For example, a gynecologist oncologist whose patient has ovarian cancer can turn to the Ovary chapter and quickly read a summary of all of the hereditary cancer syndromes that include ovarian cancer. She can learn the questions she should be asking when expanding that patient's personal and family history, which genes are most relevant, whether to refer that patient on for genetic counseling and testing, and how to manage that patient long-term if the patient is mutation positive or negative. The same holds true for the practicing oncologist, surgeon, urologist, endocrinologist, gynecologist, primary care physician, physician's assistant, advanced practice nurse and any other clinician seeing a patient who has had cancer.
This guidebook also contains an overview article on genetic counseling and testing and several in depth articles on issues that are up and coming in the field of hereditary cancer. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology E-Book. Shlomo Melmed. Endocrinology - E-Book. Larry Jameson. Progressive Management. Genetic Diagnosis of Endocrine Disorders. Roy E. Pediatric Endocrinology E-Book. Mark A. Clinical Manual of Psychopharmacology in the Medically Ill. James L. Lysosomal Storage Disorders. Bryan Winchester. Cancer of the Thoracic Cavity.
Vincent DeVita. Clinical Pharmacology During Pregnancy. Elsevier Science. Epilepsy in Women. Cynthia Harden. Robert Rapaport.
Women with Epilepsy. Esther Bui. Drugs in Psychiatry. Basant K. Preclinical Safety Evaluation of Biopharmaceuticals. Joy A. Autoimmune Reactions. Sudhir Paul. Georg F. Neurotransmitters and Drugs. Valerie Askanas. Cardiovascular Genetics and Genomics in Clinical Practice. Sanjiv J. Pediatric Endocrinology. Sally Radovick. Molecular Genetics of Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Mauro D'Amato. Nicholas Wood. Essentials of Genomic and Personalized Medicine. Geoffrey S. Essentials of Sleep Medicine. Safwan Badr. Biomarkers in Cancer Screening and Early Detection.
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Communication Skills. Nursing Skills. Surgical Skills. Development of the Nervous System. Disorders of the Nervous System. History of Neuroscience. Molecular and Cellular Systems. Neuroscientific Techniques. Sensory and Motor Systems. Nursing Studies Obstetrics and Gynaecology Gynaecology. Chemical Pathology. Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics. Medical Microbiology and Virology. Caring for Others. Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Molecular Biology and Genetics.
Reproduction, Growth and Development. Addiction Medicine. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Forensic Psychiatry. Learning Disabilities. Old Age Psychiatry. Public Health. Clinical Oncology. Clinical Radiology. Interventional Radiology. Nuclear Medicine. Cardiothoracic Surgery. Critical Care Surgery. General Surgery. People who report a higher quality of life tend to survive longer. Additionally, patients with worse prognoses may be depressed or report poorer quality of life because they perceive that their condition is likely to be fatal.
People with cancer have an increased risk of blood clots in their veins which can be life threatening. Estimates are that in , In , approximately The most common as of [update] are lung cancer 1. Deaths from cancer were 5. Weinberg , "If we lived long enough, sooner or later we all would get cancer. Some slow-growing cancers are particularly common, but often are not fatal.
Cancer has existed for all of human history. In the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries, it became acceptable for doctors to dissect bodies to discover the cause of death. The Dutch professor Francois de la Boe Sylvius , a follower of Descartes , believed that all disease was the outcome of chemical processes and that acidic lymph fluid was the cause of cancer. His contemporary Nicolaes Tulp believed that cancer was a poison that slowly spreads and concluded that it was contagious.
The physician John Hill described tobacco snuff as the cause of nose cancer in This view of the disease was first formulated by the English surgeon Campbell De Morgan between and Although many diseases such as heart failure may have a worse prognosis than most cases of cancer, cancer is the subject of widespread fear and taboos. The euphemism of "a long illness" to describe cancers leading to death is still commonly used in obituaries , rather than naming the disease explicitly, reflecting an apparent stigma. Western conceptions of patients' rights for people with cancer include a duty to fully disclose the medical situation to the person, and the right to engage in shared decision-making in a way that respects the person's own values.
In other cultures, other rights and values are preferred. For example, most African cultures value whole families rather than individualism. In parts of Africa, a diagnosis is commonly made so late that cure is not possible, and treatment, if available at all, would quickly bankrupt the family. As a result of these factors, African healthcare providers tend to let family members decide whether, when and how to disclose the diagnosis, and they tend to do so slowly and circuitously, as the person shows interest and an ability to cope with the grim news.
In the United States and some other cultures, cancer is regarded as a disease that must be "fought" to end the "civil insurrection"; a War on Cancer was declared in the US. Military metaphors are particularly common in descriptions of cancer's human effects, and they emphasize both the state of the patient's health and the need to take immediate, decisive actions himself rather than to delay, to ignore or to rely entirely on others. The military metaphors also help rationalize radical, destructive treatments. In the s, a relatively popular alternative cancer treatment in the US was a specialized form of talk therapy , based on the idea that cancer was caused by a bad attitude.
Some psychotherapists said that treatment to change the patient's outlook on life would cure the cancer. One idea about why people with cancer are blamed or stigmatized, called the just-world hypothesis , is that blaming cancer on the patient's actions or attitudes allows the blamers to regain a sense of control. This is based upon the blamers' belief that the world is fundamentally just and so any dangerous illness, like cancer, must be a type of punishment for bad choices, because in a just world, bad things would not happen to good people.
Indirect costs are typically estimated to exceed the health care costs of cancer. In the United States, cancer is included as a protected condition by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission EEOC , mainly due to the potential for cancer having discriminating effects on workers. Employers may also make hiring or firing decisions based on misconceptions about cancer disabilities, if present.
The EEOC provides interview guidelines for employers, as well as lists of possible solutions for assessing and accommodating employees with cancer. Because cancer is a class of diseases,   it is unlikely that there will ever be a single " cure for cancer " any more than there will be a single treatment for all infectious diseases. Experimental cancer treatments are studied in clinical trials to compare the proposed treatment to the best existing treatment.
Treatments that succeeded in one cancer type can be tested against other types.
The improved understanding of molecular biology and cellular biology due to cancer research has led to new treatments for cancer since US President Richard Nixon declared the " War on Cancer " in Competition for financial resources appears to have suppressed the creativity, cooperation, risk-taking and original thinking required to make fundamental discoveries, unduly favoring low-risk research into small incremental advancements over riskier, more innovative research. Other consequences of competition appear to be many studies with dramatic claims whose results cannot be replicated and perverse incentives that encourage grantee institutions to grow without making sufficient investments in their own faculty and facilities.
Virotherapy , which uses convert viruses, is being studied. Cancer affects approximately 1 in 1, pregnant women. The most common cancers found during pregnancy are the same as the most common cancers found in non-pregnant women during childbearing ages: breast cancer, cervical cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, melanoma, ovarian cancer and colorectal cancer. Diagnosing a new cancer in a pregnant woman is difficult, in part because any symptoms are commonly assumed to be a normal discomfort associated with pregnancy.
As a result, cancer is typically discovered at a somewhat later stage than average. Some imaging procedures, such as MRIs magnetic resonance imaging , CT scans , ultrasounds and mammograms with fetal shielding are considered safe during pregnancy; some others, such as PET scans , are not. Treatment is generally the same as for non-pregnant women. However, radiation and radioactive drugs are normally avoided during pregnancy, especially if the fetal dose might exceed cGy. In some cases, some or all treatments are postponed until after birth if the cancer is diagnosed late in the pregnancy.
Early deliveries are often used to advance the start of treatment. Surgery is generally safe, but pelvic surgeries during the first trimester may cause miscarriage. Some treatments, especially certain chemotherapy drugs given during the first trimester , increase the risk of birth defects and pregnancy loss spontaneous abortions and stillbirths.
Elective abortions are not required and, for the most common forms and stages of cancer, do not improve the mother's survival. In a few instances, such as advanced uterine cancer, the pregnancy cannot be continued and in others, the patient may end the pregnancy so that she can begin aggressive chemotherapy. Some treatments can interfere with the mother's ability to give birth vaginally or to breastfeed. Radiation to the breast reduces the ability of that breast to produce milk and increases the risk of mastitis.
Also, when chemotherapy is given after birth, many of the drugs appear in breast milk, which could harm the baby. Veterinary oncology , concentrating mainly on cats and dogs, is a growing specialty in wealthy countries and the major forms of human treatment such as surgery and radiotherapy may be offered. The most common types of cancer differ, but the cancer burden seems at least as high in pets as in humans.
Animals, typically rodents, are often used in cancer research and studies of natural cancers in larger animals may benefit research into human cancer. In non-humans, a few types of transmissible cancer have been described, wherein the cancer spreads between animals by transmission of the tumor cells themselves. This phenomenon is seen in dogs with Sticker's sarcoma also known as canine transmissible venereal tumor , and in Tasmanian devils with devil facial tumour disease DFTD. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Cancer disambiguation. Play media.
Main article: Cancer signs and symptoms. Main article: Metastasis. Main article: Causes of cancer. Further information: Alcohol and cancer and Smoking and cancer. Main article: Diet and cancer. Main article: Infectious causes of cancer. Main article: Radiation-induced cancer. Main article: Cancer syndrome. Main article: Carcinogenesis. Main article: Oncogenomics. Main article: Cancer epigenetics. Further information: List of cancer types and List of oncology-related terms.
Main article: Cancer prevention. Main article: Cancer screening. See also: Cancer syndrome. Main articles: Management of cancer and oncology. Main article: Cancer immunotherapy. Main article: Lasers in cancer treatment. See also: Cancer survival rates , List of cancer mortality rates in the United States , and Cancer survivor. Main article: Epidemiology of cancer. See also: List of countries by cancer rate. Main article: History of cancer.
Main article: Cancer research.
CANCER IS A GENETIC DISEASE
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