of the uterus and is thicker than the uterine body and vagina. It is oriented in a nearly vertical position with the uterine opening dorsally.


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The vagina is long and connects with the vaginal vestibule at the urethral entrance. The clitoris is broad, flat, vascular, infiltrated with fat, and lies on the floor of the vestibule near the vulva. The clitoral fossa is a depression on the floor of the vestibule that is sometimes mistaken for the urethral orifice.

The vulva is the external opening of the genital tract. The vulvar lips are thick and form a pointed commissure. The constrictor vulvae and constrictor vestibule muscles encircle the vulva and vestibule. See page for a description of the anatomy of the mammary glands. The major components of the male genital tract are the testicles, penis, and prostate.

The prostate gland completely surrounds the neck of the bladder and beginning of the urethra. In dogs less than 4 years of age, the prostate is usually located in the pelvic cavity at the brim of the pubis. The prostate begins to enlarge at puberty, becoming intra-abdominal in location. It varies greatly in size at maturity. The prostate is encapsulated by fibromuscular tissue and is bilobate with a prominent mid-dorsal sulcus.

The dorsal sulcus continues into the prostatic parenchyma as the median septum. The ventrolateral surfaces of the prostate are covered by a fat pad. The parenchyma is lobulated with tubuloalveolar glands that empty through small ducts 12 to 20 into the prostatic urethra. The ductus deferens enters the craniodorsal surface of the prostate and courses caudoventrally to enter the urethra at the colliculus seminalis. The prostatic arteries originate from the urogenital artery branch of internal iliac artery and supply branches to the ductus deferens, urethra, urinary bladder, ureters, and rectum.

The hypogastric sympathetic and pelvic parasympathetic nerves follow the vasculature and are essential for micturition and continence Fig. The pudendal nerve sends branches along the ventral surface of the urethra extending to the bladder neck. The pudendal nerve innervates the skeletal muscle of the external urethral sphincter. The iliac lymph nodes drain the prostate. In cats, bulbourethral glands are found caudal to the prostate at the ischial arch. FIG Innervation to the prostate and bladder. The penis has a root, body, and glans.

The root of the penis is formed by the right and left crura, which originate from the ischiatic tuberosity. Each crus is composed of corpus cavernosum penis surrounded by tunica albuginea. The two corpora extend side by side, separated by a median septum, along the length of the penile body to the os penis in the glans penis.

The distal end of the penis or glans penis is covered by the prepuce, a mucosa-lined fold of integument. The glans of the feline penis is covered with caudally directed cornified spines, which are more prominent in intact males and regress within 6 weeks of castration. The feline os penis is very small, whereas in dogs it is a long, grooved, rough bone. The urethra travels through the ventral groove in the os penis and penis. The corpus spongiosum surrounds the urethra.

The ischiocavernosus muscle arises from the ischiatic tuberosity and inserts on the crus. The retractor penis muscles originate from the ventral surface of the sacrum or the first two caudal vertebrae and extend distally on the ventral surface of the penis to insert at the level of the glans. The retractor and external anal sphincter muscles share muscle fibers. The bulbospongiosus muscle bulges between the ischiocavernosus muscles ventral to the external anal sphincter.

The scrotum is located between the inguinal region and anus. In dogs, scrotal skin is thin and sparsely haired. The feline scrotum is more dorsal and densely haired than the canine scrotum.

The sterilization of the male reproductive system with surgery to what organ?

The scrotum is a membranous pouch with a midline septum that houses the testes, epididymis, and distal spermatic cords. The testis, epididymis, ductus deferens, and associated vessels and nerves are covered by visceral and parietal vaginal tunic and spermatic fascia. The testes are relatively small and ovoid. The epididymis is large, convoluted, and attached to the lateral side of the testis. The head of the epididymis communicates with the testis, and the caudal extremity or tail is continuous with the ductus deferens. The tail is attached to the testis by the proper ligament of the testis.

The ligament of the tail of the epididymis attaches the epididymis to the vaginal tunic and the spermatic fascia. The ductus deferens loops around the ureter as it travels from the inguinal ring, enters the dorsal prostate, and terminates in the prostatic urethra. The ureter is dorsal to the ductus deferens. The spermatic cord begins at the inguinal ring where the testicular artery, testicular veins pampiniform plexus , lymphatics, testicular autonomic nerve plexus, ductus deferens and its artery and vein, smooth muscle, and visceral layer of the vaginal tunic come together.

The cremaster muscle travels along the external surface of the parietal tunic. The cremaster is a thin, flat extension of the internal abdominal oblique muscle. Before elective surgeries, food should be withheld from adults for 12 to 18 hours and from pediatric patients for 4 to 8 hours.

Ultrasound Training Male Reproductive Organs

The ventral abdomen should be clipped and aseptically prepared for any procedure requiring celiotomy. The urinary bladder should be expressed if the patient has not voided immediately before induction. In dogs, the prescrotal area should be clipped and prepared for aseptic surgery; however, trauma to the scrotum i.

Canine scrotal skin is sensitive and swells with minimal trauma or irritation. In cats, hair can be plucked or pulled from the scrotum. The prepuce or vestibule should be flushed with dilute antiseptic solutions before procedures involving these areas. For some procedures that involve the perineum, prostate, or penis, placement of a urethral catheter helps identify the urethra.

Pediatric tissues are more fragile than adult tissues and must be handled gently. In young animals, to ligatures should be used. Early neutering delays growth plate closure by an average of 8 to 9 weeks, resulting in increased bone length in male and female dogs and cats. Infantile vulva and mammary glands or penis, prepuce, and os penis persist following early neutering. Bitches are at a greater risk to develop urinary incontinence if OHE is performed before 3 months of age Box However, early neutering affects weight gain, daily food consumption, and activity level to the same degree as neutering after puberty.

The traditional method of surgical sterilization of healthy female dogs, particularly in the United States, has been OHE; whereas OVE is practiced commonly in European countries. A recent prospective study found no difference in total surgical time, pain scores, or wound scores between dogs undergoing OVH versus OVE Peeters and Kirpensteijn, However, OHE is technically more complicated and time consuming, whereas OVE can be performed quicker and through a smaller abdominal incision or by laparoscopy with less traction on the genital tract.

Alternative methods of inhibiting reproduction are listed in Box Other reasons for OHE include prevention of mammary tumors or congenital anomalies; prevention and treatment of pyometra, metritis, neoplasia i. Only one technique for OHE is described here.

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Ovariectomy prevention only. Castration prevention only. Vasectomy prevention only. Megestrol acetate. Dogs: 0. Dogs : 0. Cloprostenol Estrumate. Cabergoline Dostinex. Dogs: 1. Bromocriptine Parlodol. Mifepristone Mifeprex. Dogs: 2. Aglepristone Alizine; available only in Europe. Ideally begin drugs on day 25 after the LH peak or 20 to 28 days after first mating. Monitor abortion by ultrasound or by measuring plasma progesterone level. Consider hospitalization during administration. Do not reuse solution. This drug may have severe side effects and is not recommended.

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FIG Appearance of a large ovarian cystadenocarcinoma. A, Place a ligature on the pedicle and secure with a half hitch. Have one end of the suture be relatively short and the other long. B, Position your finger between the long end of the suture and the ligature palm up. Grab the long end of the suture with a needle holder and bring it around the pedicle a second time. C, Insert the end through the space reserved by your finger. Add two square knots to finish the ligature.

Procedure overview

Make the incision more caudal in cats to facilitate ligation of the uterine body. Clip and surgically prepare the ventral abdomen from the xiphoid to the pubis. Identify the umbilicus, and visually divide the caudal abdomen into thirds. In dogs, make the incision just caudal to the umbilicus in the cranial third of the caudal abdomen.

More caudal incisions make it difficult to exteriorize canine ovaries. In deep-chested dogs or in those with an enlarged uterus, extend the incision cranially or caudally to allow exteriorization of the tract without excessive traction. In prepubertal puppies, making the incision in the middle third of the caudal abdomen facilitates uterine body ligation.



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