Immunostimulation

Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Immunostimulation file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Immunostimulation book. Happy reading Immunostimulation Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF Immunostimulation at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Immunostimulation Pocket Guide.

Previously, Jackson et al.

Immunostimulation in the era of the metagenome | Cellular & Molecular Immunology

In contrast, we here performed an in-depth analysis of infected DCs. The present study clearly shows that we were able to generate a phenotype in DC by selectively deletion or reinsertion of specific genes from the viral backbone. As described by Jackson et al. Unfortunately, the species specificity of the B19R protein might interfere with in vivo immunogenicity analysis in mice, such as performed by Jackson et al.

By restoring replication competence we were able to increase the expression of the transgene, which is important for the ability to induce robust T-cell responses in vivo. That enhanced transgene expression leads to enhanced cross-presentation to HIV- and vaccinia-specific T cells is expected from the observations of others [50] — [52] that level and stability of antigen expression are the two most important factors in the efficiency of cross-presentation and cross-priming.

The Leiden University Medical Center, the University of Washington, and the Institute for Research in Biomedicine obtained written, informed consent from every blood donor in order to collect PBMC samples and approved the use of the material for this study. The study was approved by the institutional review board and by the ethics committee from the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and all patients gave written informed consent to use their material to make cell lines.

Monocyte derived dendritic cells moDCs were obtained from cryopreserved or freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells PBMCs from buffy coats of healthy blood donors. Specificity was confirmed after 4 weeks of culture.

Introduction

Although these CD8 T cells were not cloned from a limiting dilution, Cells were restimulated every two weeks. Cells were left untreated for at least two weeks before use in antigen presentation assay. Clone CM. Two other vaccinia-specific CD8 T cell clones were used and have shown similar results. Virological and pathogenic characterization of these vectors in cultured cells and in mice is described Kibler et al.

Cultures were harvested immediately after infection or at 3, 12 and 24 hours post infection. Virus was released from cells by multiple rounds of freezing and thawing and titered on permissive BHK cells or BSC40 cells by plaque staining assays. The expression of Gag protein was measured in moDCs and HeLa cells at 6 and 24 hours after infection. To this end, cells were infected for one hour at MOI 1 and 5 and subsequently washed thoroughly. After 6 and 24 hours incubation, cells were harvested and Gag expression was determined by intracellular staining with an anti-Gag specific antibody KC57, Beckman Coulter.

Immunostimulation through bacterial nucleic acids

After one hour of incubation, the cells were washed extensively and plated into well plates. Supernatant from infected DCs was harvested 48 hours post infection.

Staff Publications

Cells were extensively washed to remove residual virus. After 18 hours, intracellular cytokine staining ICS was performed as described [56]. Then, the reaction was quenched with one volume of FCS and cells were washed twice. Quantification and quality control of extracted RNA was obtained as previously described [58].


  1. Background.
  2. Review ARTICLE.
  3. Immunostimulation Medical Definition | Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary.
  4. Materials and Methods?
  5. The Struggle for Memory in Latin America: Recent History and Political Violence.
  6. Services on Demand.

Illumina probe data were exported from BeadStudio as raw data and were screened for quality; samples failing chip visual inspection and control examination were removed. Probeset from the two Illumina platforms were mapped to a common probeset Id using a mapping file provided by Illumina. A dataset containing probeset common to both platforms was then used for subsequent steps. Gene expression data was preprocessed and analyzed using Bioconductor www. Bioconductor's genefilter package was used to filter out genes with low expression and insufficient variation in expression across all samples tested.

Expression values retained after this filtering process presented intensities greater than units in at least 2 samples and a log base 2 scale of at least 0. The resulting matrix showing filtered probeset as rows and samples as columns was used as input for subsequent statistical analysis. P values from the resulting comparison were adjusted for multiple testing according to the method of Benjamini and Hochberg [61].

This method controls the false discovery rate, which was set to 0. To determine whether our expression data sets obtained from gene expression profiling of dendritic cells infected with different poxviruses are enriched in known biological pathways, we used Gene Set Enrichnment Analysis GSEA , a non-parametric annotation-driven statistical analysis method. The statistical significance of a gene set's ES is estimated by an empirical genes-based permutation test procedure.

To account for multiple hypotheses testing, GSEA normalizes the ES for each gene set to account for variation in set sizes and calculates a false discovery rate FDR corresponding to each normalized ES. Each column in the heatmap represents a replicate between 2 and The genes indicated in the right vertical line represent some of the genes that are involved in the indicated pathways. Each column in the heatmap represents a replicate between 12 and List of genes involved in the antigen processing and presentation pathway and B-cell function pathway. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field.

Abstract Attenuated poxviruses are safe and capable of expressing foreign antigens. Introduction Development of an effective HIV-1 vaccine inducing both broadly neutralizing antibodies and virus-specific T cells has the best chance to inhibit HIV-1 replication, infection and acquisition. Download: PPT. Figure 1. Table 1. Restored replication competence of NYVAC in human cells We also generated a virus mutant with reintroduced genes restoring virus replication competence Table 1.

Figure 2. Figure 3. Combination of the B19R deletion and replication competence resulted in expression of pathways targeted by both single mutants We performed gene set enrichment analysis GSEA [42] to identify the pathways that are differentially expressed in cDCs and pDCs infected with different NYVAC mutants.

immunostimulation

Figure 4. Table 2. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed the induction of distinct signaling pathways in response to recombinant NYVAC The above-described results focused on pathways expected to be targeted by the B19R deletion and restoration of replication competence. Figure 5. Improved cross-presentation of replication-competent NYVAC In addition to the effects of these virus mutants on DC maturation, we studied the functional differences between the different recombinant virus vectors in vitro.

Figure 7. Figure 8. Discussion To explore potential improvements of the immunogenicity of the NYVAC vector, we have used two strategies: deletion of a poxvirus gene known to encode a protein that may affect the immune response and development of attenuated replication-competent in human cells NYVAC. Materials and Methods Ethics statement The Leiden University Medical Center, the University of Washington, and the Institute for Research in Biomedicine obtained written, informed consent from every blood donor in order to collect PBMC samples and approved the use of the material for this study.

Cells Monocyte derived dendritic cells moDCs were obtained from cryopreserved or freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells PBMCs from buffy coats of healthy blood donors. Supporting Information. Figure S1. Figure S2. Table S1. Table S2. Table S3. Table S4. Table S5. Table S6. Table S7. Table S8. Acknowledgments We thank all blood donors for their contribution.

References 1. Nat Immunol 5: — View Article Google Scholar 2. View Article Google Scholar 3.

J Exp Med 7— View Article Google Scholar 4. Nature — View Article Google Scholar 5. J Virol — View Article Google Scholar 6. J Immunol — View Article Google Scholar 7. Annu Rev Med — View Article Google Scholar 8. View Article Google Scholar 9. Nat Immunol 7: — View Article Google Scholar QJM — Dev Biol Stand — Curr Gene Ther 8: 97— Vaccine — J Exp Med 63— Virology — J Leukoc Biol 1— Paoletti E Applications of pox virus vectors to vaccination: an update. J Infect Dis — Hum Vaccin 5: — PLoS One 5: e N Engl J Med — Cell — J Biol Chem — Perdiguero B, Esteban M The interferon system and vaccinia virus evasion mechanisms.

J Interferon Cytokine Res — Alcami A, Smith GL Vaccinia, cowpox, and camelpox viruses encode soluble gamma interferon receptors with novel broad species specificity. Oguiura N, Spehner D, Drillien R Detection of a protein encoded by the vaccinia virus C7L open reading frame and study of its effect on virus multiplication in different cell lines. J Gen Virol — Immunity — HLA antigens of established human cell lines. Attempts at typing by the mixed hemadsorption technique. Tissue Antigens — J Exp Med — Nature 77— J Exp Med 83— Hum Immunol — Levamisole can today be classified as an immunostimulating drug with limited utility in recurring infections and in chronic polyarthritis.

Several immunostimulating drugs which have attracted interest contain a purine as the effective component. This is not surprising in view of the fact that many genetically determined immunodeficiencies can be traced to defects of enzymes which play a crucial role in purine biosynthesis. Finally, the potential role of lymphokines as stimulators of the immunosystem is briefly described.

Trial Watch-Immunostimulation with cytokines in cancer therapy.

Some of these glycoproteins have recently become available for clinical trials. Others will be made available through genetic engineering. The therapeutic utility of these compounds is not yet clear; they will, however, be of great value as probes for the study of immune functions and for the development of immunopharmacology. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. Immunostimulation Clinical and experimental perspectives. Authors Authors and affiliations J. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. J Rheumatol [Suppl] — Google Scholar. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp — Google Scholar. Scand J Immunol — Google Scholar. Lancet I— Google Scholar. Int J Immunopharmacol — Google Scholar.

J Int Immunopharmacol Google Scholar. Bicker U, Ziegler AE, Hebold G Investigations in mice on the potentiation of resistance to infection by a new immunostimulant compound. J Infect Dis — Google Scholar. Scann Elect Microsc — Google Scholar. Enhancement by ubiguinone 8. J Exp Med — Google Scholar. In: Morton et al. Academic Press, London, pp — Google Scholar. J Immunol — Google Scholar. Lancet II Google Scholar. Nature — Google Scholar. Infect Immun — Google Scholar. Coppel S, Youmans GP Specificity of the anamnestic response produced by Listeria monocytogenes or Mycobacterium tuberculosis to challenge with Listeria monocytogenes.

J Bacteriol — Google Scholar. Currie GA Activated macrophages kill tumor cells by releasing arginase. Curtiss LK, Edgington TS Regulatory serum lipoproteins: regulation of lymphocyte stimulation by a species of low density lipoprotein. Curtiss LK, Edgington TS Effect of LDL-In, a normal immunoregulatory human serum low density lipoprotein, on the interaction of macrophages with lymphocytes proliferating in response to mitogen and allogeneic stimulation. Davies J Personal communication Google Scholar. Int J Immunopharmacol Google Scholar. Influence on T-cells with receptors for IgG T-gamma.

J Immunopharmacol — Google Scholar. Science —69 Google Scholar. Drews J Immunomodulation. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 89— Google Scholar. Eberlein TJ, Rosenstein M, Rosenberg SA Regression of a disseminated syngeneic solid tumor by sytemic transfer of lymphoid cells expanded in interleukin J Exp Med , — Google Scholar. Executive Committee of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Increased breast cancer recurrence after adjuvant therapy with levamisole. Lancet II— Google Scholar.

Scand J Rheumatol —8 Google Scholar. Fidler IJ, Fogler WE Activation of tumoricidal properties in macrophages by lymphokines encapsulated in liposomes. Lymph Res —77 Google Scholar. Infect Immun —5 Google Scholar. Hadden JW Cyclic nucleotides in lymphocyte function. In: Perper RJ ed Mechanisms of tissue injury with reference to rheumatoid arthritis, vol Hadden JW The immunopharmacology of immunotherapy: an update.

In: Hersh et al. Hersh EM Immunotherapy of human cancer: Current status and prospects for future development. Nature —50 Google Scholar. Hibbs JB Jr Activated macrophage nonimmunologic recognition: target cell factors related to contact inhibition.

How to Pronounce Immunostimulation

Science — Google Scholar. Hibbs JB Activated macrophages as cytotoxic effector cells. Requirement for local persistence of inducing antigen. Transplantation —87 Google Scholar. Pharmacol Ther —69 Google Scholar. Hirschhorn R Metabolic defects and immunodeficiency disorders. Hoff P Unspezifische Therapie. Springer, Berlin Google Scholar.



admin