And he never let an occasion pass of showing off his talent. He had a passion for attending balls and always reserved an important part for himself, pre- ferably that of Harlequin, at the pantomime — ballets which were then played in Viennese drawing-rooms. He would often arrange the scenes and the music for these entertainments. Such amusements, it must be con- ceded, were perfectly innocent and Mozart cared very little for any others. While the artist soars upwards to the high regions of fancy the man often stagnates and flounders in the mire beneath his feet.
It is perhaps because he wrote " Don Giovanni " that the passions and adventures of Don Juan are so often attri- buted to Mozart. There is yet another reproach which we would willingly obliterate. It has been maintained that Mozart occasionally gave way to drink. No state- ment could be more untrue. He liked wine and enjoyed a glass of punch; this is incontestable.
He took them as a salutary cordial which sustained him when at work and helped to refresh his brain. At Vienna he lived for a while next to one of his friends, the councillor Martin Loibl ; there was only a thin partition wall between them. This worthy German who was fond of good wines, possessed a cellar, the contents of which he dispensed with a liberality which was not de- void of vanity.
When the young composer was making the jpurney to Paris witlj his mother, Frau Mozart wrote to her husbapd : " Do jiof be anxious about any excess at table, for you know as well as I do, that in this respect Mozart has learnt to mpderajt? I have a glass of wine at dessert to counteract the acidity of the fruit.
And now as to his goodheartedness.
A Supplement to O.E. Deutsch’s Documentary Biography
We have seen how it was difficult to excel him in tenderness and. His affection for his sister was not less strong and constant ; he always insisted on having a share in all her sorrows, little and great, and at the moment when his existence seemed most precarious he offered Marianne a home until her fiancee had attained the post he was de- sirous of getting in order to marry her. He was equally devoted to his friends and comrades, and more than once he was deceived by them.
The clarionet player, Anton Stadler, for whom he wrote his admirable quintet, was not ashamed of abusing his good-nature. One day, hearing that Mozart had received fifty ducats from the Emperor, Stadler came and tearfully begged the composer to lend him the money. Mozart, who happened to be very hard up at the time, could not possibly part with it, but he placed two large watches in Stadler's hands knowing that a pawnbroker would lend him the sum wanted.
When the day came for redeeming them, Stadler naturally was not ready, so Mozart had to advance the fifty ducats to get the repeaters but of pawn. Unfortun- ately he was imprudent enough to trust the money to Stadler, who pocketed it without the least scruple and Mozart: The Man and the Artist. But such experiences did not teach him wisdom.
He could not resist his good impulses and often deprived himself of necessaries to help those more needy than himself. He was generous by nature. One day at Leipzig, where he had just given a concert, he remembered at the moment of departure that he had not paid his tuner's bill. Mozart was not only liberal with his money, he was equally bountiful of his genius. He would give without counting the cost and he would never tire of dispensing the treasures of his imagination in order to please a singer or to satisfy the caprices of a prima donnu. Like the hero in Perrault's tale, he would scatter the crumbs of the heavenly bread along his path and the birds would flutter down from the trees and carry away his treasures, and all the while he would not so much as dream of claiming what was his or of deriving any profit from his own talent.
Such was Mozart amid the ordinary relations of every- day life; we will now take a glance at him in his own home. IS it right or wrong for the man who is in love with his Muse to give her a rival? Is it well for him to marry? Is it not wiser to remain a bachelor? These questions are often mooted and often discussed and still they remain insoluble.
The problem is a strictly personal one. No one has a right to solve it for another. It is a matter of individual sensibility and feeling. In the case of Mozart we think we are right in believing that he found his right- ful vocation. His affectionate nature craved for the ex- pansion of family life and his active mind needed calm and tranquility.
Constance Weber was naturally quiet and placid and eminently suited to be his wife. She had not been particularly highly educated but she had good abilities. Though she may have lacked the necessary in- telligence to enable her rightfully to appraise her hus- Mozart: The Man and the Artist. She had taken great pains with the cultivation of her musical talent. She was a pleasing performer on the harpsichord, she read fluently and she sang artistically.
Though she had not the powerful and dramatic voice of Aloysia, nor the supple and unusual organ of her eldest sister, Josepha, she was gifted, nevertheless, with a soprano voice of good quality which had been amply improved and de- veloped by study. We have assurance on these points as to her exact worth and merit, for there are in existence some vocal exercises written purposely "per la mia car a Cos- tansa" and "per la mia cara consorte," and also a sonata for violin and piano with this dedication traced in French by the composer: "Par moi, W.
Mozart, four ma trhs chere Spouse. When my wife first heard the fugues by these composers she was so delighted with them that since then she will listen to no other kind of music. I was obliged to say I had not. With the exception of this slight difference in their tastes the husband and wife were in perfect sym- pathy one with the other. They were in every way a most united couple. If they proved themselves powerless to lay by sufficient for evil days, they possessed, at any rate, a store of philosophy with which to meet their sufferings.
The day after their wedding the Abbe Stadler called to offer his congratulations. As he was exr ceedingly intimate he went into the bedroom and found the newly-married couple slumbering peacefully. Seeing his friend, Mozart insisted that he should break- fast with them, but in vain did he search his pockets for a kreutzer, and rummage every corner of the dresser, he found only a little bread and coffee which frugal repast Stadler gaily accepted, and which Constance hurriedly prepared in her wedding garments.
It is bitterly cold, we have no fuel, and I thought a little waltz- ing would serve instead of a fire. This letter will give an idea of his facile humour and it will throw a light on a side of his character which we have not hitherto brought into relief. I felt I had something to say to you and I could not recall what it was; the matter did not come into my stupid brain. As you are aware these fits of abstrac- tion are habitual to me, the most simple ideas persist in escaping me and they will not fall into my thoughts.
I have had no peace of mind since I saw you looking so exquisitely beautiful at the ball! I do nothing but sigh and groan. I lost my heart to you the moment I set eyes on you, and I could not help it; but it was impossible for me to dance any more that even- ing, so I could only skip. Supper was served, I could not eat : I gulped my food.
I went to bed : I could not rest peacefully, I slept like a dormouse and snored like a bear. But, between ourselves I am not to be pitied, for without any nonsense, I am persuaded that your ladyship has undergone the same troubles. You smile, Madam — you blush! I am a most fortunate being!
But good heavens! Who glares at my burning phrases? In order to pacify her I will tell her that I adore you and I will imagine she believes I am speaking the truth By the bye. I have an- other petition to make to you but how am I to begin? How can I make the name of such a charming woman rhyme with beer? Senza burle! If your ladyship could send me this evening some English beer you would give me real delight, for my Constance is. In the original the pun was on the word einf alien which has' this double signification : to come into the mind and to fall down. She has You see this little woman is sometimes useful if only to furnish me with a pretext for asking for some beer!
So she and I, dear lady, she, who is an angel, and I who am the best of model husbands kiss your hand a thousand times. Mozart magnus cor fore parvus, et Constantia, omnium uxorum fulcherrima et prudentis- sima. They both possessed a rich store of good humour and it was cer- tainly the most conspicuous item of their resources. They were always cheerful under the burden of their poverty; they derived the dynamic strength which helped them to withstand the blows of fortune from that profound and blissful affection which they experienced for one an- other and which lasted up to the day of their sad separation.
Constance's second husband, Nissen, has tried to in- sinuate that she was less in love with Mozart than with his genius. And no doubt he was overcome, when so speaking, by a slight feeling of vanity. Where is the man, even when he is the husband of a widow, who does not flatter himself to be the first in his wife's affections? As his testimony is open to suspicion we could bring forward quite a crowd of unimpeachable depositions.
But we will confine ourselves to that of Niemetschek, who re- lates what he saw with his own eyes. She had no difficulty in adapting her Mozart: The Man and the Artist. Mozart on his side loved her unreservedly and told her everything even his little sins; and in return she gave him tender solicitude and affection. Thus when I take it out of its prison : God bless thee, I say to it, dear little Constance, God guard thee, little curly-headed, pointed-nosed, kindly-hearted rogue, my joy and my sorrow!
And then when I must no longer gaze at thy dear likeness I let it slip gently, quite slowly into its re- ceptacle : once more, I say to it, once more, once more, once more! And when the portrait has disappeared entirely : good night little mouse sleep peacefully. All his life Mozart bestowed this fresh, buoyant affection upon his wife; their exist- ence together was one long honeymoon. And what pre- cautions, what delicate attentions when poor Constance was ill! He kept watch over her and guarded her like a mother with a child.
Early in the morning often before five o'clock he would slip out on tip-toe for his matutinal ride; but he never went away without leaving a little note under the pillow which woyld serve as a kind of medical prescription : " I Mozart: The Man and the Artist. Take care not to catch cold, do not get up too quickly, do not stoop, do not overstrain yourself, do not get angry with the servant. Take care when going from one room to another not to stumble over the threshold. Reserve all your domestic worries for me on my return; I will not be long away, I will be back at — punctually.
If the door was opened he would"im- pose silence with a gesture or a word, and he would not permit the least noise or anything that might disturb her sleep. This became such a habit, that long after his wife's recovery when meeting friends in the street, he would rise on tip-toe, lift his finger to his lips, and welcome people with the mysterious hush which he had so often uttered in the sick room. On this subject, his sister-in-law, Sophia, who after- wards became Frau Haibl relates a characteristic action. One day when she was nursing Constance, Mozart was in his customary chair near the bedside, composing.
Notwith- standing the close attention demanded by his work, Mozart had been keeping an eye on his wife and had just exchanged a satisfied glance with Sophia, when the door opened and the servant noisily entered, her thick shoes creaking on the bare boards. Trembling with anxiety for Mosart: The Man and the Artist. Sensitive as he usually was to pain, turning pale for a mere pin-prick, on this occasion he uttered no sound or murmur; quietly and silently he went to the adjoin ing room to dress the wound.
Owing to the depth of the cut and the loss of blood he was lame for several days; but he bore his pain so bravely and hid it so cleverly from Constance that she never even knew that the accident had happened. These details are perhaps trifling but nevertheless they are important in so much as they help us to understand Mozart's personality. ON the morrow of his marriage the never-ending pro- blem as to the attainment of a fixed income presented itself to Mozart with greater persistence than ever.
A barricade of established professors ham- pered his way and the emperor Joseph's parsimony was hardly less of a hindrance. The Archduke Maximilian, who was then coadjutor to the archbishop of Cologne, had held out certain hopes to Mozart but his more active patrons, such as the Prince von Kaunitz used their influ- ence without obtaining any favour on his behalf.
These circumstances caused Mozart to turn his eyes once again towards France. He recommenced to study the French language which he already knew pretty fluently, and he informed Legros, the director of the Concert spirituely of his desire to revisit Paris. Either on account of Legros' forgetfulness, or because Mozart may have lis- tened to his father's advice, the idea was abandoned, together with the project of a voyage to England. In the mean time whilst waiting for better days Mozart continued as heretofore to derive the greater part of his income from teaching.
He had a few pupils belonging to the best Viennese families and he gave some composi- tion lessons the notes of which have been preserved. They have been collected and published in a little treatise of harmony entitled : " Principles of Thoroughbass. I can see very well that you have written it to avoid going from one interval to another in parallel movement.
You have imitated the inferior poets who will pen any non- sense provided it fa,lls into rhyme. Mozart— p. At present it is necessary for you to give your attention to your sing- ing and it is too late to expect to derive any result from the studies you are contemplating. Recollect that a little knowledge is a dangerous thing.
You have a natural talent for melody ; scraps of theory will cause you to lose this precious faculty. It is far better to retain it and to dispense with science, for you will constantly be meeting on all sides with well informed musicians who will render you the service of pointing the finger of scorn at your compositions. Melody is the very essence of music. I would fain compare a man capable of inventing one to a thoroughbred horse j the mere contrapuntist is nothing more than a hired hack which one can procure when in need of his services.
Besides the money he received for his lessons, Mozart derived profit from concerts. Regularly every Sunday, he had chamber music matinees at his own house, for which he charged admittance and every year he organised a concert during the season of Lent. In May, , he gave a series of twelve concerts in conjunction with a certain Philip Martin, who had ob- tained imperial license to give musical entertainments in the Augarten, a public garden instituted by Joseph II.
R Mozart: The Man and the Artist. Martin also had received authorisation to give four grand evening divertissements in the principal squares of Vienna. They were surrounded, for the occasion, by wooden palings and refreshments were provided for the music-lovers in the intervals of the concert.
These different speculations do not seem to have brought Mozart any pecuniary benefit, for after the first entertainment he makes no further mention of them in his letters and his household difficulties were not in any way lessened. But these numerous efforts and constant preoccupations did not weaken his love for his art, neither did they with- draw him from his studies.
As regards these, his friend- ship with van Swieten helped very decidedly to develop his genius. This well-informed amateur, who was the son of a Dutch surgeon, had acquainted himself with the works of Bach and Handel while in charge of a diplomatic mission at the Berlin court. Naturally predisposed towards the classic forms of art he had been greatly smitten by these two great masters and had patiently col- lected their compositions and formed a choice library which was at that time unique in Vienna, and in which German music was paramount.
Van Swieten helped to make Mozart intimate with Bach and Handel ; he was never weary of enlisting his admiration for his treasures and later he communicated his fervent enthusiasm to the young Beethoven. When he chooses, he can strike like a thunderbolt. The two geniuses were not in any way akin to one another, t Bach's style was more familiar to Mozart.
He studied his fugues in van Swieten's collection with great earnest- ness, and the influence of Bach can be traced in his classi- cal compositions of this period for he constantly en- deavoured to follow in the footsteps of this great master. At Leipsic he had the good fortune, when in the church of St. Thomas, to hear his admirable motet for eight voices " Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied. He was deeply impressed by these melodious accents rolling one above the other, rising and swelling like the waves of the sea, and he could not contain his admiration.
They were not scored and only to be had in separate pieces. It was found necessary to arrange them on the ground around him. He surveyed them with keen ardour glancing from one leaf to the other until he had seen and read and fixed them all in his memory. It must not be supposed, however, that these arduous, energetic studies in any way diminished the flame of Mozart's imagination or that they lessened his activity of mind which was so es- sentially creative.
On the contrary this epoch of his life was not less prolific than those that had preceded it, and the icy hand of death was alone capable of causing the pen to fall from his busy fingers. But as usual the theatre was his attraction and his wistful and longing gaze was ever directed towards the stage. Notwithstanding the great success of " Entfiihrung aus dem Serail " it was clear that German opera in Vienna was in its last throes. Copi- posers who endeavoured to endow it with vitality were not strong enough for their task.
Mozart alone was capa- Motart : The Matt and the Artist. But he needed a libretto and one upon which he would run no risks of losing his time. One had been offered him entitled "Which is the best Nation? Another com- poser, Umlauf, took it in hand but the piece fell flat thus giving the finishing stroke to the national institution which had been founded at the cost of so much trouble and exertion.
Confronted with these distressing circumstances the emperor relinquished his former projects and decided to recall the Italians. He had given orders to recruit a first-rate company in the Peninsula and to keep the best artists belonging to the national opera and amalgamate them with the new troup of singers. His agents had well understood and served him. They had gathered together and brought to Vienna a first class assemblage of vocalists amongst which were Nancy Storace, Signora Mandini, Celestine CoUellini, the fine baritone Mandini, the tenor O'Kelly and Benucci, an incomparable comic actor; side by side with these were the tenor Adamberger, the Frauen Lange, Cavalieri and Bernascini belonging to the former German company.
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Mozart went at once in search of a libretto. Even the best would need endless remodelling. Under these conditions it would be better to write a new one. It will take him Mosart: The Man and the Artist. He has promised to attend afterwards to my wants. But how can I be sure of his keeping his word? You understand the Italians; they are charming acquaintances, but If he fraternises with Salieri I may well wait for the rest of my life for what he has promised.
And yet I should be so content to compose a new work! THE exercise of sovereign power is not easily wrested from the hands of those who possess it and even the head of a family is often known to evince a great deal of annoyance when called upon to abdicate his author- ity. Since the day when by his marriage his son had eman- cipated himself from parental control, Leopold Mozart had experienced, in the depths of his heart, a feeling of secret resentment for the woman who had usurped his place in his son's affections. He could not possibly conceal it; his letters betrayed a certain coldness which extended it- self even to Wolfgang.
Mozart noticed it at once and resolved to break the ice. He had imagined a masterly stroke; which was to betake himself to Salzburg with his wife and to place his first born child in the old grand- father's arms. And this pleasant dream was afterwards enacted. Mozart set off on the proposed journey with Mozart: The Man and the Artist. He was kind and fatherly to his daughter-in-law but he did not feel completely reconciled to her until he saw her assiduous with the cares of the household in Vienna and managing everything with order and economy. At Salzburg Mozart was reminded of the existence of his collaborator, the Abbe Varesco.
As regards the " Idomeneo " he had had some difficulties with him, but he was in hopes that these little differences had been forgotten, and he believed that he had good reason to count on Varesco's services, seeing that it was in his power to offer him a salary of four or five hundred florins, and it was the custom at that time in Vienna for the librettist to receive the proceeds of the third performance of any work.
His expectations were justified. In consideration of such prospects Varesco could no longer cherish any malice. He set to work with- out loss of time, sketched the plan of " L'Oca del Cairo," a comic opera in three acts, and wrote the preliminary scenes with ease and rapidity. Mozart, on his part, without penetrating much beyond the surface, had allowed his in- spiration full play, and when he set off on his return journey to Vienna he took with him the whole of the music of the first act.
He soon realised that it was puerile and foolish and quite unfit to be adapted to the exigencies of the stage. Urifortunately he had to reckon with the pride and vanity of an irritable man whose obstinacy he had already experienced. He endeavoured to treat him with the utmost tact, but his remonstrances proved unavailing. Varesco refused to listen to reason. The conceited poet judged his own product with tender pride and the slightest hint of curtailment or alteration offended him mortally. The business came to a standstill. Mozart was forced to abandon the work which he had commenced with such a happy heart and to leave unfinished well-written num- bers which can be compared without any disadvantage to some of the best pieces in the " Nozze di Figaro.
He ended , by finding one which seemed likely to answer his pur- pose: "Lo Sposo Deluso," but again he was forced to re- consider his opinion and he stopped short after having written four numbers. Thus arranged, "L'Oca del Cairo" was played for the first time at the Fantasies Parisiennes, on June 6, , and over one hundred representations were given with succeea. A third attempt was of even shorter duration and re- sulted merely in the composition of an introductory trio to "II Regno delle Amazoni," a libretto upon which he had founded some fragile hopes.
In the interim the Italian theatre had opened, on the 22nd April, , with "La Scuola dei Gelosi," an opera for which Salieri had written some new music, and this first essay met with a brilliant success. A work of Cimar- osa, " L'ltaliana in Londra," was received with less favour; but Sarti's " Fra due litiganti il Terzo gode " achieved a real triumph.
And all this time Mozart was champing the bit of im- patience and seizing every opportunity for writing occa- sional pieces for the repertory operas into which they were unceremoniously inserted according to the mode of the moment. As Mozart witnessed most of these operas and borrowed their scores from the Theatre library to study them at his leisure, it is, we think, expedient to give their titles. The following list is limited to the works of the principal composers.
Besides several sonatas and concertos he wrote at this time the quintet for piano and wind instruments which he undertook at the instigation of Stadler, the clarionet player. When speaking of this fine composition, Mozart would say : " it is certainly the best work of this kind I have written. This poor musician, who had added to the practice of his art the business of a small cheesemonger, was Mozart's butt and served him as a grind- stone upon which to whet his humour.
He was a clever instrumentalist, but a very mediocre musician, and Mozart never let an opportunity slip of making fun of his ignorance. For every piece which he wrote at his entreaty, he would impose some ridiculous penance, either forcing him to hold himself in some impossible position, or making him drag himself along the floor to pick up the scattered leaves of half-a-dozen symphonies.
One of these concertos still bears the mark of the com- poser's jests. Mozart, who knew Leitgeb's strong points as well as his weak ones, had amused himelf by writing critical remarks on the score for the purposeof elucidating it, placing an imprecation by the side of all the difficult passages which the unfortunate horn player was in the habit of slurring. Thus, for example, as he knew Leit- geb's tendency to hurry he had marked a phrase for the horn with a gigantic Adagio while the accompaniment was indicated Allegro.
After a repeat he had written : " A lei Signor Asino : to the long-eared one! Thank Heaven he is determined to try. These two men had a mutual esteem and fondness' for one another. They met pretty frequently and enjoyed play- ing new music together. Kelly narrates that while living in Vienna he often assisted at performances of chamber music at the house of Nancy Storace, the singer. Ditters- dorf would take the part of first violin, Haydn, the second, Mozart would play the viola and Van Halle, the violon- cello; altogether a superb combination and one never probably to be equalled.
One day, Leopold Kozeluch, notorious for his insincere and envious character, was criticising a quartet of Haydn in the presence of Mozart and taking stock of its seeming errors. Because neither you nor I are capable of doing so. Sir," protested the composer of "II Matrimonio," "what would you say if you were told you were superior to Raphael?
When invited to Prague, where Mozart had preceded him, to take part in the festivities in honour of the Emperor's coronation, he answered : " Where Mozart is present Haydn cannot show himself. And he wrote a letter on the same subject. Will the citizens of Prague have the honour of keeping him in their midst? If so, then they must requite him for his great worth. I find it difficult to control my indignation when I think that this great and wonderful man is still searching for an appointment and not a single prince or monarch has thought of giving him one.
ON August 1st, , Mozart wrote to his sister : " Ah! Another day and I should be too late. She was engaged to the Baron von Sonnenburg, a widower with five children, who had ob- tained, at St. Gilden, an appointment formerly occupied by his first wife's grandfather. The coming separation was a matter of great grief to poor Leopold Mozart; so after the customary congratula- tions Wolfgang assumed a more serious tone : " it is very distressing to us," he continued, "to think that our old father will soon be quite alone.
You will certainly not be very far away from him and if only he was not so tied Mozart: The Man and the Artist. If I was in our father's place, this is what I should do : I would remind the Archbishop of my long and loyal services, I would beg for a retiring pension with which I would settle at St. Gilden near my daughter, and there I would spend the rest of my days in peace; if the prelate waived aside my petition, I would just send in my resignation and go and live with my son in Vienna.
Now, my dear sister, I ask you to place these propositions before him and I do beg of you to use all your influence to induce him to take one of these alternative steps. I am writing to him by this same mail post in order to second your influence. But, whether motives of prudence withheld Leopold Mozart from trusting his future to his son's care, or because the customary, long-endured yoke of servitude had dulled his longing for liberty and free- dom, he preferred to end his days at his post.
He there- fore contented himself, after he had helped to settle his daughter with her new relations, with asking leave to spend three months with his son. Always faithful to the memory of her former studies she continued, in the midst of household cares, to cultivate the art she loved and to interest herself in thg career of her brother.
After the death of her husband she returned to Salzburg where she lived in easy cir- cumstances up to an advanced age. In she lost her sight, but even this cruel affliction was powerless to ruffle her equable temper. She always kept that good humour and sprightly character which were family inheritances to the children of Leopold Mozart.
She even had the courage to speak jestingly of her infirmity. One day, Mozart: The Man and the Artist. Haydn's mag- nificent eulogy of his son, which we quoted in a former chapter, came to him as a crowning reward for his life- long devoted and unselfish efforts on behalf of Wolf- gang. He had the happiness of seeing h'is grandchild, Charles, who had come in time to fill the cradle vacated by the early loss of the little Leopold. In the evening he went either to a theatre or a concert.
The musical season was in full swing and each day brought his son some fresh success, of which Leopold Mozart was justly proud. Just then, also, Wolfgang was in better circumstances and his engagements and numerous lessons kept him compara- tively free from care. Though the doors of the theatre were closed to him, and although he had not yet achieved any of the striking renown which was destined to spread his name abroad among the people, he was at least es- teemed by the higher classes and sought after by persons of intellectual attainments.
He had been extending con- siderably the circle of his acquaintance and he had joined the Freemasons. She had just entered upon her seventy-ninth year. Mozart's precarious circumstances, his sincere openmindedness, which debarred him from harbouring suspicion, caused him to eagerly accept the right and the hope of participating in the benefits of a philanthropic society which promised to help him in his necessity, without wounding his self-respect.
To ascribe interested designs to him, how- ever legitimate, is to misunderstand him. These factors combined to create a very musical country: due to the reconversion law, a great number of young people received musical instruction and became professional musicians, often employed by the aristocrats in jobs combining the function of musician and servant. In addition, many of the musicians sought employment outside of Bohemia; a number of Mozart's musical colleagues in Vienna were emigrant Bohemians.
The sedentary character of the Czech nobility led to a great deal of music-making in the country; and the fact that Prague was not a national capital meant that there was no jaded nobility there to hold back new music; more open-minded bourgeois tastes prevailed. All of these created an enthusiastic and knowledgeable public in Prague for Mozart's operas when they were performed there. Commemorating Mozart in Prague today Many tourists follow his tracks in Prague and visit the Mozart Museum of the reconstructed Villa Bertramka, where the composer stayed with his friends the Duscheks on visits to Prague.
Solomon , Solomon , Deutsch , Davenport , "The Emperor Leopold II was to be crowned king of Bohemia in early September and the national States assembly at Prague had sent Wolfgang a commission to write the festival opera. Again Prague showed a loyalty that Vienna had never once indicated. Wolfgang would not refuse. He wished he had done so, however, when he learned that he was expected to write a new score to Metastasio's La Clemenza di Tito K. But for this there was no remedy. New York: Grove Weidenfeld. Article in the New Grove, online edition.
Accessed 09 May ]. Copyright by Oxford University Press. Mozart's Berlin journey One of the longest adulthood journeys of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was a visit, beginning in Spring , to a series of cities lying northward of his adopted home in Vienna: Prague, Leipzig, Dresden, and Berlin. Departure The journey took place during a difficult period of Mozart's career when he was no longer earning much money from concerts, and his income from the composition of operas had not made up the difference. He was borrowing money, for example from his friend Michael Puchberg, and the financial situation was very worrisome.
Mozart also reported to Constanze that he had worked out an agreement with Domenico Guardasoni, the director of the Italian opera in Prague, for a new opera for a fee of ducats ca. The cities of Vienna, Prague, Dresden, and Berlin lie on a roughly north-south axis, in the present-day nations of Austria tan , the Czech Republic orange and Germany light blue ; Leipzig falls somewhat to the west of this axis.
This hotel was the scene of a concert performed the next day; according to Deutsch, "Mozart performed quartets with the organist Anton Teyber and the cellist Anton Kraft; they also played the String trio, K. In a letter to his wife, Mozart writes that they arranged a quartet at the hotel, which they performed in the chapel.
"Ho capito, Signor, si", No. 6 from "Don Giovanni", Act 1, K by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Mozart played the newly written Coronation Concerto K. This may have been the last portrait of the composer to be produced. Mozart spent three days here. He visited the famous Thomaskirche, where Johann Sebastian Bach had served as music director several decades earlier. Mozart had become a great admirer of Bach's music during his early years in Vienna, thanks to the influence of Gottfried van Swieten. Mozart improvised on the organ of the Thomaskirche.
Probably on this occasion, the choir of the Thomasschule performed Bach's motet Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied, BWV and Mozart took advantage of the occasion to inspect the autograph. As noted above, Mozart had told his wife that the King was anxiously awaiting him; if so, the arrival was a disappointment as the following court document indicated: One named Mozart who at his ingress declared himself to be a Capellmeister from Vienna reports here that he was brought hither in the company of Prince Lichnowsky, that he desired to lay his talents before Your Sovereign Majesty's feet and awaited the command whether he may hope that Your Sovereign Majesty will receive him.
Reading this, the King scribbled in the margin "Directeur du Port", meaning that Mozart should be referred to Jean-Pierre Duport, the director of the royal chamber music. According to Deutsch, Mozart was "not on good terms" with Duport. The concert program consisted entirely of Mozart's music: the piano concerti K. Following a custom of the time, the first of the symphonies was split, the first two movements being played at the opening of the concert and the second two before the intermission.
Mozart writes back home, that "from the point of view of applause and glory this concert was absolutely magnificent but the profits were wretchedly meager" letter, 16 May Prince Lichnowsky, who had been traveling with Mozart up to this time, left Leipzig in mid-May, and Mozart's subsequent travels were on his own. The amount of the debt was florins, for which the Prince successfully sued him in October , not long before the composer's death. Mozart's Berlin journey Mozart lingered in Leipzig until 17 May, partly due to his wish reported in a letter to Constanze to remain in the company of a group of friends also visiting the city Johann Leopold Neumann, Frau Neumann, and Josepha Duschek.
His departure was also delayed, he told Constanze, by a dearth of horses available for traveling. Return to Berlin and home Mozart then returned to Berlin, arriving on 19 May. Local newspapers apparently did not report his presence, but it was recorded much later in the posthumously published memoirs of a distinguished figure of German literature, Ludwig Tieck Ludwig's regard for Mozart was to be rewarded in a surprising way.
One evening in , entering the dimly-lit and still empty theatre long before the beginning of the performance, as was his wont, he caught sight of a man in the orchestra pit whom he did not know. He was small, rapid of movement, restless, and with a stupid expression on his face: an unprepossessing figure in a grey overcoat. He was going from one music-desk to the next and seemed to be looking carefully through the music on them.
Ludwig at once entered on a conversation. They spoke of the orchestra, the theatre, the opera, the public's taste. He expressed his views openly, but spoke of Mozart's operas with the deepest admiration. His words had strangely moved Ludwig; he made enquiries. It was Mozart himself, the great master, who had spoken with him and expressed his appreciation to him.
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Mozart's fidelity The trip was the first that Mozart took, following his marriage to Constanze in , on which his wife did not accompany him. Mozart wrote frequently to Constanze in the early stages of the trip, but the loss of many letters makes it uncertain whether he continued this regular correspondence. Maynard Solomon, in his Mozart biography, alleges that during the journey Mozart was unfaithful, pursuing an affair with Duschek, whose own itinerary through Germany she lived in Prague frequently intersected Mozart's. References  Solomon, Maynard New York: Harper Perennial.
Mozart: A Documentary Biography. Briefe und Aufzeichnungen Complete ed. Mitteilungen der Internationalen Stiftung Mozarteum 39 : ff. New York: Norton. Death of Mozart The composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart died at am on 5 December at the age of 35, following a short illness. Illness and last days Mozart had health problems throughout his life, and suffered at times from smallpox, tonsillitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, typhoid fever, rheumatism and gum disease.
The visit was fairly successful in professional terms, but while in Prague Mozart began to feel seriously ill. His early biographer Franz Niemetschek wrote "he was pale and expression was sad, although his good humour was often shown in merry jest with his friends. In particular, he completed his Clarinet Concerto, worked toward the completion of the Requiem an anonymous commission from Count Walsegg, who wanted to pass himself off as the composer and conducted the premiere performance of The Magic Flute, September But he became increasingly alarmed and despondent about his health, probably even delusional.
A famous anecdote from his wife Constanze is related in Niemetschek's early biography: "On his return to Vienna, his indisposition increased visibly and made him gloomily depressed. His wife was truly distressed over this. One day when she was driving in the Prater with him, to give him a little distraction and amusement, and they were sitting by themselves, Mozart began to speak of death, and declared that he was writing the Requiem for himself. Tears came to the eyes of the sensitive man: 'I feel definitely,' he continued, 'that I will not last much longer; I am sure I have been poisoned.
I cannot rid myself of this idea. He told Constanze, "Yes I see I was ill to have had such an absurd idea of having taken poison, give me back the Requiem. Death of Mozart and I will go on with it. He became bedridden on November 20, suffering from swelling, pain and vomiting. Death The symptoms of the dying Mozart were described by his early biographer Nissen Constanze's second husband , who took many of his details from an account provided him by Constanze's sister, Sophie Weber.
Until two hours before his passing he remained completely conscious. His wife, family, and friends were distraught; Sophie remembered: "I cannot possibly describe the boundless misery of his faithful wife as she threw herself on her knees and implored succour from the Almighty for His aid. She could not tear herself away from him, beg her as I did. Funeral The funeral arrangements were made by Mozart's friend and patron Baron Gottfried van Swieten.
The Grove Dictionary describes his funeral thus: "Mozart was buried in a common grave, in accordance with contemporary Viennese custom, at the St. Marx Cemetery outside the city on 7 December. Aftermath Constanze soon recovered from her despair and energetically addressed the task of providing financial security for her family the Mozarts had two young children, and Mozart had died with debts outstanding. She successfully appealed to the Emperor 11 December for a widow's pension Mozart had served the Emperor in a part-time position as chamber composer , and she organized a series of concerts of Mozart's music, along with the publication of many of her husband's works.
These efforts were successful, and in time Constanze became secure, even well-off. Friedrich Schlichtegroll wrote an early account based on information from Mozart's sister Nannerl , as did Franz Niemetschek who worked with Constanze. Much later, Constanze assisted her second husband Georg Nikolaus von Nissen in a more detailed biography Mozart's musical reputation rose quickly following his death; Solomon describes an "unprecedented wave of enthusiasm" for his work, and multiple publishers issued editions of his compositions.
First-person accounts Individuals who were present at the time of Mozart's death eventually committed their memories to writing, either on their own or through interviews by others. The stories they told are not entirely mutually compatible, which may be due in part to some of them not being recorded until the s, when the witnesses' memories might have faded.
Benedikt Schack, Mozart's close friend for whom he wrote the role of Tamino in The Magic Flute, told an interviewer that on the last day of Mozart's life, he participated in a rehearsal of the Requiem in progress: "On the very eve of his death, [Mozart] had the score of the Requiem brought to his bed, and himself it was two o'clock in the afternoon sang the alto part; Schack, the family friend, sang the soprano line, as he had always previously done, Hofer, Mozart's brother-in-law, took the tenor, Gerl, later a bass singer at the Mannheim Theater, the bass.
They were at the first bars of the Lacrimosa when Mozart began to weep bitterly, laid the score on one side, and eleven hours later, at one o'clock in the morning of 5 December , as is well known , departed this life. Biographer Niemetschek gives a vaguely similar tale, not mentioning a rehearsal: "On the day of his death he asked for the score to be brought to his bedside.
Mozart is said to have whispered the following to Konstanze, mentioning Konstanze's sister Josepha Hofer, the coloratura soprano who premiered the role of the Queen of the Night: "Quiet, quiet! The memories quoted above, which may be romanticized, are commonly repeated in discussion of Mozart's last days. Solomon notes that biographers have often left out the crueler memories. Closset had said. When she answered with a soothing lie, he said, 'It isn't true,' and he was very distressed: 'I shall die, now when I am able to take care of you and the children.
Posthumous diagnoses Medicine was in a primitive state in Mozart's day, and it was impossible at the time to determine what had caused the composer's death. The entry for Mozart in the parish register says he died of "severe miliary fever", which only describes his symptoms "miliary" means "having millet-sized bumps on the skin" , not the actual disease. Any later efforts to determine what killed Mozart can only rely on reinterpretation of the written record.
The most sensational hypothesis for what killed Mozart, which spread as a rumor after his death, was that he was poisoned by his composer colleague Antonio Salieri. However, these rumours were likely false; the symptoms that Mozart showed were unlikely indications of poisoning.
Sophie Weber, in her account to Nissen, implies as much, though she does not state so directly. Borowitz summarizes: When Mozart appeared to be sinking, one of his doctors, Dr. Nikolaus Closset, was sent for and finally located at the theater. However, according to Sophie's account, that drama-lover "had to wait till the piece was over. In his final days this was compounded by further prescriptions of antimony to relieve the fever he clearly suffered.
If this suggestion is correct, he thus accidentally poisoned himself with antimony. Physicians at the University of Maryland, Baltimore concluded that Mozart died from rheumatic fever. Among the physicians was a Mozart scholar, who said that although rheumatic fever was the most likely diagnosis, it will probably never be possible to confirm it as the indisputable cause of death, though it is highly unlikely that Mozart died of unnatural causes. They concluded that Mozart plausibly died of a streptococcal infection leading to an acute nephritic syndrome caused by poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis.
This disease was also called "Wassersucht" in Austria. Notes  For a thorough survey of Mozart's health history, with an M. The words are as related by Constanze decades later to the visiting English diarist Mary Novello. Letter of Sophie to Nissen, Quotation from an letter to Nissen. The tale appeared in an obituary for Schack, published in the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung, issue of July 25, Schildkret  Niemetschek biography, quoted Solomon , p. Death of Mozart  English "Hear!
The Musical Quarterly subscription required 59 2 : ISSN Cornell Chronicle. The Musical Times subscription required : See Wikisource for more versions. London: Macmillan Publishers. Mount Desert Summer Chorale. Annals of Internal Medicine subscription required 4. Leben des K. Herrlischen Buchhandlung. OCLC Johann Georg's own ancestors were "artisans and masons", but he pursued a different career, becoming a master bookbinder.
His first wife bore him no children and died in Leopold, born 14 November , was the oldest. They sent their two oldest sons to Jesuit schools.
Johann Georg died 20 years before Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born; and Leopold became estranged from his mother following his move in young adulthood to Salzburg ; hence there was no contact between grandmother and grandson during the period their lives overlapped. He attended a local Jesuit school, the St. Salvator Gymnasium, where he studied logic, science, theology, graduating magna cum laude in He then moved on to a more advanced school, the St. Salvator Lyceum. Portrait in oils While a student in Augsburg, he appeared in student theatrical attributed to Pietro Antonio Lorenzoni  productions as an actor and singer, and became a skilled violinist and organist.
My father thought the world of him. And how he hoodwinked the clerics about becoming a priest! He withdrew from the St. Salvator Lyceum after less than a year. Following a year's delay, he moved to Salzburg to resume his education, enrolling in November at the Benedictine University to study philosophy and jurisprudence. Except for periods of travel, Leopold spent the rest of his life there. Leopold received the degree of Bachelor of Philosophy in Early career as musician In , he began his career as a professional musician, becoming violinist and valet to one of the university's canons, Johann Baptist, Count of Thurn-Valsassina and Taxis, in This was also the year of his first musical publication, the six Trio Sonatas, Opus 1.
He was promoted to second violinist in and in to deputy Kapellmeister. His works circulated widely in German-speaking Europe. Scholars agree, however, that Leopold was successful as a pedagogue. This work was published in the year of Wolfgang's birth , and went through two further German editions , , as well as being translated into Dutch and French This work made a reputation in Europe for Leopold, and his name begins to appears around this time in music dictionaries and other works of musical pedagogy.
As teacher of Nannerl and Wolfgang Leopold discovered that his two children were musically gifted in about , when he began with keyboard lessons for the seven-year-old Nannerl. The toddler Wolfgang immediately began imitating his sister, at first picking out thirds on the keyboard and then making rapid progress under Leopold's instruction. By , the children were ready to work as concert performers, and Leopold began taking the family on extensive concert tours, performing for both aristocracy and public, throughout central and western Europe.
The discovery of his children's talent is considered to have been a life-transforming event for Leopold. He once referred to his son as the "miracle which God let be born in Salzburg". Scholars differ on whether the tours made substantial profits. To be sure, often the children performed before large audiences and took in large sums, but the expenses of travel were also very high, and no money at all was made during the various times that Leopold and the children suffered serious illnesses. Mozart biographer Maynard Solomon takes the view that the tours were lucrative and produced long-term profits for Leopold; Ruth Halliwell states to the contrary that their income generally only covered their travel and living expenses.
Since the instruction took much of his time, and the touring kept him away from Salzburg for long periods, Leopold cut down his activities in other areas. Nannerl later claimed that he "entirely gave up both violin instruction and composition in order to direct that time not claimed in service to the prince to the education of his two children.
The last three trips were to Italy, with only Leopold accompanying Wolfgang. The failure of Leopold to advance above his Vice-Kapellmeister position at Salzburg is attributed by the Grove Dictionary to the great amount of time that the journeys kept him away from Salzburg the longest journey was about three and a half years.
After the final return from Italy in , Leopold was repeatedly passed over for the Kapellmeister post. Family life in Salzburg Although Leopold is portrayed notably by Halliwell as generally quite worried about money, the Mozart family by evidently felt prosperous enough to upgrade their living quarters. They left the home in the Getreidegasse where the children had been born and moved to rooms in the Tanzmeisterhaus "Dancing-Master's House" , which had been the home of the recently-deceased dancing master Franz Karl Gottlieb Speckner.
As tenants of Speckner's cousin and heir Maria Anna Raab, the Mozarts had eight rooms, including the quite large room that Speckner had used for dancing lessons. Starting around this time, a major preoccupation of Leopold was the lengthy and frustrating struggle to find a professional position for his son.
Leopold was widowed in when Maria Anna died in Paris while accompanying Wolfgang on a job-hunting tour. Relations with his offspring as adults Leopold Mozart is a controversial figure among his biographers, with the largest disagreements arising concerning his role as the parent of adult children. Mozart biographer Maynard Solomon has taken a particularly harsh view of Leopold, treating him as tyrannical, mendacious, and possessive; Ruth Halliwell adopts a far more sympathetic view, portraying his correspondence as a sensible effort to guide the life of a grossly irresponsible Wolfgang.
Relations with Nannerl Wolfgang left home permanently in see below , and from this time until , Leopold lived in Salzburg with just Nannerl now in her early thirties and their servants. Nannerl had a number of suitors, of whom the most important was Franz Armand d'Ippold, with whom she was evidently in love.
In the end she did not marry him, and the reason for this is unknown. One possibility, frequently entertained by biographers, is that the marriage was blocked by Leopold, who liked having Nannerl at home as the lady of the house. However, Halliwell  observes that no written evidence on this point survives and insists that we simply do not know why Nannerl married so late.
Nannerl finally did marry in August , at age She moved to the home of her new husband, Johann Baptist Franz von Berchtold zu Sonnenburg, in the small rural town of St. Gilgen, roughly six hours journey east of Salzburg. According to Halliwell, Nannerl depended on Leopold in many ways: he did "shopping [and] the engagement of servants. He relayed news from Salzburg, Munich, and Vienna to divert her, did his best to organize the maintenance of her fortepiano, paid for Wolfgang's music to be copied and arranged for her to receive it; collected musicians together when she had visited him so that she could play it with most of the parts;..
The infant stayed behind with Leopold when Nannerl went home, and with the assistance of his servants, Leopold raised the child. He frequently sent letters to Nannerl at least one per week that usually began with the sentence "Leopoldl is healthy", "Leopoldl" is "Little Leopold" and offered a full report on the child. Leopold apparently found raising his grandson a happy experience. Halliwell relates one repeated episode: " As a toddler [Leopoldl] was developing a will of his own, had to be cajoled into doing what Leopold wanted — Leopold's strategem for persuading him to go to bed was to pretend to climb into Leopoldl's bed, whereupon Leopoldl would gleefuly try to push him away and get in himself.
Halliwell notes a different possibility, that conditions for child-rearing in the Berchtold household were distinctly suboptimal. For further details of this episode, see Maria Anna Mozart. Relations with Wolfgang Wolfgang left home for good in , when instead of returning from a stay in Vienna with his employer Archbishop Colloredo he remained in the city to pursue a freelance career. This effort was to a fair degree successful; Wolfgang achieved great fame and was for a time quite prosperous though poor planning later changed this status.
The move almost certainly aided Wolfgang's musical development; the great majority of his most celebrated works were composed in Vienna. As indicated by Mozart's return letters which alone survive , Leopold was strongly opposed to the Vienna move, wanting Wolfgang to return to Salzburg. A fairly harsh family quarrel resulted.
Leopold was also strongly opposed to Wolfgang's marriage to Constanze Weber in , and gave his permission late, reluctantly, and under duress. He witnessed first hand his son's success as a performer, and on February 12 heard Joseph Haydn's widely-quoted words of praise, upon hearing the string quartets Wolfgang dedicated to him, "Before God and as an honest man I tell you that your son is the greatest composer known to me either in person or by name: He has taste, and, furthermore, the most profound knowledge of composition. At this time, Wolfgang wrote to Leopold to ask if he would be willing to take care of his own two children while he and Konstanze went on concert tour.
Leopold turned him down, probably with harsh words. His letter to Wolfgang does not survive, but his summary to Nannerl of it does 17 November : "Today I had to answer a letter from your brother which cost me a lot of writing, so I can write very little to you You'll readily understand that I had to write a very emphatic letter, because he made no lesser suggestion than that I should take his 2 children into my care, since he would like to make a journey through Germany to England For interpretations of this letter, see Halliwell , , which takes a viewpoint sympathetic to Leopold, and Solomon , , which takes a viewpoint sympathetic to Wolfgang.
Starting around the time he wrote this letter and continuing through the first part of , Leopold's health was failing. He had become seriously ill by April 4. On this day, Wolfgang wrote to him in alarm at the news, though he did not travel to Salzburg to see him. When Leopold died on 28 May see below , Wolfgang was unable to attend the funeral, the travel time to Salzburg being too long.
Leopold Mozart's grave in Salzburg, with headstone identifying him as a Vice-Kapellmeister.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Others buried here are Jeannette Berchtold von Sonnenburg Nannerl's daughter , Genovefa Weber aunt of his daughter-in-law Constanze , Constanze Mozart Nissen his daughter-in-law , and Euphrosina Pertl his mother-in-law. Little information is available on how Wolfgang took Leopolds' death, but a postscript he included in a letter to his friend Gottfried von Jacquin suggests that, despite the quarrels and partial estrangement, his father's death was a blow to him: "I inform you that on returning home today I received the sad news of my most beloved father's death.
You can imagine the state I am in. The assessment of Leopold Mozart as a person and as a father brings forth serious disagreement among scholars. The Grove Dictionary article, by Cliff Eisen, denounces "his misrepresentation at the hands of later biographers": "A man of broad cultural achievement Leopold Mozart may have been haughty, difficult to please and at times intractable, On the contrary, a careful reading in context of the family letters reveals a father who cared deeply for his son but who was frequently frustrated in his greatest ambition: to secure for Wolfgang a worldly position appropriate to his genius.
Musical works See Category:Compositions by Leopold Mozart Leopold Mozart's music is inevitably overshadowed by the work of his son Wolfgang, and in any case the father willingly sacrificed his own career to promote his son's. But Leopold's Cassation in G for Orchestra and Toys Toy Symphony , once attributed to Joseph Haydn, remains popular, and a number of symphonies, a trumpet concerto, and other works also survive. In included this portrait of the author.
Some aspects of addition he has brought forth many concertos, in particular for violin playing in his day can be seen: the the transverse flute, oboe, bassoon, Waldhorn, trumpet etc. His oeuvre was extensive, but it has only been until recently that scholars have begun to assess the scope or the quality of it; much is lost and it is not known how representative the surviving works are of his overall output. Much of what survives is light music but some more significant work survives including his Sacrament Litany in D and three fortepiano sonatas, all published in his lifetime.
Solomon , 21 Solomon , 22—23 Solomon Grove, section 1 Records of the high-quality English instruments, made by Dollond of London, that he owned in later life appear in the public announcement of his estate sale, 15 September , published in Deutsch , — Bach's St Matthew Passion  Wolfgang was christened "Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart"; for discussion of his christening name and later versions of his name, see Mozart's name.
The Grove Dictionary, addressing this, says "the title 'Hofkomponist' [court composer], used to describe Mozart in a report on Salzburg published in F. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Other biographers who assert similar views are cited in Halliwell , — Leopold Mozart was already buried by the time his son learned of his death. Mozart could not have arrived in Salzburg for at least six or seven days. The section about Leopold is written by Cliff Eisen. Oxford University Press.
Harper Collins. She was born in St. Nicolaus had a university degree in jurisprudence from the Benedictine University in Salzburg, and held a number of positions of responsibility, including district superintendent in St. He was apparently a skilled musician. During the last portion of his life he fell deeply into debt, and he died 7 March Nicolaus's possessions were liquidated to help pay the debt, and his remaining family Anna Maria's mother and her older sister Maria Rosina born 24 August lapsed into poverty. They moved to Salzburg, not far away, and lived on a charity pension of just eight later nine florins per month, perhaps supplemented by low-level employment.
Anna Maria's older sister died in , aged nine. Anna Maria herself was not well when she was young: legal documents from the time describe her as "constantly ill" and "the constantly ill bedridden daughter" The couple moved perhaps with the mother into an apartment on the third floor of Getreidegasse 9. Their landlord was Lorenz Hagenauer, who was a close friend of Leopold's and a frequent correspondent on the family's later travels. Both children achieved fame. Their daughter Maria Anna Mozart, born , was called "Nannerl" as a child.
She was a talented musician who performed with her brother on tour, but whose later life was very limited in its experiences and possibilities. Their son, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, born 27 January , achieved distinction first as a child prodigy, later as one of the most. Anna Maria nearly died giving birth to Wolfgang: her womb retained the placenta, and forced removal of it at the time posed extreme risk of fatal infection.
She stayed home unwillingly  with Nannerl during the tours of Italy that Wolfgang and Leopold took during In , she accompanied the now-adult Wolfgang again unwillingly  on a job-hunting tour that took him to Augsburg, Mannheim, and Paris. While in Paris she took ill and died 3 July of an undiagnosed illness.
She was buried in the cemetery of Saint-Eustache. Mozart and his mother lived in this house in - she died here on July 3" - 8 rue du Sentier in Paris. Solomon , pp.
From Mannheim she wrote Leopold telling him she was too old to take such a long journey. In childhood she went by the diminutive form "Nannerl", and later on was called "Marianne". Childhood Maria Anna Mozart was born in Salzburg. When she was seven years old, her father Leopold Mozart started teaching her to play the harpsichord. Leopold took her and Wolfgang on tours of many cities, such as Vienna and Paris, to showcase their talents.
In the early days she sometimes received top billing and she was noted as an excellent harpsichord player and fortepianist. However, given the views of her parents, prevalent in her society at the time, it became impossible as she grew older for Marianne to continue her career any further. According to New Grove, "from onwards she was no longer permitted to show her artistic talent on travels with her brother, as she had reached a marriageable age.
She likewise stayed home with Leopold when Wolfgang visited Paris and other cities accompanied by his mother. Maria Anna Mozart as a child ; portrait said to be by Lorenzoni. For the counterpart portrait of Wolfgang, painted at the same time, see Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. There is evidence that Marianne wrote musical compositions, as there are letters from Wolfgang praising her work, but the voluminous correspondence of father Leopold never mentions any of her compositions, and none have survived. Marriage and children In contrast to her brother, who quarreled with their father and eventually disobeyed his wishes with respect to career path and choice of spouse, Marianne remained entirely subservient to her father's wishes.
She fell in love with Franz d'Ippold, who was a captain and private tutor, but was forced by her father to turn down his marriage proposal. Wolfgang attempted, in vain, to get Marianne to stand up for her own preference. Sonnenburg was twice a widower and had five children from his two previous marriages, whom. Maria Anna Mozart Marianne helped raise. Leopold's raising of her son An unusual episode in Marianne's life occurred when she gave birth 27 July to her first child, a son who was named Leopold after his grandfather.
Marianne had traveled from her home in St. Gilgen to Salzburg for the birth. When she returned to St.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Sheet Music
Gilgen, she left her infant in the care of her father and his servants. The elder Leopold stated by a letter that preceded Marianne back to St. Gilgen that he would prefer to raise the child for the first few months himself. In he extended the arrangement to an indefinite term. Leopold continued to care for his grandson, taking delight in his progress toilet training, speech, and so on , and commencing with the very beginnings of musical training. Marianne saw her son on occasional visits, but in general was not involved in his care.
The arrangement continued until the death of Marianne's father, Leopold, on the 28th of May, Biographers differ on what was the basis for this arrangement. Little Leopold was ill in his infancy, and perhaps needed to be kept in Salzburg for this reason, but this does not explain why he was still kept there after his recovery. Another possibility attributes the arrangement to Marianne's delicate health or her need to take care of her stepchildren. Biographer Maynard Solomon attributes the arrangement to Leopold's wish to revive his skills in training a musical genius, as he had done with Wolfgang.
He also suggests that the giving up her son was indicative of Marianne's total subordination to her father's wishes. Relationship with Wolfgang When Mozart was a toddler, Nannerl was his idol. Maynard Solomon writes, "at three, Mozart was inspired to study music by observing his father's instruction of Marianne; he wanted to be like her. Mozart's early correspondence with Marianne is affectionate, and includes some of the scatological and sexual word play in which Mozart indulged with intimates.
Occasionally Wolfgang wrote entries in Marianne's diary, referring to himself in the third person. Until he sent her copies of his piano concertos up to No. Concerning the relationship between Wolfgang and Marianne in adulthood, authorities differ. According to New Grove, Wolfgang "remained closely attached to her. He notes, for instance, that after Mozart's unhappy visit to Salzburg in , Wolfgang and Marianne never visited each other again, that they never saw each other's children, and that their correspondence diminished to a trickle, ceasing entirely in Since this biography had been written from the perspective of Vienna and of Constanze, much of its content was new to Marianne.
In an letter she wrote: Herr Prof. Niemetschek's biography so complete reanimated my sisterly feelings toward my so ardently beloved brother that I was often dissolved in tears, since it is only now that I became acquainted with the sad condition in which my brother found himself. Later years Marianne's husband died in She returned to Salzburg, accompanied by her two living children and four stepchildren, and worked as a music teacher.
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