This amount is 9. Rain occurred the day of the spill, June 6th, and continued through June 10th. Geology of Spill Area The topsoil in the area is a dark-brown silt-loam which persists to a depth of cm Latimer, The subsoil is made up of a yellowish-brown sandy loam. A marsh and stream are located at the bottom of the contaminated slope. The stream feeds into Roundtop Pond See Figure Response to Spill The formaldehyde was adsorbed by the porous sandy loam soil at the spill site.
Because of the adsorption, no toxic effects of the chemical were noted in the stream.
Treatment or removal of the formaldehyde from the soil was determined not to be necessary However, the area was monitored for formaldehyde levels for one year. The data indicate that very high levels of formaldehyde were present at depths of cm inches shortly after the spill.
In contrast, marsh core sample, data shown in Table 30, indicate increased formaldehyde levels occurred over time Formaldehyde levels in the ground water appeared to decrease after the spill See Table However, after one year, formaldehyde levels in the water were still relatively high Thus, it appears that the formaldehyde was moving down the slopes and was slowly leaching into the creek. Biological Damage to Area In the spill area, the formaldehyde killed the plants and most of the terrestrial invertebrates, such as earthworms and pill bugs.
After one year, plants sucn as clover, sow thistle, and dandelions were migrating into the spill area. Spill area and sampling stations Roush et at. The truck overturned blocking the road and spilling its contents of toluene. Details of the spill are listed in Table A contour map of the spill area is shown in Figure June, the month of the spill, is typically one of the dryest months of the year. Winds average Rock in the area is primarily sand stone. The average depth of the soil in the area is 51 cm before bedrock Woodward, The contaminated sand was then removed from the area Hinshaw, personal communication, The toluene that was not released was pumped into other Hatch Company tankers.
Highway was closed for over 8 hours during the clean-up. Environmental Levels of Spilled Material No measurements were conducted by on-site spill personnel. Two flat cars, with two trailers on each flat car were involved in the derailment. The trailers contained a total of drums of arsenic trioxide kg each. Forty-three of these drums broke open releasing their powdered contents. The spill site was located near a cornfield in Elkhorn, Wisconsin. A contour map of the area is presented in Figure Elkhorn, Wisconsin Mr.
Topography of arsenic trioxide spill site, Elkhorn Wisconsin, U. Department of Geological Survey, The weather conditions immediately after the spill are presented in Table Wind direction on the day of the spill was from the west dispersing the compound into a cornfield. The month of August, had 12 cm 4. Geology of Spill Area The soil at the spill site is a Pella silt loam. The Pella series are usually deep, poorly drained soils.
The estimated depth to the water table is cm feet. The pH ranged from 6. Some of the powder was blown into cornfields adjacent to the tracks. They started clean-up of the area on July 31 and finished on August 4. Full protective clothing, including self-contained breathing apparatus, was used during the clean-up. Care was taken to keep dust emissions to a minimum, however, Mr.
Ehart personal communication, noted that some release in the wind did occur during removal of the chemical. The broken arsenic trioxide drums were piled on the north side of the tracks and covered with soil. On 1 August, special barrels were shipped to the site to hold the contaminated material. The contaminated soil and arsenic debris were removed by wetting down the area, picking them up with a front end loader and placing the material in the barrels. Samples were also taken from two farm pools. At the spill site, before clean-up, 7, ppm of arsenic were present in the soil.
The spill response team in Leon, Kentucky, used aeration ponds to remove the chemical from the soil. In the Dayton, Ohio, spill, where the acrylonitrile was at or near the surface, a chemical reaction was conducted to degrade the compound Both of these treatments were successful in removing the acrylonitrile and were less costly, in dollars and in environmental damage, than removing the contaminated soil. The phenol spill in Slabtown, Maryland, also employed an interesting treatment method. Activated carbon was used to remove the chemical from the water leaching from the contaminated soil.
Therefore, massive amounts of contaminated soil were removed from the spill site. The data collected shortly after the spill and several years later indicated that the PCB in the soil had not been degraded. The previously discussed spills had all endangered surface or subsurface waters. When the water in a spill area is not threatened, less costly treatment methods are often used. For example the toluene spill in Wallsburg, Utah, did not threaten waterways. The contaminated area from this spill was sanded and then the contaminated material was removed.
The nitric acid spill in Estill, South Carolina, was neutralized with lime and contaminated soil was removed to a land fill. In Duffee, Mississippi, the spill of sodium hydroxide was initially treated by burying the contaminated soil. However, when residents complained about fumes, the contaminated soil was neutralized with alum.
The formaldehyde spill in Rensselear County, New York, received no treatment. The formaldehyde was removed from the soil by natural mechanisms within one year after the spill. The spill of arsenic trioxide, near Elkhorn, Wisconsin, was an example of the problems of contamination when a powder is spilled. Winds were responsible for spreading the material and special methods were required to remove the contaminated material from the site. The spills discussed in greater detail in this section do not represent a typical cross section of the treatment methods used.
Mercer, et al. These were acid or base spills. The acids were neutralized with lime, limestone or soda ash. The only base spill included in the sample, was neutralized with hydrochloric acid In 60 percent of the spills either no treatment was applied or the treatment method used consisted only of a water wash.
Thus, the initial response to a spill is the removal of as much of the hazardous material from the environment as possible. This task can be accomplished by a variety of physical-chemical methods depending on the properties of the material spilled However, restoration of the land requires additional efforts which can be very costly.
This restoration method utilizes only conventional farm equipment to remove the damaged soil and appropriate clothing to protect workers from adverse effects from the spilled chemical. The damaged soil is hauled to a secure landfill. The spill area is then backfilled in with top soil and revegetated Removal of damaged soil is an expensive undertaking especially if the spill is large and significant penetration of the soil has occurred.
Toxic fumes released in the digging operation can create a serious health problem for workers and the nearby environment. Disposal of the contaminated soil is also a major problem since it must be hauled to a secure landfill. Thus, removal of damaged soil is only a viable alternative if large water supplies, a large number of people, wildlife or highly valuable land are threatened.
Collection and Carbon Adsorption Collection of leached water containing the spilled chemical followed by carbon adsorption treatment to remove the chemical from the water has been proven to be a viable spill clean-up method. This technique works best if the runoff water from the spill area can be easily channelled into one or two carbon adsorption units by using trenches or the land contour.
If the spilled material is efficiently adsorbed by the carbon, the effluent water can be returned to the environment The spent carbon can be disposed of in a secure landfill or by burning, depending on the nature of the chemical. The main disadvantages of carbon adsorption treatment are: continuous monitoring of the effluent is required in order to assure that the carbon filtration system is operating efficiently the contour and consistency of the land may not be suitable for collection of runoff or drainage water without considerable excavation long term use of carbon adsorption is expensive Chemical Neutralization Many hazardous chemicals can be rendered harmless by reaction with other chemicals in a relatively simple reaction, e.
However, unless the spilled material is near the surface and relatively localized, neutralization procedures can cause more damage to the land. The increased damage can be due to excess of the neutralization chemical, heat of reaction or formation of toxic by-products. Thus, chemical neutrali- zation must be considered on a case-by-case basis since the area covered by the spill, the type of land and weather conditions will determine if neutralization will prevent or cause further damage. Techniques which were identified can be divided into four categories.
A great number of microorganisms are capable of degrading pesticides A list of some of these organisms and the pesticides they degrade is presented in Table 37 In many instances. These types of transformations and the pesticides in which they occur and the end products of pesticide transformation are presented in Table According to Haque and Freed , there are a number of factors influencing the rates of degradation Those factors that reduce the rate are: sorption, unless degradation is catalyzed at the sorptive soil surface substitution in the ring meta to the hydroxyl of chlorophenols rather than substitution in the ortho or para position The factors that increase the rate of degradation are.
In reality, there is interaction between all factors and the situation is very complex. As shown in Table 39, the malathion nad been almost totally degraded in the non-sterile soil within 10 days. The degradation that occurred in the sterile soil was attributed to chemical degradation, rather than microbial.
Microbial degradation was defined as the difference between the total degradation and the chemical degradation. Chemical degradation appeared to be due to alkaline hydrolysis and adsorption by the soil particles. Susceptibility to hydrolysis increased with increasing alkalinity. Other researchers have also studied malathion Matsumura and Boush found that the fungus Trichodenna viride and a bacterium, Pseudomonas sp , degraded malathion T.
Paschal and Neville applied both malaoxon and malathion to sterile and non-sterile soil. The rates of disappearance of malaoxon from the soil samples at pH of 6. The data indicated that the disappearance of malaoxon is more dependent on the pH than on the presence of microorganisms in the soil. Thus, malaoxon disappearance is due to chemical hydrolysis which increases with pH. The disappearance of malathion from the sterile and non-sterile soils at a pH of 7.
Malathion was not degraded in the sterile soil. After application of malathion, the numbers of bacteria and fungi were the same as before the application regardless of soil pH Paschal and Neville concluded malathion was degraded by microorganisms, while the malaoxon was degraded by chemical mechanisms Many researchers have studied the degradation and bioconcentration of dalapon CH3CCI2COOH.
In none of the above cases was pyruvic acid, one of the breakdown products of dalapon, found in plant tissues. However, unchanged dalapon was present in plant tissues in all cases. Many microorganisms are capable of degrading dalapon after a lag period during which the bacteria acclimate to the dalapon as an energy source. Corbin studied the effect of dalapon on soil invertebrates. He reported dalapon applied at A dosage of Day et al. Disappearance of malathion iri sterile and non-sterile soil samples at pH 7.
H H J by potato plants under subtropical conditions. Immediately after the first application, sweet potatoes and white potatoes were planted The persistence of the two chemicals was found to be similar. However, the decline was accelerated during the spring and summer, despite the additional spring application of the chemicals.
Soil residues of DDT were lower at the end of the summer than before the second application in the spring The concentration of dieldrin at the end of the summer was identical to the concentration before treatment. These insectcies were adsorbed by the potatoes either as the parent compounds or their metabolites Chen et al. The higher the concentration of insecticide in the soil, the higher the concentration in the plants.
Presumably, the mextractable 2,4,5-T had been incorporated into the soil organic matter. The extent of biodegradation was determined from the amount of CO2 evolved and the effects on microorganisms determined from plate counts. Soil samples were incubated for 56 days. Dieldrin historically thought to be highly residual in soil, was probably chemically decomposed into biodegradable products which were in turn degraded by microorganisms Stojanovic et al.
The remaining pesticides inhibited the release of CO2 from the soil samples, 1 e. DNBP and 2,4-D showed the greatest inhibitory effect. All of the analytical pesticides reduced the number of bacteria except bromacil and DBCP which increased the number of bacteria.
Picloram and DNBP affected the bacterial count most severely. Streptomyces population were only slightly affected by the pesticides. The soil samples treated with the remainder of the pesticides had increased Streptomyces populations over that observed in the control samples. Fungi also survived the pesticides better than the bacteria. Vernolate, 2,4-D, dalapon, pichloram, zineb, bromacil, dicamba, 2,4,5-T, trifluralin and atrazine increased the numbers of fungi.
Of the pesticide formulations, about half were degraded, while the other half inhibited the release of CO2 from the soil. Of pesticide formulations tested, only soils treated with carbaryl had higher bacterial population than the soil samples. All other pesticides formulations reduced the number of bacteria.
Of the 7 formulation mixtures, No. Stojanovic et al. Mixtures Nos. The only mixture that inhibited fungal growth was No. Although a number of researchers have found that many pesticides are degraded by microorganisms, other researchers have stated that many pesticides persist in the soil, some for a number of years, as shown in Table The main research emphasis on microbial degradation in soils has been aimed at the persistant pesticides However, Tiedje has reported on the influence of environmental parameters on EDTA biodegradation in soils.
EDTA biodegradation occurred in all soils as shown in Table 42, although the subsoil samples had only a minimal amount of degradation. The higher concen- trations and ppm initially were inhibitory, but eventually stimulated biodegradation. Tiedje suggests that because of chelating action, the ppm concentration increased the availability of soil organic matter for microbial attack.
He suggested that the organic material that became available for microbial attack due to periods of freezing and thawing accounted for the increase in degradation in the winter-collected samples. From the data found in the literature review, it appears that microbial degradation is a viable method for removal of hazardous materials, especially if conditions are optimized in favor of biodegradation.
Three techniques for biodegradation of spilled hazardous materials are possible: optimization of conditions for degradation by existing soil organisms application of a variety of organisms, e. Optimization of conditions for degradation by existing soil microorganisms can take the form of addition of water, nutrients, changing pH or providing additional aeration by plowing. All of these factors have been shown to affect the ability of soil microorganisms to degrade hazardous chemicals. If the natural surviving soil microorganisms are killed, suitable organisms can be provided in order to bring about degradation of the chemical.
These organisms can be applied as mixed cultures, adapted mixed cultures or as a single culture known to be capable of degrading the chemical. However, additional research is necessary in order to provide a methodology that will be applicable on a wide scale. The objective of these studies was to achieve a better understanding of the ecological impact of these substances in the environment. Zutshi and Kaul studied the cytogenetic activity of several fungicides in barley Hordeum vulgare and Vicia faba.
Barley seeds were soaked in each test solution, washed and planted in glass Petri dishes Seedling injury was calculated by the height attained by the first leaf. The results of various fungicide treatments on seed germination, seedling injury and genetic aberrations in barley are listed in Table 43 These data indicate that Copperson Bernlate, Lonocol, Dexon, Ceresan, Hexason and Karathane are the most injurious to seedlings The secondary roots of Vicia faba were exposed to the more toxic fungicides.
The results of these treatments are presented in Table 44 Of the fungicides tested, Dexon caused the greatest number of cellular aberrations. The use of herbicides such as 2,4-D 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in orchards is common practice. However, this herbicide can damage trees if sprinkler irrigation follows soon after 2,4-D application. Fall leaf abscission was inhibited and foliage development was abnormal the following spring.
The effect of crude oil on the growth of corn Zea mays L was investigated by Udo and Fayemi Germination and yields were drastically reduced as levels of crude oil increased see Figure Poor growth was attributed to. The quantities and forms of trace metals that enter, are distributed within the plant reservoir, and eventually migrate to other locations in the ecosystem, are of basic importance.
Metals may be localized in roots and stem, or they may accumulate in non-toxic form. In some plants potentially toxic metals are bound at the cell walls of roots and leaves thereby protecting sensitive intracellular areas. A diagram of trace-metal cycling in a plant-environment system is presented in Figure Berry studied the effects of acute toxic levels of copper and zinc on germination and growth in lettuce seeds. Dose response curves were plotted of root length vs. These curves are shown in Figure The ability of bush-bean plant roots Phaseolus vulgaris L to act as a barrier to translocation of certain metals was investigated by Wallace and Romney The plants were grown in a greenhouse in ml nutrient solution for days They were then transplanted to solutions containing various concentrations of heavy metals.
Reasonably uniform distribution between roots and shoots occurred for zinc, manganese, nickel, lithium and boron. Iron, copper, aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, and molybdenum were usually distributed in roots but some large quantities occurred in shoots. Lead, tin, titanium, silver, chromium, vanadium, zirconium and gallium were found primarily in the roots Specific distribution of some trace metals among Phaseolus vulgaris L plant parts are listed in Table 45 The influence of diammonium phosphate and pH on the uptake of heavy metals chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc by corn Zea Mays L.
Effect of the level of crude oil addition to the soil on the germination of maize grains Udo and Fayemi, Diagram of trace-metal cycling in a plant-environment system Tiffin, Dose-response curves of seedling lettuce subjected to acute zinc and copper toxicity Berry, Their results are presented in Table In general, heavy metal uptake is favored by acidic soil.
The presence of diammonium phosphate also tends to increase plant uptake of heavy metals. Vegetables grown in Sango silt loam pH 6. Sludge from Decatur and Tuscumbia, Alabama was used. The results of this study are presented in Table Yields of most vegetables were unaffected by applied sludge. Tomato and squash yields increased significantly. Zinc and cadmium tended to accumulate in radish and turnip roots. Lettuce was the greatest accumulator of zinc, cadmium and copper among the leafy vegetables. Beans, okra pods, tomato, pepper and squash fruits contained less heavy metal than did the vegetative tissue.
The data gathered in the literature survey indicates that uptake of chemicals, especially metals, does occur in plants. This uptake can be aided by controlling soil pH and phosphate content. Thus, the use of harvestable vegetation to concentrate metals from the soil appears to be a viable technique for restoration of land damaged by spills of heavy metals. Sufficient information is not available to assess the utility of plants for uptake and degradation of organic chemicals. However, insight into the problems associated with revegetation of toxic soil can be obtained from experiences associated with restoration of strip mining lands.
Many problems are created by surface mining for coal. The aesthetic beauty of the area is destroyed after coal stripping. Changes in the physical and chemical properties of disturbed soil often create a hostile environment for seed germination and vegetative growth. Barren areas are subject to sheet erosion which contributes sediment and pollution to surrounding streams.
Revegetation of denuded areas has been a constant problem since the beginning of surface mining. In some localities, excellent reclamation work has been done on mined spoils while other areas have been totally neglected. New surface grading techniques required by some states have been introduced with partial success in sedimen- tation and erosion control.
Success or failure is determined by the management received after grading. The selection of the form of limestone to be used in neutralizing acidic strip mine spoils is based upon the chemical analyses of the spoil material to be amended. Dolomite limestone may be selected in areas lacking magnesium, an element essential to plant life. On acid mine spoils, dolomite has been reported almost as effective as calcite limestone in raising the pH.
Phosphate rock is a good spoil amendment for plant growth under toxic pH conditions pH 3. The acidic spoil will react with the phosphate rock to release some of the components necessary to support vegetation. An attempt is being made to use waste materials that are creating environmental problems as soil amendments for acid mine spoils.
Digested sewage sludge, composted sewage sludge, composted garbage and fly ash are currently being evaluated. Supplementary nitrogen must be added if vegetation is to be established on spoils with low nitrogen content. Chemical analyses of the spoil material will indicate when elemental deficiencies exist. Mulching materials are needed to alter the surface microclimate and to help conserve moisture during seedling establishment. Various organic materials have been studied and found to be effective as mulches- pulp, fiber, straw, sawdust, wood chips, cured hay, chemical binding agents and in site mulches.
Straw has been an effective mulch for new seedlings on bare and untilled surfaces. When two to three tons per acre of straw were distributed over the soil surface after seeding, excellent seed germination resulted.
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Well-weathered sawdust material, that had been leached for a minimum of a year, proved to be a very good mulching material. Fresh sawdust had a tendency to float or move during heavy rains. Sawdust is limited by its availability in the reclamation areas Wood chips were satisfactory in aiding seed germination but were not as good as straw mulch for establishing Kentucky 31 tall fescue or orchard grass.
Bark and wood chips are very bulky and mechanical equipment for application is limited. Cured hay has been used with considerable success. Some hay may contain sufficient grass seed to serve both as a mulch and seed source Many chemicals have been developed to provide erosion control and soil stabilization for seedling establishment. Data on suitability, availability, and cost of these binders are limited. When used alone, many of these chemicals do not fulfill all purposes of a mulch.
Used in conjunction with organic mulches, some chemical binders have improved the stability of the mulch. An economical mulch can be produced by seeding cereal grains or summer annuals as the first crop. A major problem in the east concerns acidic spoils and high levels of aluminum and magnesium. Species selection is important for adaptation in these areas. Grass species that have shown potential for revegetation in the eastern U.
Weeping lovegrass and bermuda grass seem to be most adaptable to low pH mine spoils. The use of legume species on mine spoil areas is very important. They provide a high quality hay, rich in nitrogen and protein, while having a beneficial influence on desirable soil microorganisms that are important in soil transformation. Important legume species that have been studied on acidic strip mine areas in Appalachia include alfalfa Medicago sativa , white clover Trifolium repens , crimson clover Trifolium incannatum , birdsfoot trefoil Lotus corniculatus 1.
Revegetation alone does not tend to remove hazardous chemicals from spill damaged land. However, revegetation along with the addition of nutrients and pH adjustment can aid in land restoration by control of erosion, absorption of the toxic chemical, and aiding in the growth of microorganisms capable of degrading the spilled material. Factors which influence the success of revegetation efforts include: type of soil and nutrients available climatic conditions soil flora and fauna selection of plant species planting methodology plant maintenance These factors are interactive rendering each revegetation project a unique situation.
However, revegetation can be very successful if guidelines are established and followed. Before revegetation efforts are initiated, some preliminary information is needed. This information includes descriptions of the soil and climate. Climatic conditions which require characterization include temperature, precipitation and wind speed, the soil and the climatic conditions must be matched with the plant species. Care in matching these factors will allow selection of plant species which possess the optimum probability of revegetating the area.
However, even with the proper choice of plants, the success of the project depends to a large extent on the planting methodology and continued maintenance of the area. The next step in the process is the selection of the planting technique. Either seeds or young plants can be used. Both techniques have their pros and cons. Seeds are more readily available, less expensive and require less plant maintenance because plants are naturally conditioned. However, seeds require one to two weeks before germination.
This time delay can result in significant soil erosion and dust losses. Germination and survival of the young seedlings is often a problem. Plant patterns are also important. Care must be exercised in order to assure that the plants are properly spaced so that they receive adequate sunlight, have sufficient growing area and are close enough for fertilization and reproduction to occur.
Often it is profitable to seed the area with a fast growing grass cover followed by the more permanent vegetation properly spaced.
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Maintenance of the area is necessary to insure survival and proper plant growth. Maintenance procedures include application of nutrients to the soil, pH adjustment to combat the continuous deleterious effects of the toxic spill, plowing for soil aeration and watering. Thus, to be useful, the photodegradation technique requires immediate response. Photodegradation of polyhalogenated organics requires two things - sunlight and the presence of a hydrogen donor species The hydrogen donor species can be a light hydrocarbon oil.
Olive oil was recommended as the hydrogen donor species to help photodegrade the tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin spilled in Italy in Crosby, Laboratory studies showed that this dioxin could be rapidly dechlorinated by sunlight if the conditions were optimized. The mechanism is a step-wise dechlorination initiated by the absorption of light from the sun.
The resulting dechlorinated compound is relatively non-toxic and can be biodegraded by microorganisms. Sahai and Chauhan discussed several classes of pesticides which could be photodegraded. The primary degradation reaction that occurred was the replacement of a halogen group on an aromatic ring by a hydroxyl group Hautala examined the degree of photolysis of three pesticides, 2,4-D, Parathion and Sevm. He found that the photo decomposition of 2,4-D was a slow process Sevin degradation was catalyzed by the presence of detergents in the soil and this pesticide could be rapidly degraded to 1-naphthol.
The photodegradation of parathion was found to be inconsistent and could not be correlated to soil type, soil moisture or detergents. The major soil char- acteristics which effect chemical degradation are pH, redox potential, surface acidity and the availability of catalytic sites. Adsorption catalyzed hydrolysis is the major mechanism for the degradation of diazino and some s-tnazine herbicides Leonard et al. Darnell examined the use of bromination to reclaim hazardous metals and breakdown persistent organic compounds.
A useable by-product of this reaction is hydrogen. Huibregtse al. Tests were conducted on sand and clay soils contaminated with copper sulfate or sodium hypochlorite. The grout was injected around the contaminated soil. In these tests, percent of the copper was removed and percent of the sodium hypochlorite was oxidized. Chemical and photochemical degradation can be useful in restoration of spill damaged land However, criteria must be established for the applicability of these techniques to spill clean-up and land restoration.
These criteria can then be used by the on-site spill response coordinator to decide if a chemical or photochemical technique is applicable to a specific spill situation. Criteria for selection of the organic chemicals included physical form, function of group, persistence, volatility, water solubility, potential biodegradability, and the annual amount produced and transported in the United States. The organic chemicals selected represented a cross-section of the hazardous chemicals listed in the Federal Register and a variety of chemical classes.
The selection of a wide variety of chemicals with different functional groups was deemed necessary in order to demonstrate biological techniques for restoration of spill-damaged lands which would have broad applicability in the field. In this way results from the experiments would have a larger inference space than if only two chemicals were tested by all the techniques.
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A draw back from this procedure is that the techniques cannot be directly compared to each other. For the heavy metal salts, water solubility and toxicity were the primary consideration for selection. The chemicals selected for the simulated spills and the spill restoration methods evaluated are presented below: Technique Chemical I Enhancement cr iMcrobial degradation chlorobenzene by indigenous organisms Ethion II.
Addition of selected microbial dinitrophenol cultures chlordane IV. Selective absorption by harvestable lead nitrate plants cadmium nitrate For Technique I, chlorobenzene and Ethion were chosen for several reasons. Monochlorobenzene is designated as a category B substance by EPA, i. Ethion is an organophos- phorus insecticide produced by FMC Corporation. Ethion is a moderately persis- tent, relatively water-insoluble compound that can be used on 37 different food crops, cotton, sorghum and other plants. It was anticipated that these chemi- cals would be a good test of the ability of indigenous organisms to adapt to and degrade a spilled chemical.
Formaldehyde and aniline were evaluated in Technique II. Formaldehyde is a high-use, high-production chemical in the U. The total U. For aniline, the U. Preliminary tests showed that the ad- dition of formaldehyde or aniline to soil eradicated the soil microorganisms. If very few indigenous microorganisms are present in the soil, very little bio- degradation will occur. Therefore, the addition of primary sewage effluent would tend to replenish the soil bacteria population and potentially lead to the degradation of the compound.
For Technique III, chlordane and dinitrophenol were selected. Chlordane is a chlorinated pesticide and is persistent in the environment. Dinitrophenol is used in the production of dyes and preserving timber. Dinitrophenol is also a difficult compound to degrade due to its structure. This technique was used on chlor- dane and dinitrophenol because they were the most difficult chemicals to de- grade. In Technique IV, the absorption by harvestable plants, lead nitrate and cadmium nitrate were selected.
Lead was used because it is a prevalent and highly used heavy metal. Cadmium was selected because of its high toxicity. Each greenhouse contained nine enclosed environmental chambers. The environmental chambers were constructed in groups of three with each group supported by a wood frame. A diagram of three environmental chambers is shown in Figure The chambers were constructed of 0. Each environmental chamber had the following dimensions: length - 87 cm width - 87 cm height - 70 cm Each environmental chamber had a cover of 0.
To provide a resting place for the cover, the inside of the tops of the chambers were framed with 2. The lumber was coated with Thompson's Water Proof Sealer to prevent absorption of water or chemicals. The top of the frame was coated with GE Clear Silicone Sealer to provide a cushion seal for the glass cover. An RTV mold release compound was applied around the cover edge to prevent the glass from sticking to the frame. This arrangement provided a cushion but not a completely airtight seal for the environmental chamber covers.
A steady flow of fresh air through the environmental chambers was induced by connecting the air exit line from the chamber to a vacuum system. Photographs of the soil chambers and the air handling system are shown in Figures 23 and Fresh outside-air was admitted into each environmental chamber, recirculated within the chambers by means of a small fan, and then passed through a water cooled condenser, a carbon filter, a sodium hydroxide bubbler and out through the vaccuum pump.
The air system permitted all airborne chemicals to be collected for analysis. A liquid drainage hole was drilled in the glass bottom of each environmental chamber. This hole was plugged with a one-hole neoprene stopper fitted with a glass-teflon stopcock.
Thus, any liquid collected in the bottom of the chambers could be drained and analyzed. Set of three environmental chambers. Environmental chambers. Figure Water cooled condenser, carbon filter and sodium hydroxide bubbler from spill chamber. Once the chambers were filled with soil and packed down, the soils were seeded with perennial rye grass and allowed to equilibrate for 3 weeks. During the application of the spill material, the operators were outfitted with disposable lab coats, gloves, hats and booties.
Each operator wore air tight goggles and a Wilson Basic Face Piece respirator with R organic vapor filters. Once the material was applied to the soil, the chambers were closed and the vacuum pump system put into operation. The chambers were monitored visually every few hours Core samples were taken at 24 and 48 hours after the spill. Planters, 45 cm in diameter and 45 cm high, were used to study the uptake of heavy metals by harvestable plants. A diagram of the planters and the experimental treatments are presented in Figure Twelve planters were used for each metal.
Three soils were used in the test, organic, sandy-loam and clay. Four planters were used for each soil. For each soil, one planter acted as a control and the other three received the heavy metal contamination.
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Monochlorobenzene The monochlorobenzene spill material was prepared by the addition of 1 mCi of labelled monochlorobenzene to 18 liters of unlabelled compound. This compound was labelled uniformly at the ring positions. Two liters of the labelled-unlabelled monochlorobenzene mixture were spread evenly over each chamber. A water sprinkling can was used to spread the chemical over the soil to simulate the hazardous spill. Each environmental chamber received 0.
Two liters of the Ethion were spread evenly over each chamber with a water sprinkling can. Experimental design for plant uptake studies. The 14C labelled formaldehyde was purchased from Amersham. The unlabelled formaldehyde was purchased from Textile Chemical Company The hazardous spill was simulated by spreading two liters of formaldehyde evenly over the soil in each chamber with a water sprinkling can. Each chamber received 0. Aniline Aniline, for the simulated hazardous spill was prepared by adding 1 mCi of uniformly ring labelled aniline to 18 liters of aniline. The labelled aniline was purchased from California Bionuclear.
The unlabelled compound was obtained from Fisher Scientific. Ci of per chamber. Carbonlabelled chlordane was synthesized from 1Z,C uniformly ring labelled hexachlorocyclopentadiene. The technical grade chlordane was supplied by the Velsicol Company. Two liters of a 1. Each chamber had surface chlordane levels of 0. Cadmium Nitrate Two hundred and fifty ml of an aqueous solution of cadmium nitrate 6.
This simulated spill yielded cadmium levels in the soil ranging from ppm. Lead Nitrate The simulated spill of lead nitrate was conducted in the same manner as described for cadmium nitrate. The spill solution contained 9. Lead concentrations in the soils ranged from ppm after the spill. The microbial population remaining after the spill was stimulated with nutrients treatment 1 or with nutrients coupled with aeration of the soil treatment 2. The chemicals used for the Technique I experiments were monochlorobenzene and Ethion.
The restoration treatment -1 and -2 were applied to the soils 48 hours after the spill. The initial treatments for the two chemical spills were the same. For each of three different soil types, each soil type was used in 3 chambers , one chamber served as a control untreated , another chamber received treatment-1 and a third chamber received treatment The control and treatments-1 and 2 were randomly assigned to the chambers within soil types.
Two liters of the nutrient broth were sprinkled over the soil surface to stimulate growth of the residual microbial population. For treatment-2 the same nutrient broth was added to the soil surface. In ddition, the top A garden weasel was used to accomplish the plowing. After evaluation of the results of treatments-1 and -2 in the Ethion chambers, additional methods of treatment were evaluated. The pH of the soil had decreased to between after the Ethion spill.
This pH value is too low for growth of many microbes. Soil pH values were therefore increased to approxi- mately to optimize growth conditions for the surviving soil microorganisms. Lime was added to the treatment-1 T-l and treatment-2 T-2 chambers on days 46 and Due to the low solubility of Ethion in water, it is relatively unavailable to microorganisms. Two methods were investigated to increase availability of Ethion to the microbes.
On day 95, Tween 80 a surfactant, Atlas Chemical Industries and nutrient broth were added to the treated soil chambers. After day , small scale experiments were conducted to determine if the hydrolysis of Ethion could be increased by the application of alcoholic sodium hydroxide. Land Restoration-Technique II For Technique II, mixed microbial cultures, obtained from primary sewage effluent, were evaluated for their usefulness in restoring spill damaged land Primary sewage effluent is readily available and rich in nutrients.
Technique II was evaluated on formaldehyde and aniline spills. As in Technique I, restoration treatments were applied to the soils 48 hours after the spill. Aniline and formaldehyde were selected for Technique II because they would reduce the indigenous soil microbial populations to low levels. Thus, the effects from the addition of a mixed micobial cultures could be more readily identified. Treatment-2 environmental chambers received 3.
Thus, organisms that could survive at high formaldehyde con- centration increased in number. These treatments were reapplied to the respective chambers on day The hydrogen peroxide was added to oxidize the aniline to a more biodegradable form. One hour after the hydrogen peroxide was added, 4 liters of primary sewage effluent were added to the soil.
The soils were then plowed. Also on day 42, the T-l chambers were treated with primary sewage effluent cultured in nutrient broth containing aniline. To provide essential minerals and nutrients for degradation, a solution of MgCl2 0. The T-2 chambers were treated with the same mixture on day The two chemicals used in Technique III tests were chlordane and 2,4-dinitrophenol. Once again the treatments were applied 48 hours after the spill and the treatments were randomized within soil types.
The cultures were reinoculated into fresh chlordane, nutrient salts and yeast extract solutions every 7 to 10 days for 2 months. The reinoculation process selected the microorganisms which could adapt to and metabolize technical grade chlordane. Treatment-1 environmental chambers each received 4 liters of microbial culture and nutrient salts mixture. Treatment-2 environmental chambers each received lime, to make the soil basic, followed by the addition of 4 liters of the microbial culture and nutrient salts mixture. The treatments with the microbial culture and nutrient salts mixture were re-applied to the soils on days 8 and The 2,4-dinitrophenol was the sole carbon source.
The cultures were reinoculated in the fresh media every 7 to 10 days for 3 months. This technique selected the organisms which could adapt to and metabolize dinitrophenol. Only six environmental chambers were used in this spill exeriment. Three chambers were controls and three received the microbial treatment The treatment consisted of first adding g of lime to the chambers to raise the soil pH to basic conditions. The dinitrophenol is water soluble under basic conditions and therefore more available to microorganisms. Four liters of the adapted microbial culture, nutrient salts and yeast extract were then added to the lime-treated chambers on day 2 and day 8.
No aeration of the soil was conducted. Land Restoration Technique IV The fourth land restoration technique evaluated the application of selec- tive absorption of heavy metals by harvestable plants. The heavy metals used in the Technique IV experiments were cadmium and lead.
Both heavy metals were applied to soil chambers in the form soluble nitrate salts. Four plants were evaluated for their ability to concentrate metals in the experiment, rye grass, Kentucky fescue grass, lettuce and either beets or chard. The experimental design is presented in Figure To promote the uptake of the metals by the plants, two treatments were used: The pH of the soils was adjusted to acidic values with dilute acetic acid Chamber C Figure 25 was treated with ml of a 0.
Plant seeds were then added to the soil chambers as shown in Figure Soil pH was monitored throughout the experiment and plants were collected from early May until mid-July.
The location of the core sites was selected from random numbers, i. The core samples were separated into 3 levels, cm, cm, and The levels from the two core samples in each chamber were pooled for analysis, i. Ster- ile preweighed ml polyethylene beakers with caps were used to store and transport the samples. The sealed beakers were returned to the laboratory, reweighed and measured amounts of the soil were removed. One gram samples were removed and transferred to 10 ml of sterile water for microbial analysis.
The remainder of the sample was resealed in the beaker for GC analysis of the chemical. Heavy Metals Core samples were collected with a Two sets of soil samples were taken to establish heavy metal levels in the soil. The plant tissue was collected by cutting the above ground part of the plant with grass clippers. The plant tissue was stored in paper bags until digestion and analysis. Care was taken in harvesting the plants to avoid surface contact of the tissue with the metal containing soil.
Soil pH The pH of the soil was measured by adding 10 ml of distilled water pH 6. The soil was allowed to settle and the pH read using a Orion A meter with a electrode standardized at pH 4. The crucible was then cooled in a desiccator and reweighed. The sample was then cooled in a desiccator and reweighed.
The sample was stirred for 20 minutes and allowed to settle. The meter was calibrated with dilution of a ppm nitrate nitrogen stock solution. Soil Microbial Populations Each weighed sample of soil 1 g was suspended in 10 ml of sterile distilled water to give a dilution. Serial dilutions were prepared from this suspension. Dilutions of through , were used, the appropriate dilution used being determined by the microbial count of the previous week's sample.
A 0 1 ml aliquot was spread on each of 2 plates of each media for a dilutions of 1. The numbers of aerobic bacteria were obtained by plating on Eugonagar Baltimore Biological Laboratories, Cockeysville, Md and incubation at room temperature for hours. The average counts of the duplicate plates were determined and corrected for one gram of soil.
Incubation was also at room temperature for hours. The same method was used for reporting counts per gram of soil. Windowless operation was used with P10 gas. A thin layer of soil was spread on a planchet and 5-one minute counts were taken. The net count per minute cpm were determined by taking the average background level plus 1. Any soil samples with net cpm of zero or less were recorded as background levels.
The soil samples were then weighed in order to calculate the number of counts per gram. Barium hydroxide was added to 10 ml of the sodium hydroxide bubbler solution to precipitate the trapped carbon dioxide as barium carbonate. The precipitate was centrifuged and a sample was dried and weighed. The 14C content of the sample was determined by an Eberline Proportional Gas Flow Counter in the same manner as discussed above for the soil samples.
In this procedure, a known quantity of soil is placed in a Soxhlet extraction and extracted with a solvent such as methylene chloride for 1 to several hours. A florisil column is used to remove soil impurities and gas chromatography is used for quantitative analysis. The results from this procedure were compared to a simplified method. In the simplified method, ml of methylene chloride were added to the weighed soil sample in the covered plastic beaker. The soil-liquid was shaken and allowed to stand for 1 hour. The samples were again shaken and an aliquot of liquid was removed and filtered through a cotton plug into GC auto sampler vials.
The simplified method gave higher and more consistent results than those obtained by Soxhlet extraction. Several reasons for the better results with the simplified method versus Soxhlet extract are: monochlorobenzene is not adsorbed by the soil to any appreciable extent and is thus very easy to extrac t the smaller soil sample used in the Soxhlet extraction resulted in a non-representative sample with the smaller soil sample used in the Soxhlet, extraction, the lower concentrations were below the GC detection limits some monochlorobenzene was lost during the additional handling steps in with Soxhlet extraction Because of the large number of samples, the simplified preparation method was used after the second sampling.
The results were compared to a standard curve obtained with known concentrations of monochlorobenzene in methylene chloride. Lower detection limit of the method was 1 ppm in solution. The carbon filter and condenser contents were subjected to GC analysis by the methodology described above. The methylene chloride was then decanted and a second 50 ml of methylene chloride was added. Both washes were then combined and put into GC autosampler vials. However, it was determined that soil moisture and soil sample size of grams resulted in recovery of the Ethion from the soils.
A second procedure was then initiated to increase the percent recovery.
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Duplicate g samples were then taken from a soil sample and extracted in tubes by the following procedure: add 0. The results were compared to a standard curve obtained with known concentrations of Ethion in methylene chloride. The water was decanted from the beaker into a centrifuge tube, centrifuged at rpm for 5 minutes. The clear liquid was then put into GC autosampler vials. The results were compared to a standard curve obtained with known concentrations of formaldehyde in water. The results were compared to a standard curve obtained with known concentrations of aniline in methylene chloride.
The results were compared to a standard curve obtained with known concentrations of chlordane in methylene chloride. The results were compared to a standard curve obtained with known concentrations of dinitrophenol in methylene chloride. The plant tissues were then weighed and ground. After digestion, the samples were filtered through Whatman 40 filter paper and brought up to volume with distilled water in a 25 ml volumetric flask.
The samples were then analyzed on a Varian Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer at a wavelength of The absorbance units of the samples were compared to standards to determine the lead or cadmium concentrations. For each organic chemical, the soil pH, soil moisture content, soil organic content, microbial levels, and chemical levels were evaluated over time. In addition, for five of the six organic chemicals, radiation levels were monitored. The heavy metal vegetative uptake studies were evaluated for soil pH, soil metal levels and plant metal levels over time.
After the mono- chlorobenzene spill, an increase in pH of 0. The days when the chambers were watered are also noted on the charts. An increase in soil moisture was observed at all levels in all chambers after the addition of the monochloro- benzene. This increase is due mainly to volatilization of the monochlorobenzene during the moisture analysis procedure. The treatments were initiated after the day 2 sampling.
Both treatments-1 and 2 introduced water into the chambers. Go to top B Back Azimuth Angle or bearing degrees opposite of azimuth. Backburn Used in some localities to specify fire set to spread against the wind in prescribed burning. Backdraft Instantaneous explosion or rapid burning of superheated gases that occurs when oxygen is introduced into an oxygen-depleted confined space.
It may occur because of inadequate or improper ventilation procedures. Backfire A fire set along the inner edge of a fireline to consume the fuel in the path of a wildfire or change the direction of force of the fire's convection column. Backfiring provides a wide defense perimeter and may be further employed to change the force of the convection column. Backfiring makes possible a strategy of locating control lines at places where the fire can be fought on the firefighter's terms.
Except for rare circumstance meeting specified criteria, backfiring is executed on a command decision made through line channels of authority. Background Level In air pollution control, the concentration of air pollutants in a definite area during a fixed period of time prior to the starting up, or the stoppage, of a source of emission under control. In toxic substances monitoring, the average presence in the environment, originally referring to naturally-occurring phenomena.
Backing Fire Fire spreading, or ignited to spread, into against the wind or downslope. A fire spreading on level ground in the absence of wind is a backing fire. Also called: heel fire. Backing Wind According to the American Meteorological Society, in the Northern Hemisphere, a wind that rotates in the counterclockwise direction with increasing height.
In fire management usage, in the Northern Hemisphere, a wind that rotates in the counterclockwise direction over a given time period normally a few hours. Ball Valve A valve in which fluid flow is controlled by a ball with a hole drilled through it. In one position, fluid flows through the hole. Intermediate valve positions can be used to adjust the flow. Bambi Bucket A collapsible bucket slung below a helicopter.
Used to dip water from a variety of sources for fire suppression. Banking Snags The act of throwing mineral soil about the base of an unlighted snag to prevent its being ignited by a surface fire. Barometer According to the American Meteorological Society, an instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure.
Typically an area or strip devoid of combustible fuel. Base The location at which primary logistics functions for an incident are coordinated and administered. There is only one base per incident. Incident name or other designator will be added to the term "base. The location of initial attack forces. An area representative of the major fire problems on a protection unit. Base fuel model and slope class are chosen from the base area. A representation of the vegetative cover and fuel in a base area. Used in the calculation of fire danger rating.
Base Hours The number of hours in a daily tour of duty. The time established to take the fire danger observations. It should be at the time of day when the fire danger is normally the highest. The usually agreed upon time is pm standard time. This allows time to transmit observations and prepare forecasts. Base Station A fixed central radio dispatching station controlling movements of one or more mobile units. Baseline In prescribed burning, the initial line of fire, usually set as a backing fire along a barrier or control line, which serves to contain subsequent burning operations. Basic Workweek Refers to the scheduled workweek of the employee individual at the home unit.
Batch Mix Manually adding and mixing a concentrated chemical, such as liquid foam, or powdered or liquid retardant with water, or gelling agents with fuel, into solution in a tank or container. Beaufort Wind Scale According to the American Meteorological Society, a system of estimating and reporting wind speeds using a numerical scale ranging from 0 calm to 12 hurricane.
Behavior An observable activity or action demonstrated by an individual in a particular context. Used to take weather observations to provide on-site conditions to the fire weather forecaster or fire behavior analyst. Observations include air temperature, wind speed and direction, and relative humidity. Benefits Something that represents, promotes or enhances a desired outcome, being of positive value and contributing to the attainment of organizational goals.
Benefits represent one end of the spectrum of outcomes from fire, with the opposite end being harm, loss or damage. Blackline Preburning of fuels adjacent to a control line before igniting a prescribed burn. Blacklining is usually done in heavy fuels adjacent to a control line during periods of low fire danger to reduce heat on holding crews and lessen chances for spotting across control line. In fire suppression, a blackline denotes a condition where there is no unburned material between the fireline and the fire edge.
Bladder Bag A collapsible backpack portable sprayer made of neoprene or high-strength nylon fabric fitted with a pump. Block Plan A detailed prescription for treating a specified burning block with fire.
Blowup Sudden increase in fireline intensity or rate of spread of a fire sufficient to preclude direct control or to upset existing suppression plans. Often accompanied by violent convection and may have other characteristics of a fire storm. The board reviews the results in order to identify reasons for both good and poor action and to recommend or prescribe ways and means of doing an effective and efficient job. A major failure of a closed liquid container into two or more pieces when the temperature of the liquid is well above its boiling point at normal atmospheric pressure.
Bole The trunk of a tree. Bone Yard A mop up term. To "bone yard" a fire means to systematically work the entire area, scraping embers off remaining fuel, feeling for heat with the hands, and piling unburned materials in areas cleared to mineral soil. An area cleared to mineral soil for piling unburned fuels. Booster Hose The most common type of hose attached and stored on wildland engine booster reels. The hose is made of neoprene and does not appreciably collapse when stored empty. Booster Pump An intermediary pump for supplying additional lift in pumping water uphill past the capacity of the first pump.
Booster Reel A reel for the booster hose mounted on a fire engine, often supplied by the auxiliary pump. Boundary Layer According to the American Meteorological Society, the layer of air near a boundary that is affected by friction against that boundary surface, and possibly by transport of heat and other variables across that surface.
According to the American Meteorological Society, also called the atmospheric boundary layer the bottom layer of the troposhpere that is in contact with the surface of the earth. It is often turbulent and is capped by a statically stable layer of air or temperature inversion. Bowles Bag A neoprene tank designed for attachment to the landing skid frame of a helicopter. It has a capacity of 80 to gallons to liters of water or retardant.
Box Canyon A steep-sided, dead end canyon. Branch The organizational level having functional or geographical responsibility for major parts of incident operations. Branches are identified by roman numerals or by functional name e. Break a Line To insert a gate valve or some other device into a hose line. Break Coupling To detach two pieces of hose by backing the swivel thread off the nipple thread. Break Left or Right Means "turn" left or right. Applies to aircraft in flight, usually on the drop run, and when given as a command to the pilot, implies expectation of prompt compliance.
Breakover A fire edge that crosses a control line or natural barrier intended to confine the fire. Broadcast Burning Prescribed burning activity where fire is applied generally to most or all of an area within well defined boundaries for reduction of fuel hazard, as a resource management treatment, or both. Brown and Burn Application of herbicide to desiccate living vegetation prior to burning. Brownspot Control Prescribed fire to control fungal infection brown spot disease of longleaf pine Pinus palustris in the "grass" small seedling stage.
Brush A collective term that refers to stands of vegetation dominated by shrubby, woody plants, or low growing trees, usually of a type undesirable for livestock or timber management. Brush Blade Blade attachment with long teeth specially suited to ripping and piling brush with minimum inclusion of soil. Also called brush rake or root rake. Brush Fire A fire burning in vegetation that is predominantly shrubs, brush, and scrub growth. Brush Hook A heavy cutting tool designed primarily to cut brush at the base of the stem.
Used in much the same way as an axe and having a wide blade, generally curved to protect the blade from being dulled by rocks. Brush Management Manipulation of stands of brush by manual, mechanical, chemical, or biological means or by prescribed burning for the purpose of achieving land management objectives. Brush Patrol Unit Any light, mobile vehicular unit with limited pumping and water capacity for off-road operations. Bubble The building block of foam; bubble characteristics of water content and durability influence foam performance. Bucket Drops The dropping of fire retardants or suppressants from specially designed buckets slung below a helicopter.
Bucking Sawing through the bole of a tree after it has been felled. The increase in strength of a fire management organization. The accelerated spreading of a fire with time. Towering cumulus clouds which may lead to thunderstorms later in the day. Buildup Index BUI A relative measure of the cumulative effect of daily drying factors and precipitation on fuels with a ten-day timelag.
For fuels, this is usually expressed as pounds per cubic foot; for soils, grams per cubic centimeter. Work is begun with a suitable space between workers; whenever one worker overtakes another, all of those ahead move one space forward and resume work on the uncompleted part of the line. Forward progress of the crew is coordinated by a crew boss. A reference to a working fire. An injury to flesh caused by a cauterizing agent, heat from a fire, or a heated object.
First Degree Burn: A burn which causes only pain, redness, and swelling. Second Degree Burn: A burn in which the skin is blistered. Third Degree Burn: A flesh burn in which charring occurs. To be on fire. To consume fuel during rapid combustion. A fire in progress or under investigation. Burn Block A discrete area within a larger prescribed or fire use project.
Burn Out Setting fire inside a control line to consume fuel between the edge of the fire and the control line. Burn Patterns The characteristic configuration of char left by a fire. In wildland fires burn patterns are influenced by topography, wind direction, length of exposure, and type of fuel. Definitions are scale-dependent: 1 They can be used to trace a fire's origin; 2 They are influenced by severity and intensity within a stand; 3 They describe the landscape mosaic.
Apparent and obvious design of burned material and the burning path from the area of origin. Burn Severity A qualitative assessment of the heat pulse directed toward the ground during a fire. Burn severity relates to soil heating, large fuel and duff consumption, consumption of the litter and organic layer beneath trees and isolated shrubs, and mortality of buried plant parts.
Burned Area Emergency Response BAER Team BAER teams are formed to analyze post-fire conditions and to take immediate emergency stabilization action to prevent loss of life and property and critical and natural resources. Burned Area Rehabilitation The post-fire activities prescribed and implemented to rehabilitate and restore fire damaged lands. Also applied to propellants and other pyrotechnic mixtures, though the proper term there is "reacting".
Also often an element of the crime of arson. Burning Ban A declared ban on open air burning within a specified area, usually due to sustained high fire danger. Burning Conditions The state of the combined factors of the environment that affect fire behavior in a specified fuel type. Burning Index An estimate of the potential difficulty of fire containment as it relates to the flame length at the head of the fire.
A relative number related to the contribution that fire behavior makes to the amount or effort needed to contain a fire in a specified fuel type. Doubling the burning index indicates that twice the effort will be required to contain a fire in that fuel type as was previously required, providing all other parameters are held constant.
Burning Index Meter A device used to determine the burning index for different combinations of burning index factors. Burning Out Setting fire inside a control line to consume fuel located between the edge of the fire and the control line. Burning Period That part of each hour period when fires spread most rapidly; typically from AM to sundown. Burning Priority Rating System of rating slash to indicate the treatment objective, whether or not burning is required to meet that objective, the fuel treatment necessary to achieve successful burning, and the time of year burning should occur.
Burning Rate Rate at which a propellant and other combustibles burn. Burning Rotation The planned number of years between prescribed fires on a specified area. Burning Torch A flame generating device e. Buying Team A team that supports one or more incidents and is authorized to procure a wide range of services, supplies, and land and equipment rentals. In addition, the Buying Team Leader has the responsibility of coordinating property accountability with the Supply Unit Leader.
Buys Ballots Law According to the American Meteorological Society, a law describing the relationship of the horizontal wind direction in the atmosphere to the pressure distribution; if one stands with the back to the wind, the pressure to the left is lower than to the right in the Northern Hemisphere. Calculation of Probabilities Evaluation of all factors pertinent to probable future behavior of a going fire and of the potential ability of available forces to perform fire suppression operations on a specified time schedule.
Calibrated Airspeed Indicated airspeed of an aircraft, corrected for position and instrument error. Equal to true airspeed in standard atmosphere at sea level. Camp A geographical site s , within the general incident area, separate from the incident base, equipped and staffed to provide sleeping, food, water, and sanitary services to incident personnel. Carbon Dioxide CO2 A colorless, odorless, nonpoisonous gas, which results from fuel combustion and is normally a part of the ambient air. Carbon Monoxide CO A colorless, odorless, poisonous gas produced by incomplete fuel combustion.
Carcinogen Any substance that can cause or contribute to the production of cancer. Cardinal Altitudes Odd or "even" thousand-foot m altitudes or flight levels. Cardinal Directions North, south, east, west; used for giving directions and information from the ground or air in describing the fire e. Cargo Chute A parachute designed and rigged for dropping equipment and supplies from an aircraft. Cargo Compartment An internal area of an aircraft specifically designed to carry baggage or cargo.
Cargo Drop Dropping of equipment or supplies, with or without a parachute, from an aircraft in flight. Cargo Hook Mechanically and electrically operated hook attached to the bottom of a helicopter to which a sling load is attached. Cargo Net Net attached to the cargo hook of a helicopter, used to carry cargo. Also called cargo sling. Cargo Rack Externally mounted rack for transporting supplies or cargo aboard a helicopter. Carousel Hook A remote hook attached to the end of a longline. It has four or more individual hooks which can be independently released, allowing the pilot to fly cargo loads to different locations without landing.
Carried Wet Booster hose carried full of water during mild weather to speed discharge of water on fire without filling or priming from tank. Carrier Fuels The fuels that support the flaming front of the moving fire. Different agencies use different scales [e. Catface Defect on the surface of a tree resulting from a wound where healing has not re-established the normal cross-section.
Ceiling According to the American Meteorological Society, the height ascribed to the lowest layer of clouds or obscuring phenomena when it is reported as broken, overcast, or obscuration and not classified "thin" or "partial. Centigrade temperature scale is a temperature scale with the ice point of water at 0 degrees and the boiling point at degrees.
Centrifugal Pump Pump which expels water by centrifugal force through the ports of a circular impeller rotating at high speed. With this type of pump, the discharge line may be shut off while the pump is running without damaging the pump or hose. Certifying Official The agency official at the home unit who is responsible for authorizing and granting position certification per agency policy. The agency official is responsible for completing the agency certification block located on the inside front cover of a Position Task Book.
Commonly used to report fire perimeters and other fireline distances, this unit is popular in fire management because of its convenience in calculating acreage e. Chain Lightning Lightning in a long zigzag or apparently broken line. Chain of Command A series of management positions in order of authority. Char Height The vertical distance above ground scorched or blackened on a tree bole. Charged Line Hose filled with water under pressure and ready to use. In fire simulation, a darkened area within the fire perimeter; usually indicates fire has already passed through; usually created by an opaque material blocking out a selected portion of basic scene illumination.
Check Line A temporary fireline constructed at right angles to the control line and used to hold a backfire in check as a means of regulating the heat or intensity of the backfire. Check Valve A valve that permits flow of liquid through a hose or pipe in one direction but prevents a return flow. Uses include the prevention of backflow on uphill hose lays, loss of prime with centrifugal pumps and chemical contamination in fire chemical mixing systems. Check-in The process whereby resources first report to an incident. Check-in locations include incident command post ICP , base or camps, staging areas, helibases, or direct to a tactical assignment.
Chief of Party The chief of party is responsible to the sending unit dispatcher until destination is reached. Chief of party is responsible for all traveling personnel assigned on the manifest list. Circumstantial Evidence Testimony or information not based on actual personal knowledge or observation, but dependent on inference of other facts or experience.
For example, testimony that defendant? Cirrus A form of high cloud, composed of ice crystals, which seldom obscures the sun. Claim A written demand for a specific amount of money or other objects of value, other than ordinary obligations incurred for services, supplies, or things. Claimant An individual, partnership, association, corporation, country, the federal government, state, or other political subdivision asserting a right, demand, or claim against another entity. Class A Foam Foam intended for use on Class A or woody fuels; made from hydrocarbon-based surfactant, therefore lacking the strong filming properties of Class B foam, but possessing excellent wetting properties.
Class B Foam Foam designed for use on Class B or flammable liquid fires; made from fluorocarbon-based surfactants, therefore capable of strong filming action, but incapable of efficient wetting of Class A fuels. Class I Areas Air Quality Geographic areas designed by the Clean Air Act subject to the most stringent restrictions on allowable increment of air quality deterioration. Class I areas include Forest Service wildernesses and nation memorial parks over 5, acres, National Parks exceeding 6, acres, international parks, as well as other designated lands.
A greater amount of air pollution can be added to these areas than Class I. Clean Air Act A federal law enacted to ensure that air quality standards are attained and maintained. Initially passed by Congress in , it has been amended several times. Clear Text The use of plain English in radio communications transmissions. No Ten Codes or agency specific codes are used when using Clear Text. Climate The prevalent or characteristic meteorological conditions of any place or region, and their extremes. Clock Method Means of establishing a flight path to a target on a fire by referring to clock directions from the aircraft's present location, with the nose of the aircraft pointing at Closed Area An area in which specified activities or entry are temporarily restricted to reduce risk of human-caused fires or to mitigate the risk to human health or safety by potential or on-going wildland fires.
Example of use: "Pursuant to 36 C. Francis National Forests until further notice. Cloudy Adjective class representing the degree to which the sky is obscured by clouds. In weather forecast terminology, expected cloud cover of about 0. Cold Front The leading edge of a relatively cold air mass which displaces warmer air, causing it to rise. If the lifted air contains enough moisture, cloudiness, precipitation and even thunderstorms may result.
As fronts move through a region, in the Northern Hemisphere, the winds at a given location will experience a marked shift in direction. Ahead of an approaching cold front, winds will usually shift gradually from southeast to south, and on to southwest. As a cold front passes, winds shift rapidly to west, then northwest. Typical cold front windspeeds range between 15 and 30 mph but can be much higher. Cold Line Fireline that has been controlled.
The fire has been mopped up for a safe distance inside the line and can be considered safe to leave unattended. Cold Trailing A method of controlling a partly dead fire edge by carefully inspecting and feeling with the hand for heat to detect any fire, digging out every live spot, and trenching any live edge. Collective Control Controls the pitch angle of the main helicopter rotor blades.
Used as primary altitude control. Colonizer Species of vegetation that establish on a burned or otherwise denuded site from seed. Combination Nozzle A nozzle is designed to provide either a solid stream or a fixed spray pattern suitable for applying water, wet water or foam solution. Also called: Adjustable Fog Nozzle. Combination Nozzle Tip Two attached straight stream nozzle tips of different orifice size used to increase or restrict water flow. Combustion The rapid oxidation of fuel in which heat and usually flame are produced. Combustion can be divided into four phases: preignition, flaming, smoldering, and glowing.
Combustion Efficiency The relative amount of time a fire burns in the flaming phase of combustion, as compared to smoldering combustion. A ratio of the amount of fuel that is consumed in flaming combustion compared to the amount of fuel consumed during the smoldering phase, in which more of the fuel material is emitted as smoke particles because it is not turned into carbon dioxide and water. Combustion Period Total time required for a specified fuel component to be completely consumed. Combustion Rate Rate of heat release per unit of burning area per unit of time.
Command Climate The working environment within the influence of a particular leader or chain of command. The command climate is based on the subordinates' understanding of how they are expected to perform, how they are treated, and how they must conform to the leader's style. Command Presence How leaders present themselves to others. The personal attributes and traits that determine whether leaders are worthy of trust and respect from their subordinates.
Command Staff The command staff consists of the information officer, safety officer and liaison officer. They report directly to the incident commander and may have an assistant or assistants, as needed. Communications Unit An organizational unit in the Logistics Section responsible for providing and maintaining communication services at an incident. May also be a facility e.
Community Wildfire Protection Plan CWPP A plan developed in the collaborative framework established by the Wildland Fire Leadership Council and agreed to by state, tribal, and local government, local fire department, other stakeholders and federal land management agencies managing land in the vicinity of the planning area. A Community Wildfire Protection Plan CWPP identifies and prioritizes areas for hazardous fuel reduction treatments and recommends the types and methods of treatment on Federal and non-Federal land that will protect one or more at-risk communities and essential infrastructure and recommends measures to reduce structural ignitability throughout the at-risk community.
Compactness Spacing between fuel particles. Company Any piece of fire equipment having a full complement of personnel. Compare and Contrast An investigative technique that involves comparing same sized indicators within a category at separate locations; looking for either differences or similarities in appearance. Compass Rose A circle, graduated in degrees, printed on some charts or marked on the ground at an airport or heliport.
It is used as a reference to either true or magnetic direction. Competency A broad description that groups core behaviors necessary to perform a specific function. It may be in the form of a mechanical or electrical spark, glowing ember, open flame, chemical reaction or friction. Complex Incident Two or more individual incidents located in the same general area which are assigned to a single incident commander or unified command. Compressed Air Foam Systems CAFS A generic term used to describe foam systems consisting of an air compressor or air source , a water pump, and foam solution.
Computed Gross Weight Term used in calculating from performance charts the permissible helicopter payload at which a helicopter is capable of hovering in ground effect or hovering out of ground effect, based on pressure altitude and air temperature. Concentrate A substance that has been concentrated; specifically, a liquid that has been made denser, as by the removal of some of its water. Conceptual Model A model that is a diagram or description of a set of relationships between factors that describe how a system works, such as an ecological model. Condition Class Depiction of the degree of departure from historical fire regimes, possibly resulting in alterations of key ecosystem components.
These classes categorize and describe vegetation composition and structure conditions that currently exist inside the Fire Regime Groups. Based on the coarse-scale national data, they serve as generalized wildfire rankings. The risk of loss of key ecosystem components from wildfires increases from Condition Class 1 lowest risk to Condition Class 3 highest risk. Herbaceous stage is at times used when referring to herbaceous vegetation alone. In grass areas minimum qualitative distinctions for stages of annual growth are usually green, curing, and dry or cured. Conduction Heat transfer through a material from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature.
Confine A wildfire response strategy of restricting a wildfire to a defined area, primarily using natural barriers that are expected to restrict the spread of the wildfire under the prevailing and forecasted weather conditions. Confinement The strategy employed in appropriate management responses where a fire perimeter is managed by a combination of direct and indirect actions and use of natural topographic features, fuel, and weather factors. Conflagration A raging, destructive fire. Often used to connote such a fire with a moving front as distinguished from a fire storm.
Conflagration Threat Likelihood that a wildfire capable of causing considerable damage will occur. Consistency Foam Uniformity and size of bubbles. Constant Danger Resultant of all fire danger factors that are relatively unchanging in a specific area e. Consumption The amount of a specified fuel type or strata that is removed through the fire process, often expressed as a percentage of the preburn weight.
Contained The status of a wildfire suppression action signifying that a control line has been completed around the fire, and any associated spot fires, which can reasonably be expected to stop the fire's spread.
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The act of controlling hazardous spilled or leaking materials. Contingency Actions A back-up plan of action when actions described in the primary plan are no longer appropriate. Contingency actions are required to be taken when the result exceeds its intent. Actions are taken to return the project to its intended design. Contingency Plan The portion of a prescribed fire plan, incident action plan, or implementation plan that identifies possible but unlikely events and the contingency resources needed to mitigate those events. Contingency Resources Planned and identified fire suppression personnel and equipment that mitigate possible but unlikely events that exceed or are expected to exceed holding resource capabilities.
Contour Map A map having lines of equal elevation that represent the land surface Topographic. Contract Any written agreement giving one party a right, a service, or a commodity in exchange for a right, a service, or a commodity. Contracts include land use permits, purchase orders, equipment rental agreements, leases, etc. Contracted Resource Vendor The name of the company who, through a contract, provides resources to support incident management activities. Contractor Private sector personnel, vendor or business contracted to provide goods and services to a government agency.
Control Force Personnel and equipment used to control a fire. Control Line An inclusive term for all constructed or natural barriers and treated fire edges used to control a fire. Control Time The time a fire is declared controlled. Controlled The completion of control line around a fire, any spot fires therefrom, and any interior islands to be saved; burned out any unburned area adjacent to the fire side of the control lines; and cool down all hotspots that are immediate threats to the control line, until the lines can reasonably be expected to hold under the foreseeable conditions.
Controlled Airspace Airspace of defined dimensions within which air traffic control service is provided to IFR and VFR flights in accordance with the airspace classification. Controlling Nozzle Shut-off nozzle that permits the nozzle operator to open or close the nozzle or adjust the pattern of the stream. Convection The transfer of heat by the movement of a gas or liquid; convection, conduction, and radiation are the principal means of energy transfer.
As specialized in meteorology, atmospheric motions that are predominantly vertical in the absence of wind which distinguishes this process from advection , resulting in vertical transport and mixing of atmospheric properties. Convection Column The rising column of gases, smoke, fly ash, particulates, and other debris produced by a fire. The column has a strong vertical component indicating that buoyant forces override the ambient surface wind.
Convective-lift Fire Phase The phase of a fire when most of the emissions are entrained into a definite convection column. Convergence The term for horizontal air currents merging together or approaching a single point, such as at the center of a low pressure area producing a net inflow of air. When this occurs in the lower atmosphere, the excess air is removed by rising air currents. Expansion of the rising air above a convergence zone results in cooling, which in turn often gives condensation clouds and sometimes precipitation. Convergence Zone The area of increased flame height and fire intensity produced when two or more fire fronts burn together.
In fire weather, that area where two winds come together from opposite directions and are forced upwards often creating clouds and precipitation. Conversion Burning Burning an area where brush has excluded forest reproduction to prepare the area for tree planting. Cooperating Agency An agency supplying assistance including but not limited to direct tactical or support functions or resources to the incident control effort e. Red Cross, law enforcement agency, telephone company, etc.
Coordination The process of systematically analyzing a situation, developing relevant information, and informing appropriate command authority of viable alternatives for selection of the most effective combination of available resources to meet specific objectives. The coordination process which can be either intra- or interagency does not involve dispatch actions. However, personnel responsible for coordination may perform command or dispatch functions within limits established by specific agency delegations, procedures, legal authority, etc.
Coordination Center Term used to describe any facility that is used for the coordination of agency or jurisdictional resources in support of one or more incidents. Coriolis Force An apparent force due to the rotation of the earth that causes a deflection of air to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. This force maximizes at the poles and is essentially zero at the equator.
Corrosion Result of chemical reaction between a metal and its environment i. Cost Sharing Agreements Agreements that document the financial responsibility for incident resource costs, possibly identifying requirements of other party payments. Council Tool Long-handled combination rake and cutting tool, the blade of which is constructed of a single row of three or four sharpened teeth. Also called fire rake, council rake. Emergency firing to stop, delay, or split a fire front, or to steer a fire. Coupling Device that connects the ends of adjacent hoses or other components of hose.
Cover The area on the ground covered by the combined aerial parts of plants expressed as a percent of the total area. Cover Type The designation of a vegetation complex described by dominant species, age, and form. Coverage level 2 represents 2 gallons of retardant per hundred square feet. Levels range from 1 to 6 for most fuel models. A coverage level of greater than 6 is for heavy fuels. The levels can be adjusted for fire behavior. Coyote Tactics A progressive line construction duty involving self-sufficient crews which build fire line until the end of the operational period, remain at or near the point while off duty, and begin building fireline the next operational period where they left off.
Crazing Fine cracking of glass, usually from heat of fire. Creeping Fire Fire burning with a low flame and spreading slowly. Crew An organized group of firefighters under the leadership of a crew boss or other designated official. Crew Transport Any vehicle capable of transporting a specified number of personnel in a specified manner. Criteria Pollutants Pollutants deemed most harmful to public health and welfare and that can be monitored effectively. They include carbon monoxide CO , lead Pb , nitrogen oxides Nox , sulfur dioxide SO2 , ozone O3 , particulate matter PM of aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 micrometers PM10 and particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.
Critical Burnout Time Total time a fuel can burn and continue to feed energy to the base of a forward-traveling convection column. Critical Incident Stress Debriefing CISD The process in which teams of professional and peer counselors provide emotional and psychological support to incident personnel who are or have been involved in a critical highly stressful incident. Cross Shot Intersecting lines of sight from two points to the same object, frequently used to determine location of a fire from lookouts. Also called cross bearing.
Crown Consumption Combustion of the twigs, and needles or leaves of a tree during a fire. Crown Cover The ground area covered by the crown of a tree as delimited by the vertical projection of its outermost perimeter. Crown Fire A fire that advances from top to top of trees or shrubs more or less independent of a surface fire. Crown fires are sometimes classed as running or dependent to distinguish the degree of independence from the surface fire. Crown Out A fire that rises from ground into the tree crowns and advances from tree top to tree top.
To intermittently ignite tree crowns as a surface fire advances. Crown Ratio The ratio of live crown to tree height. Crown Scorch Browning of needles or leaves in the crown of a tree or shrub caused by heating to lethal temperature during a fire. Crown scorch may not be apparent for several weeks after the fire. Crown Scorch Height The height above the surface of the ground to which a tree canopy is scorched. Crowning Potential A probability that a crown fire may start, calculated from inputs of foliage moisture content and height of the lowest part of the tree crowns above the surface.
Cumulonimbus The ultimate growth of a cumulus cloud into an anvil-shaped cloud with considerable vertical development, usually with fibrous ice crystal tops, and usually accompanied by lightning, thunder, hail, and strong winds. Cumulus A principal low cloud type in the form of individual cauliflower-like cells of sharp non-fibrous outline and less vertical development than cumulonimbus. Cup Trench A fireline trench on the downhill side of fire burning on steep slopes that is supposed to be built deep enough to catch rolling firebrands that could otherwise start fire below the fireline.
A high berm on the outermost downhill side of the trench helps the cup trench catch material. Cupping Indicators A concave or cup-shaped depression on grass stem ends, small stumps, and terminal ends of brush and tree limbs. Curb Weight Weight of a truck empty without payload and driver but ready to drive, including a full fuel tank, cooling system, crankcase, tools, spare wheel, and all other equipment specified as standard.
Curing Drying and browning of herbaceous vegetation due to mortality or senescence, and also loss of live fuel moisture content of woody fuel following mechanically-caused mortality e. Curling Indicators Green leaves on succulent, uncured vegetation which bends and curls inwards towards the heat source. In fire danger rating, a subjective estimate of the degree of activity of a potential human-caused fire source relative to that which is normally experienced. Five activity levels are defined: none, low, normal, high, and extreme.
Daily Rate Paid on a calendar day basis The underlying principle behind the interpretation of burn pattern. Damage Differential Indicators The amount of fire related destruction to combustible objects determined by comparing opposing sides of an object. Dead Fuels Fuels with no living tissue in which moisture content is governed almost entirely by absorption or evaporation of atmospheric moisture relative humidity and precipitation. Debris Burning Fire In fire suppression terminology, a fire spreading from any fire originally ignited to clear land or burn rubbish, garbage, crop stubble, or meadows excluding incendiary fires.
In prescribed fire terminology, a fire used to dispose of scattered, piled, or windrowed dead woody fuel, generally in the absence of a merchantable overstory. Its purpose is to reduce unsightly fuel concentrations, or consume unwanted natural fuels to facilitate subsequent resource management or land use actions on the area. Deck The helibase operational area that includes the touchdown pad, safety circle, hover lanes, and external cargo transport area. Deep-Seated Fire A fire burning far below the surface in duff, mulch, peat, or other combustibles as contrasted with a surface fire.
A fire that has gained headway and built up heat in a structure so as to require greater cooling for extinguishment. Deepening As it refers to atmospheric pressure, a decrease in the central pressure of a low. This is usually accompanied by intensification of the cyclonic circulation counter-clockwise wind flow around the low. Deflagration Chemical decomposition by burning material in which the reaction is less than sonic velocity, for example, low explosives. A burning with great heat and intense light.
Degradation In a discussion of fire retardant slurries, deterioration of viscosity. The balls are fed into a dispenser, generally mounted in a helicopter, where they are injected with a water-glycol solution and then drop through a chute leading out of the helicopter. The chemicals react thermally and ignite in seconds. The space between ignition points on the ground is primarily a function of helicopter speed, gear ratio of the dispenser, and the number of chutes used up to four. The delegation of authority can include objectives, priorities, expectations, constraints and other considerations or guidelines as needed.
Many agencies require written delegation of authority to be given to incident commanders prior to their assuming command on larger incidents. Demobilization Release of resources from an incident in strict accordance with a detailed plan approved by the incident commander. Demobilization Unit Functional unit within the planning section responsible for assuring orderly, safe and efficient demobilization of incident resources. Dense Layer A layer of clouds whose ratio of dense sky cover to total sky cover is more than one-half.
Dense Sky Cover Sky cover that prevents detection of higher clouds or the sky above it. Density Foam The ratio of the original volume of the nonaerated foam solution to the resultant volume of foam. The inverse of expansion. Depth of Char Indicators Sometimes referred to as "alligatoring", where combustible material appears to have a fissured or scaly appearance similar to an alligator's hide. Most commonly associated with finished lumber products, such as boards and fence posts.
Deputy A qualified individual who could be delegated the authority to manage a functional operation or perform a specific task. In some cases, a Deputy could act as relief for a superior. Deputies can be assigned to the incident commander, general staff, and branch directors. Desiccant Chemical that, when applied to a living plant, causes or accelerates drying of its aerial parts; used to facilitate burning of living vegetation by substantially lowering fuel moisture content within a few hours. Designated Area Those areas identified as principal population centers or other areas requiring protection under state or federal air quality laws or regulations.
Designated Dispatch Point DDP The address where the unit must be physically located, and dispatched from, during the mandatory availability period. Detection The act or system of discovering and locating fires. Dew Point Temperature to which a specified parcel of air must cool, at constant pressure and water-vapor content, in order for saturation to occur.
The dew point is always lower than the wet-bulb temperature, which is always lower than the dry-bulb temperature, except when the air is saturated and all three values are equal. Fog may form when temperature drops to equal the dew point. Diagram A scale drawing showing information about a fire scene. Die-Out Pattern Indicators Fingers or islands of less intensely burned areas or areas where the fire has self extinguished. Digital Elevation Model A set of points which defines the terrain as numbers for computer applications. This data may be used to draw contours, make ortho photos, slope maps, and drive fire models.
Dilution A control strategy used in managing smoke from prescribed fires in which smoke concentration is reduced by diluting it through a greater volume of air, either by scheduling during good dispersion conditions or burning at a slower rate. Such responsibility may develop through law, contract, or personal interest of the firefighting agent e.
Several agencies or entities may have some basic responsibilities e. Director The ICS title for an individual responsible for supervision of a branch. Discovery Determination that a fire exists. Location and reporting of a fire is not required as is with detection.
Discrete Frequency A separate radio frequency most commonly used in air traffic control which reduces frequency congestion by controlling the number of aircraft or other resources operating on a particular frequency. Dispatch The implementation of a command decision to move a resource or resources from one place to another. The center may process requests, coordinate response, or track resources and information under the delegation of its benefiting agency s. Dispatch Center, Current The dispatch center actively supporting an incident and the resources assigned or a resource who is temporarily transferred for official action i.
Definition extension: The current dispatch center for an incident may change to support other centers, units or agencies. The current dispatch center may be the same as the incident dispatch center or home dispatch center or may be different. Current dispatch center for tactical aviation resources is directly associated with the resource independent of an incident. The Home Dispatch Center is responsible for initial mobilization and is the Center associated with the resource when an assignment is completed.
Definition extension : Every resource has a home dispatch center. Dispatch Center, Ordering The current dispatch center for an incident. Dispatch Center, Sending Either the home or current dispatch center for a resource. Dispersion The decrease in concentration of airborne pollutants as they spread throughout an increasing volume of atmosphere. Commonly these are the index values corresponding to the 90th and 97th or 80th and 95th percentiles for the staffing index.
Distance Learning DL A concept of providing access to quality wildland fire education and training using appropriate instructional technology, delivered anywhere, anytime to prepare a fire management work force to safely achieve fire management objectives. Distributed Incident Simulation Exercise DISE An on-line mission rehearsal event providing an individual or team with an experiential learning environment utilizing the National Interagency Incident Management System to "game" a computer generated incident from multiple training locations. Diurnal Daily, especially pertaining to cyclic actions which are completed within 24 hours, and which recur every 24 hours, such as temperature, relative humidity and wind.
Divergence The expansion or spreading out of a horizontal wind field. Generally associated with high pressure and light winds. Divisions are used to divide an incident into geographical areas of operation. Divisions are established when the number of resources exceeds the span-of-control of the operations chief. Dormant Season Burning Prescribed burning early in the dry season before the leaves and undergrowth are completely dry or before the leaves are shed, as an insurance against more severe fire damage later on.
Double Arsonist An offender who sets two fires at one site, at the same time, in a single event. Double Doughnut Two lengths of hose rolled side by side or a single length rolled into two small coils for convenient handling. Double Jacket Hose Fire hose having two cotton or other fiber jackets outside the rubber lining or tubing. Double Male Coupling A hose-coupling device having two male thread nipples for connecting hose and for connecting two female couplings of the same diameter. Double Shift Equipment is staffed with 2 operators or crews 1 per shift and must be ordered and documented on a resource order.
Reference OF general clauses for payment information. Regardless of hiring method, on-shift time for operated equipment will be recorded with clock hours on the appropriate document, e.
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Doughnut Roll A 50 or foot length of hose or a foot length of hose rolled up for easy handling. There are various ways of forming the doughnut. A convenient one has both couplings close together with the male thread protected by the female coupling. Dozer Any tracked vehicle with a front mounted blade used for exposing mineral soil. Dozer Line Fireline constructed by the front blade of a dozer.
Draft Drawing water from static sources such as a lake, pond, cistern, river, etc. This is done by removing the air from the pump and allowing atmospheric pressure [ Drain Time The time minutes it takes for foam solution to drop out from the foam mass; for a specified percent of the total solution contained in the foam to revert to liquid and drain out of the bubble structure.
Draped Fuels Needles, leaves, and twigs that have fallen from above and have lodged on lower branches or brush. Draped fuels are part of aerial fuels.