The woman sits in a cemetery at dusk, sobbing. Behind her, silhouetted and translucent, a man kneels, then fades away, a ghost. On this Thursday afternoon in late September, he is engrossed in scenes he shot the previous weekend for a music video he is making with his cousin. He wants it to be part of the package of work he submits to colleges that emphasize film study, along with a documentary he is making about home-schooled students. Now comes the editing. Vishal taught himself to use sophisticated editing software in part by watching tutorials on YouTube.
He does not leave his chair for more than two hours, sipping Pepsi , his face often inches from the screen, as he perfects the clip from the cemetery. The image of the crying woman was shot separately from the image of the kneeling man, and he is trying to fuse them.
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He occasionally sends a text message or checks Facebook, but he is focused in a way he rarely is when doing homework. He says the chief difference is that filmmaking feels applicable to his chosen future, and he hopes colleges, like the University of Southern California or the California Institute of the Arts in Los Angeles , will be so impressed by his portfolio that they will overlook his school performance.
On this day, his homework includes a worksheet for Latin, some reading for English class and an economics essay, but they can wait. As he edits, the windows on the screen come alive; every few seconds, he clicks the mouse to make tiny changes to the lighting and flow of the images, and the software gives him constant feedback. It represents a concession by his parents. They allowed him to buy it, despite their continuing concerns about his technology habits, because they wanted to support his filmmaking dream.
At this point in the semester, it seems she is right. He says he has been able to make headway by applying himself, but also by cutting back his workload. Unlike last year, he is not taking advanced placement classes, and he has chosen to retake Algebra II not in the classroom but in an online class that lets him work at his own pace.
She says they want seniors to intensify their efforts. As it is, she says, even if Vishal improves his performance significantly, someone with his grades faces long odds in applying to the kinds of colleges he aspires to. Reilly, the principal, that the way to reach these students is on their own terms. Hands-On Technology. Big Macintosh monitors sit on every desk, and a man with hip glasses and an easygoing style stands at the front of the class. He is Geoff Diesel, 40, a favorite teacher here at Woodside who has taught English and film. Now he teaches one of Mr. He has a rapt audience of more than 20 students as he shows a video of the band Nirvana mixing their music, then holds up a music keyboard.
In the back of the room, Mr. Reilly watches, thrilled. He introduced the audio course last year and enough students signed up to fill four classes. He could barely pull together one class when he introduced Mandarin, even though he had secured iPads to help teach the language. He means that they are more likely to tune out school, skip class or not do their homework, and that they may not get healthful meals at home.
They may also do their most enthusiastic writing not for class but in text messages and on Facebook. The school is 56 percent Latino, 38 percent white and 5 percent African-American, and it sends 93 percent of its students to four-year or community colleges. Reilly says that the audio class provides solid vocational training and can get students interested in other subjects.
And he thinks the key is that they love not just the music but getting their hands on the technology. It does not mean he sees technology as a panacea. He personally feels the sting, since his advanced classes have one-third as many students as they had a decade ago. Vishal remains a Latin student, one whom Mr.
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Eaton describes as particularly bright. But the teacher wonders if technology might be the reason Vishal seems to lose interest in academics the minute he leaves class. Diesel, by contrast, does not think technology is behind the problems of Vishal and his schoolmates — in fact, he thinks it is the key to connecting with them, and an essential tool.
Diesel says he wonders if Vishal is a bit like Woody Allen , talented but not interested in being part of the system. But Mr. Back to Reading Aloud. Vishal sits near the back of English IV. One student begins to read aloud, and the rest follow along. To Ms. Blondel, the exercise in group reading represents a regression in American education and an indictment of technology. The reason she has to do it, she says, is that students now lack the attention span to read the assignments on their own. In some classes she can count on little more than one-third of the students to read a page homework assignment.
It is a reminder of the choices that have followed the students through the semester: computer or homework? Book Description. Condition: Very Good. The book has been read, but is in excellent condition. Pages are intact and not marred by notes or highlighting. The spine remains undamaged. Seller Inventory GOR More information about this seller Contact this seller. Book Description Routledge, Former Library book. Great condition for a used book!
Minimal wear. Seller Inventory GRP Fast Dispatch. Expedited UK Delivery Available. Excellent Customer Service. Seller Inventory BBI Condition: Good. This book has hardback covers. In good all round condition. Seller Inventory Condition: Fair. The desired result—an audience that can comprehend, analyze, and create their own sophisticated media messages, will be beneficial to both newsmakers and news consumers. Public broadcasters are likely to enjoy the increased levels of audience trust that accompany media literacy initiatives. Tools are being built, which are easily accessible on the web and potentially brand-building.
The initiative includes videos, lesson plans and production activities for middle and high school students. The curriculum, Access, Analyze, Ac t, is divided into three sections: the first is designed to help students seek out reliable sources of election coverage; the second is to help students analyze the quality and substance of existing news sources; and the third is to help students create their own media messages. The curriculum incorporates existing PBS resources as well as external sites that invite students to employ social media tools in order to advance civic engagement.
For example, in one lesson plan, students analyze election-related radio programming from PRX, and then blog about their findings. External examples : NewsTrust is a foundation-funded nonprofit devoted to promoting quality journalism through a process of evaluating news stories. The site includes a detailed guide on how to evaluate stories, inviting users to think deeply about elements such as accuracy, balance, context, fairness, originality, transparency and responsibility. It also includes a network for civic engagement consisting of over journalists, students and educators.
Spin Spotter is a digital tool that attempts to promote understanding of bias and subjectivity in conventional news. Spin Spotter is a for-profit company that has created a mechanism that allows users to demarcate, edit, and share evidence of spin in mainstream news stories. Some organizations are also educating people directly. The News 21 project , funded by the Carnegie and Knight Foundations, works with leading journalism graduate schools to revitalize curriculum and train makers of cutting-edge journalism in enduring standards.
This media-literacy approach is as interesting to commercial media as to noncommercial. In addition to these online resources, the IFC Media project has sponsored a series of public media literacy town hall meetings with students, citizens, educators and prominent journalists in New York, Boston and Philadelphia.
In addition to helping audiences understand how news is constructed, some organizations are training users to report the news as well. Training citizen journalists, reporters and media makers is especially important in areas in which citizens have been disenfranchised. Another human rights organization, DigiActive trains activists around the world to use the Internet and mobile phones for reporting and outreach.
PhotoVoice teaches disadvantaged citizens to become news photographers. Such training initiatives are not limited to impoverished areas, however. Denver Open Media provides training, classes, and studio equipment. They also operate under an entirely user-driven philosophy: citizens create the programs, offer feedback, and vote on broadcast schedules. Standards-setting for user contributors: Apart from formal news literacy training initiatives, other efforts have focused on formalizing norms and routines for contributors and citizen journalists.
As citizen journalism evolves, and as professional news organizations increasingly make their own work more interactive, journalistic standards will develop by example and by circulation. Standard-setters can also evolve into trusted sources, as they provide a context and platform for generating reliable, transparent news and information.
Wikipedia has monitors—highly involved Wikipedia volunteers—dedicated to patrolling for tone and balance; their dedication becomes a standard sometimes contested for others. Projects such as the Online Ethics Wiki draw from earlier codes of media practice, applying them to the networked environment. The Global Network Initiative has brought private companies, human rights organizations, academics, investors and technology leaders together to craft principles that guide information and communications technology companies when faced with government censorship or requests for user information.
This project, through codes of best practices, has educated makers and media organizations on the utility of the copyright doctrine of fair use using copyrighted material without permission or payment, under some circumstances.
It has changed industry practice within the U. It has done so by working within defined creator communities, where news of the utility of a standard circulates quickly. Know the News is a Knight Foundation-funded initiative that employs interactive tools and games to help users develop news literacy skills and widen their awareness of global news. While Global Pulse and Latin Pulse were designed to promote news literacy skills, they lacked the interactive element that attracts a younger demographic.
So, Know the News was designed as a dynamic tool for use in university level journalism and communication courses, although it is free and open to everyone. The central feature of Know the News is a video remixer that allows users to edit global coverage of televised news stories. Users can then add their own commentary, and publish and share their work with the entire Know the News community. A customized ratings tool allows users to rate and comment upon remixes and stand-alone video news stories, evaluating them for fairness, accuracy, presentation and trustworthiness.
Know the News also includes an interactive news literacy challenge; a wiki where educators and students can post and share their research; and learning guides that outline the ways in which these tools can be incorporated into course activities. During its first few months as a beta site, it received over 2, distinct hits and over 14, pageviews. Know the News is currently in an outreach phase, partnering with professors for expanded classroom use.
Know the News. Digital journalism pioneers are innovating new formats, interfaces, and platforms for delivering news and information and for sponsoring audience engagement with public affairs. In some cases these piggyback on commercial open platforms and software; in others they leverage free open source software and related developer communities. Public broadcasters have been on the forefront of developing previous generations of communications technology that serve the public, such as closed captioning. Strategic investments in innovation could pay off again, returning dividends of more connected, informed and active publics.
Designers are working to develop digital news formats that are interactive, streamlined, and pleasing to the eye. There is a recognition that photos, video, audio, graphics, games and interactive exercises can engage and inform as much or better than traditional forms of journalistic story-telling. Just as importantly, true innovation involves thinking through and using new technologies in way that promote the other best practices reviewed in this report, not just as a new gadget or diversion that can be marketed and used to drive traffic to a website.
What follows are examples of specific technologies that have been actively incorporated into news organization efforts both inside and outside of public broadcasting. These early uses are still developing with trial and error and evaluation is needed. It works well for on-the-scene coverage, tag-based aggregation of links and commentary, and simple, powerful social networking that can be used for crowdsourced reporting.
Often individual reporters combine work-related and personal updates, breaking down traditional barriers between gatekeepers and audiences. Several organizations are experimenting with the use of Twitter. CNN has recently acquired the popular cnnbrk Twitter account that has more than two million followers.
News games: Topical and educational games are being designed to address breaking issues, provide creative ways to build collective knowledge, and help users play active roles that help them comprehend complex social systems. Games are an important rising medium, but can be expensive to design and difficult to promote. ITVS has taken serious issues such as obesity and peak oil and turned them into engaging interactive games.
ITVS has a series of thought-provoking games, including World without Oil a simulation in which more than gamers from over 40 countries used blogs, Flickr, YouTube and podcasts to imagine their response to a sustained energy crisis, and FatWorld an experimental, online game that examines American obesity, nutrition and socioeconomics.
An external example is My U. Rep: Role Play Congress! Visualizations: Sites like ManyEyes provide online tools for both professional and citizen reporters to present data in multiple graphic formats. For example, U. Government Expenses, allows users to explore categories of government expenses over a four-decade period. Mashups: Remixing video, audio and text has become a common form of online self-expression. Offering users tools for remixing news and documentary content can help them to learn more about the construction of narratives and perspectives.
Widgets and applications: Widgets are small, self-contained programs that can be embedded in websites. Experimental interfaces: Many different developers are playing around with new ways to display headlines, news memes and hot topics. For example, Doodle Buzz is an experimental interface that enables users to develop and explore typographic maps of news articles. Screen savers: Like broadcast-based news tickers, news-based screen savers give users a chance to quickly scan headlines, with the added bonus of being able to click through to a story that catches their attention.
The group has created some truly innovative pieces. A partnership with Bloggingheads. Digital journalism sites are well-poised to foster political conversations and civic engagement, whether they are election-centered or policy-centered, partisan or not. Political sites tend to encourage and even rely upon user comments that can sometimes turn into rigorous discussions that inspire people to take action. Political conversations are also stimulated by government transparency initiatives. Some of the most dynamic new media conversations are taking place in the political sphere.
They also inspire civic participation and engagement through informal learning and feelings of efficacy but also by providing details that let citizens know how or even make it easier for them to contact elected officials, show up at events, voice their opinion, or influence their peers.
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A number of election-related public broadcasting projects have already been described above. Partisan news: Such sites typically speak to their political bases, and serve as fodder for reporting from mainstream and opposition sources. The left-wing Huffington Post and the right-wing Drudge Report have both built visible brands and attracted large audiences due to their constant stream of new content both rely heavily on aggregation.
While the news value of these sites is often called into question, there is no escaping the influence they wield. On the left, Talking Points Memo follows a typical blog format, with aggregated articles and shorter original posts while The Daily Kos relies on a large network of users who contribute original posts. The recent presidential election both drove traffic to existing news sites and supported the launch of compelling new outlets. Politico quickly established itself as an influential news brand.
The widely read RealClearPolitics aggregates and filters political commentary, news, and polling data from all political perspectives. Government transparency: Digital platforms have also allowed for much greater checks and balances on government officials as well as journalists. Spearheaded by groups like the Sunlight Foundation , there are many examples of initiatives that push for increasing government transparency.
For example, Open Congress is a behind-the-scenes look at current bills and debates in Congress that allows users to track and comment on issues, donations and votes. Open the Government is an advocacy group that fights for reducing secrecy in government.
Additionally, the award-winning MAPLight.
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New investigative sites are also focusing on government transparency issues. ProPublica produces a raft of investigative journalism on political stories that are typically overlooked by mainstream sources. ProPublica has relied on crowdsourced information since its inception: users submit links to government transparency and accountability stories from around the web. Users can browse the failures by agency or category, and rank them. The site launched in December , and by mid-January had drawn nearly , visitors.
In the open online news environment, factcheckers play an important role in separating political realities from falsehoods. Additionally, The Center for Media and Democracy hosts SourceWatch , a collaborative Wiki that profiles the people behind the public agenda, as well as PR Watch , an initiative that helps readers recognize recycled public relations pieces that masquerade as news.
There are several government accountability initiatives that facilitate conversations between politicians and their constituents. Capitol News Connection journalists then take the top questions directly to members of Congress and post the answers on the Ask Your Lawmaker site. Users can submit and vote upon questions including video questions for the White House press corps to ask President Obama. President Obama has also taken direct advantage of formats that allow for this type of communication. During its first round, 20, people participated. By the second round, more than , people asked over 76, questions and cast over 4,, votes.
This feature has now been moved to White House. Entertainment: Finally, there are a number of successful political entertainment hybrids. Political entertainment hybrids are successful outside of the U. They are judged by a panel of former prime ministers, and the winner is ultimately chosen through audience vote.
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Politifact a project of The St. Petersburg Times received a Pulitzer Prize in for its innovative online tools for tracking political claims. Reporters and editors from the newspaper gather and assess the data that feeds each of these meters, and both the tools and the evaluations feature humorous commentary designed to engage users:. The PoliFact site serves as a resource not only for its users, but for other news organizations.
For example, Reason used the Obameter to analyze which promises the president had elected to keep first. Since there are few geographical limitations on digital journalism, the best practices above can be employed locally, nationally, or globally. A new generation of digital journalism projects are demonstrating forms of coverage that cross national boundaries.
While many of the best practice examples reviewed in the body of this report are targeting audiences at the level of the local community or those aligned around niche interests and identities, these practices can be used by traditional news organizations and others to engage publics at a national level, or even across national and cultural boundaries. Transnational and global online journalism projects can serve as both partners and models for public broadcasters. Digital distribution has allowed a new generation of global media projects to blossom. Globalization of a multitude of pressing public policy issues—from the breakdown of the international financial system, to immigration, to terror networks, to environmental concerns and more—has also raised the stakes for bridging national and ethnic divides, providing platforms for frank debate and establishing communications resources and training for disenfranchised populations.
Global Voices has emerged as a leader in organizing and setting standards for citizen journalists around the world, demonstrating the value of bottom-up perspectives to both international reporters and curious readers. Working with volunteer translators and regional blogger-editors, the site aggregates and curates social media from around the world—blogs, podcasts, photos and video—and hosts related conversations.
Special Coverage pages are designed to help journalists improve their international reporting; external sites are invited to post Global Voices headline feeds and podcasts and the site has become a source for traditional outlets such as the New York Times. Ground Report is a global site that allows anyone to publish articles as well as post videos. The organization partners with mainstream news organizations and shares revenues with its citizen contributors. In contrast, Allvoices is a global citizen-journalism site with no editorial oversight at all—anyone can post about anything, from anywhere.
Journalism entrepreneurs are also taking advantage of the lower costs, cheap storage and broader reach of online distribution to take a chance on costly beats that legacy outlets have slashed. Videos offer vivid on-the ground reports, while handpicked bloggers from around the world post more casual observations. A for-profit site, GlobalPost will rely on ads, syndication, and paid membership that offers users access to premium content.
Journalism analysts are watching to see if this site will be sustainable given previous failed experiments in subscription-based online news. Some sites that foster global understanding do so for the specific purpose of publishing news that is generally underreported. Their map , allows users to choose stories on under-reported topics from any part of the globe. This dual purpose differentiates us from other nonprofit news-oriented services, allowing us to facilitate online and in-person dialogue between people and professionals working everyday for human rights and sustainable development.
Digital formats also provide news organizations with room to showcase perspectives that were previously unheard.
Newspapers are also able to feature in-depth looks at international issues through multimedia special reports. International media development organization Internews has a mission that combines crossing cultural divides with training underserved populations. Through their work in over 70 countries, Internews has trained over 70, people by offering journalism education; helping local media professionals develop original programming; providing infrastructure support; and fighting for fair and reasonable media laws and policies. Link TV has initiated many projects that attempt to overcome cultural barriers both internationally and within the United States.
As we conducted this research, we noted related areas that do not fall within the scope of this study, but bear further examination. The best practices detailed above focus largely on content strategy as it applies to digital platforms. However, editorial decision-making does not occur in a vacuum. In order to bring these best practices to life, managers and producers and reporters must weigh available resources and desired impacts. In this time of technological and economic flux, tools for predicting both income and outcomes have become less reliable.
Below we provide an overview of two areas that public media makers need to examine more closely in order to create and support high-quality, effective journalism projects. Strong leadership and strategic planning, both on the part of the CPB and individual public broadcasting entities, will be necessary to thrive during this transition. Part of this evaluation of best practices in digital journalism is the consideration of what low-cost changes public broadcasters can make. Right now, however, much of this is guesswork.
More research, more trial-and-error, and more policy deliberation will be needed to reveal the right mix of commercial, government, and philanthropic support. With some notable exceptions, many of the projects and outlets described above rely on government, foundation and donor support to survive. Commercial news models have suffered multiple blows in the transition from analog to digital, with newspapers suffering most visibly.
This has led to widespread analysis of and experimentation in journalism funding models, many of which are tailored to support print rather than broadcast news. Mark Glaser at PBS MediaShift 92 summarizes a number of new models that have been proposed and tried, including ad placement on blog networks associated with news outlets; crowdfunding of particular beats or stories; producing customized hyperlocal papers for users; developing local portals that aggregate news sources; placing ads on multimedia content such as podcasts and videos; niche sites, and creating nonprofit news sites.
Public broadcasters have experience with this last suggestion, but the nonprofit news model has not proven to be particularly sustainable. For the Beyond Broadcast conference, Diane Mermigas of MediaPost analyzed how for-profit models might be applied to nonprofit news projects. Local public media projects also have its own opportunities for generating revenue according to Mermigas, including local applications of national content.
Recent user-funded journalism experiments, such as Spot. Weighing the impact of new initiatives in digital journalism should not be a guessing game. Public broadcasting needs to arrive at a commonly shared set of expectations and metrics for assessing impact that include an evaluation of a user numbers, diversity, engagement, learning, participation, and mobilization, b the influence on other media in terms of their agenda and presentation of issues and subjects and c the connection to community-level and national policy agendas and decision-making.
Understanding and tracking impact is a function of financial resources and expertise. Not every public media organization will be able to employ sophisticated impact methods, but for CPB there is a role for sponsoring and disseminating this type of research. Several of the experts we interviewed also suggest that much benefit could come from media organizations—including CPB—publicly releasing their internal data on audiences and usage and making the data available to academic researchers for secondary analysis.
Just as production of news content is likely to be increasingly collaborative with universities as partners, so should evaluation of impact. Local public media organizations can trade on their university affiliations to partner with communication researchers and survey institutes at their universities to conduct formal evaluation. Collaborations with university scholars have the added benefit of ideally leading to peer-reviewed publication that will generate additional quality research, and innovation.
Additional support from CPB, affiliated foundations or government granting agencies for university-based researchers will sponsor advances in the design and impact of digital journalism. From our conversations with the interviewed experts and our work on other projects, several dimensions and methods for evaluating impact are identified here:.
Formative research with influentials and early adopters: Understanding impact starts beforea digital journalism initiative is launched. Then once a site is launched, these influentials would be asked to serve as active endorsers, promoters, and early adopters of the news project.
They can also serve as bloggers or citizen journalists at the site. Content analysis techniques should also be used to track the quality of user engagement and contributions, examining depth of content, level of disagreement versus consensus and level of social support. Tracking media and policy impact: Beyond evaluating users directly, as mentioned, the influence on the agenda of other media and that of community groups or policymakers are also relevant dimensions of impact. These are easier to monitor through Google News alerts that track mentions in other news media and blogs.
Though public media organizations are no doubt already using these conventional tools, more work, training, and dissemination is needed in making their use consistent and effective. Finally, in thinking about tracking and measuring impact, there is one key caveat offered by our experts: Impact metrics should be used in a balanced way in making editorial content decisions. Said Tom Rosenstiel:. The data are a tool like any other tool. They offer potential, but they also offer risk. This is why, in crafting new impact measurements for public media, mission must trump metrics. By prioritizing and measuring social and civic outcomes rather than mass indicators, public media institutions will create journalism that better engages, serves and activates publics.
She has received numerous journalism and scholarly awards, including career achievement awards in from the International Documentary Association and in from the International Digital Media and Arts Association. Aufderheide serves on the board of directors of Kartemquin Films, a leading independent social documentary production company, and and on the editorial boards of a variety of publications, including Communication Law and Policy and In These Times newspaper. She has served on the board of directors of the Independent Television Service, which produces innovative television programming for underserved audiences under the umbrella of the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, and on the film advisory board of the National Gallery of Art.
She received her Ph. Clark has been researching, creating, writing and fighting for independent media for more than a decade, and served as the executive editor of In These Times magazine, and the co-editor of LiP Magazine. A social scientist who studies strategic communication in policy-making and public affairs, his current work focuses on controversies surrounding science, the environment, and public health.
Nisbet is the widely cited author of close to two dozen journal articles and book chapters. He earned a Ph. B in Government at Dartmouth College. Carin Dessauer , a Washington, D. Dessauer first became affiliated with the university when she served as a Shapiro Fellow. Katie Donnelly is a Research Fellow at the Center for Social Media, where she researches and blogs about the future of public media.
Teaching Online Journalism. The future of the Internet III. A mobile voice: The use of mobile phones in citizen media. Light and cheap, netbooks are poised to reshape PC industry. The New York Times.
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