Initially the PEA method could indicate the space charge distribution in the materials only indirectly. Some data processing, for example deconvolution, was necessary to obtain the charge profile.
The People of Delos
Some very important improvements were made recently to the PEA method which eliminated the need for deconvolution. This paper describes the latest improvements and the practical construction of the detecting electrode system under which the output signal is linearly proportional to the space charge distribution. Nowadays the PEA method can be used to measure the space charge distribution with or without DC electrical stress, not only in free-standing dielectric plates but also directly in coaxial cables.
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The emergence of technical acoustics and electroacoustics illustrates a scientific field at the intersection of science and technology. Wittje starts with Helmholtz's and Rayleigh's work and its intersection with telegraphy and early wireless, and continues with the industrialization of acoustics during World War I, when sound measurement was automated and electrical engineering and radio took over the concept of noise.
Researchers no longer appealed to the musically trained ear to understand sound but to the thinking and practices of electrical engineering.
Finally, Wittje covers the demilitarization of acoustics during the Weimar Republic and its remilitarization at the beginning of the Third Reich. This is history of science of the first order, a really fascinating and well-written book that maps the multiple geographies of electroacoustics in the interwar period. Wittje's innovative conceptual framework links sound, space, and time to explore the transformation of physics in the interwar period. In The Age of Electroacoustics , Roland Wittje charts the emergence of a 'technical acoustics' that understood sound through electrical instruments and electrical metaphors.
Wittje follows the rise of electroacoustics through cultural, military, academic, and political histories. But he also challenges the divide between basic and applied science, so central to received histories of science, technology, media, and engineering.
To understand the history of acoustics means we have to understand the history of physics—and of science—in a fresh, new way. Exhaustively researched, erudite, full of technical and historical detail, international in scope, and sensitive to political context, The Age of Electroacoustics offers a synthetic and wide-ranging history of a crucial turning point in the history of modern life.
Underwater Electroacoustic Measurements
It is a bold enterprise to proclaim the 'age' of something—but Roland Wittje's study succeeds. The example of rethinking sound in terms of electricity-based technology demonstrates that so allegedly natural a part of our lives as sound and auditory perception undergo radical change when new technology becomes available. His rich narrative explains how the 'conceptual redefinition of sound' around interfered with science, politics, and economy. It will convince its readers to rethink our relation to technology in aural perception. Larrie D.