Critical approaches to the fiction of Thomas Hardy by Kramer, Dale,
Thomas Hardy wrote in a great variety of poetic forms including lyrics , ballads , satire, dramatic monologues , and dialogue, as well as a three-volume epic closet drama The Dynasts —08 ,  and though in some ways a very traditional poet, because he was influenced by folksong and ballads ,  he "was never conventional," and "persistently experiment[ed] with different, often invented, stanza forms and metres,  and made use of "rough-hewn rhythms and colloquial diction".
Some of Hardy's most famous poems are from "Poems of —13", part of Satires of Circumstance , written following the death of his wife Emma in They had been estranged for twenty years and these lyric poems express deeply felt "regret and remorse". Many of Hardy's poems deal with themes of disappointment in love and life, and "the perversity of fate", but the best of them present these themes with "a carefully controlled elegiac feeling". Although his poems were initially not as well received as his novels had been, Hardy is now recognised as one of the greatest twentieth-century poets, and his verse has had a profound influence on later writers, including Robert Frost , W.
Auden , Dylan Thomas , and, most notably Philip Larkin. Hardy's family was Anglican , but not especially devout. He was baptised at the age of five weeks and attended church, where his father and uncle contributed to music. However, he did not attend the local Church of England school, instead being sent to Mr Last's school, three miles away. As a young adult, he befriended Henry R. Bastow a Plymouth Brethren man , who also worked as a pupil architect, and who was preparing for adult baptism in the Baptist Church.
Hardy flirted with conversion, but decided against it. This concluded Hardy's links with the Baptists. The irony and struggles of life, coupled with his naturally curious mind, led him to question the traditional Christian view of God:. The 'tribal god, man-shaped, fiery-faced and tyrannous' is replaced by the 'unconscious will of the Universe' which progressively grows aware of itself and 'ultimately, it is to be hoped, sympathetic'.
Scholars have debated Hardy's religious leanings for years, often unable to reach a consensus. However, Hardy's religious life seems to have mixed agnosticism , deism , and spiritism. Once, when asked in correspondence by a clergyman, Dr A. Grosart, about the question of reconciling the horrors of human and animal life with "the absolute goodness and non-limitation of God",  Hardy replied,.
Hardy regrets that he is unable to offer any hypothesis which would reconcile the existence of such evils as Dr. Grosart describes with the idea of omnipotent goodness. Perhaps Dr. Grosart might be helped to a provisional view of the universe by the recently published Life of Darwin and the works of Herbert Spencer and other agnostics. Hardy frequently conceived of, and wrote about, supernatural forces, particularly those that control the universe through indifference or caprice, a force he called The Immanent Will.
He also showed in his writing some degree of fascination with ghosts and spirits. Hardy's friends during his apprenticeship to John Hicks included Horace Moule one of the eight sons of Henry Moule , and the poet William Barnes , both ministers of religion. Moule remained a close friend of Hardy's for the rest of his life, and introduced him to new scientific findings that cast doubt on literal interpretations of the Bible,  such as those of Gideon Mantell.
Moule gave Hardy a copy of Mantell's book The Wonders of Geology in , and Adelene Buckland has suggested that there are "compelling similarities" between the "cliffhanger" section from A Pair of Blue Eyes and Mantell's geological descriptions. Sites associated with Hardy's own life and which inspired the settings of his novels continue to attract literary tourists and casual visitors. Lawrence 's Study of Thomas Hardy indicates the importance of Hardy for him, even though this work is a platform for Lawrence's own developing philosophy rather than a more standard literary study.
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The influence of Hardy's treatment of character, and Lawrence's own response to the central metaphysic behind many of Hardy's novels, helped significantly in the development of The Rainbow and Women in Love Wood and Stone , the first novel by John Cowper Powys , who was a contemporary of Lawrence, was "Dedicated with devoted admiration to the greatest poet and novelist of our age Thomas Hardy". Hardy was clearly the starting point for the character of the novelist Edward Driffield in W.
Somerset Maugham 's novel Cakes and Ale Hardy has been a significant influence on Nigel Blackwell, frontman of the post-punk British rock band Half Man Half Biscuit , who has often incorporated phrases some obscure by or about Hardy, into his song lyrics. Hardy divided his novels and collected short stories into three classes: [ citation needed ]. Hardy also produced a number of minor tales; one story, The Spectre of the Real was written in collaboration with Florence Henniker.
His works have been collected as the volume Wessex Edition —13 and the volume Mellstock Edition — His largely self-written biography appears under his second wife's name in two volumes from to , as The Early Life of Thomas Hardy, —91 and The Later Years of Thomas Hardy, — , now published in a critical one-volume edition as The Life and Work of Thomas Hardy , edited by Michael Millgate From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other people named Thomas Hardy, see Thomas Hardy disambiguation. Stinsford parish church heart Poets' Corner , Westminster Abbey ashes.
About The Novels of Thomas Hardy
Emma Gifford — Florence Dugdale — This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Chundle" " The Unconquerable " Thomas Hardy: 'Tess of the d'Urbervilles'. The Guardian. Retrieved 17 August Royal Borough Observer.
Related books and articles
A Companion to Thomas Hardy. Thomas Hardy and Contemporary Literary Studies. Retrieved 19 May The London Gazette. The Pessimism of Thomas Hardy.
Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press. Heart Burial. BBC Online. Archived from the original on 31 August Retrieved 12 August Bullen 24 June Thomas Hardy: The World of his Novels. Frances Lincoln. Thomas Hardy.
Oxford University Press. Delphi Classics. The New Yorker. Retrieved 9 November Jude the Obscure.
Penguin Classics. New York: W. Norton, , p. New York: Routledge, , p. Linda Pavlovski. Gale Group, Inc. Retrieved 7 September Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, , p. Marion Wynne Davies. New York: Prentice Hall, , p. The Poetry Foundation. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, , pp. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, , pp Retrieved 16 April LiederNet Archive. Retrieved 10 December Archived from the original on 2 May Wright, "Hardy's Heirs: D.
Chichester, Sussex: John Wiley, New York: Overlook Duckworth, , p. Bridgend, Wales: Seren, , p. Retrieved 26 April New York: Grove Press, Tess of the d'Urbervilles. Qty : Please note there is a week delivery period for this title. What he himself characteristically called 'his idiosyncratic mode of regard' is a factor few readers of Hardy's novels can overlook and one with which all serious students of his fiction must come to terms. The fact that there is nevertheless little final agreement about the nature of his achievement has prompted Miss Vigar to make a fresh study of Hardy's own notes and essays on the art of the novel and to analyse his fictional technique in the light of these unduly neglected observations.
Her approach centres on Hardy's pervasive theme of the contrast between appearance and reality and on his frequent use of 'pictorial' devices to express his imaginative vision. Oxford reader's companion to Hardy Ambivalence in Hardy The achievement of Thomas Hardy An historical evaluation of Thomas Hardy's poetry Thomas Hardy, feminity and dissent The Cambridge companion to Thomas Hardy Registering the difference Questioning the father With the grain Thomas Hardy's major novels The life of Thomas Hardy On Thomas Hardy Genealogy and fiction in Hardy Thomas Hardy and paradoxes of love Hardy's lyrics Les forestiers Thomas Hardy on stage Thomas Hardy in our time Seeing women as men The decline of the goddess Coutume et destin Critical essays on Thomas Hardy's poetry Hardy New perspectives on Thomas Hardy Shadowtime Hardy's literary language and Victorian philology A preface to Hardy Thomas Hardy and the proper study of mankind Cancelled words The hidden Hardy A Hardy chronology Testamentary acts Masculine identity in Hardy and Gissing Thomas Hardy's tragic poetry Women and sexuality in the novels of Thomas Hardy Hardy's fables of integrity A Hardy companion A critical introduction to the poems of Thomas Hardy Critical essays on Thomas Hardy Hardy the writer Il vizio moderno dell'irrequietezza Thomas Hardy and his god Thomas Hardy and visual structures The descent of the imagination An Annotated critical bibliography of Thomas Hardy Victorian pastoral Thomas Hardy, distracted preacher?
A Thomas Hardy dictionary Alternative Hardy From Hardy to Faulkner Hardy and the erotic Hardy in history Hardy the creator The collected letters of Thomas Hardy Volume 7 Hardy's metres and Victorian prosody A descriptive catalogue of the Thomas Hardy collection of the Chuo university librairy Figures in a Wessex landscape The unknown Thomas Hardy Hardy's influence on the modern novel Psychological vision and social criticism in the novels of Thomas Hardy The collected letters of Thomas Hardy Volume 6 Funktionen des Dialekts im regionalen Roman von Gaskell bis Lawrence Thomas Hardy's heroines The expressive eye The collected letters of Thomas Hardy Volume 5 The Human predicament in Hardy's novels Annals of the labouring poor Study of Thomas Hardy and other essays The collected letters of Thomas Hardy Volume 4 The life and work of Thomas Hardy The Rural novel Hardy's use of allusion Thomas Hardy and the Tristan legend The Poetry of Thomas Hardy True correspondance, a phenomenology of Thomas Hardy's novels Hardy's wessex The Evolutionary self The collected letters of Thomas Hardy Volume 3 Thomas Hardy and women Unity in Hardy's novels The Short stories of Thomas Hardy The Neglected Hardy Good little Thomas Hardy Hardy's poetry Characters in the twilight The collected letters of Thomas Hardy Volume 2 Les Forestiers The Poetry of Thomas Hardy's novels I Racconti di Thomas Hardy Thomas Hardy, poems The collected letters of Thomas Hardy Critical approaches to the fiction of Thomas Hardy The First Mrs Thomas Hardy Hardy and the sister arts The collected letters of Thomas Hardy Volume 1 The wormwood cup Thomas Hardy and history Social transformations in Hardy's tragic novels.