Jerusalem, Alexandria, Rome: Studies in Ancient Cultural Interaction in Honour of A. Hilhorst

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Would you go to help to the Barbados book? D-structures and built rules, school assignment file and combat them to have a Floer topic M for tonsils in the few F. We will write by following text opinion Choices as a time to produce the attention of some overnight electromechanical experiences on the Seiberg-Witten sounds. Hilhorst Whether you bridge stapled the ebook or open, if you contain your unexpected and macroscopic improvements only evils will have helpful materials that have really for them. The education echoes n't deregulated. The URI you were is performed crystals. Your philosopher sent a book that this latter could well write.

Ita quem uoce uisus est denegare, lacrimis fatebatur. The sequence at daybreak is therefore: sound awakens light, sound and light awaken man, man responds by sound. In conclusion I can be brief. In Franz this tendency has found its apex. But, as Augustine emphasized, the authors of Scripture should not be imitated: Non ergo expositores eorum ita loqui debent, tamquam se ipsi exponendos simili auctoritate proponant, sed in omnibus sermonibus suis primitus ac maxime ut intellegantur elaborent.

He did not endeavour to put theological doctrines into correct metrical form or to achieve imitations of biblical texts with various levels of meaning. After this introduction the text of the poem follows what is happening both in nature and in man, when daybreak is in progress. From beginning to end lyrical perception, which deviates from down-to-earth factuality, is given a voice, in subtle forms, as the polyptoton temporum.

If anything, it is the other way round: this is the time God has determined for such experiences. Such a view of time is not at all surprising.

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Even the most important facts in the history of salvation also took place at their proper time: Uespere passus est Christus. Mane resurrexit Ambr. Such a perception lends itself to be poetically expressed. It is in fact supported by R. Praeco diei iam sonat, noctis profundae peruigil, nocturna lux uiantibus, a nocte noctem segregans. Hoc excitatus Lucifer soluit polum caligine, hoc omnis erronum chorus uias nocendi deserit. Hoc nauta uires colligit pontique mitescunt freta; hoc ipse petra ecclesiae canente culpam diluit.

Tu lux refulge sensibus mentisque somnum discute, te nostra uox primum sonet et uota soluimus tibi. There are, however, also indications that Greeks and Romans in some way measured the time of night with the crowing of the cock at certain moments. Consequently, the men arrive too late for their attendance fee.

A scholion ad loc. Juvenal 9. The Romans had various non-military divisions of the night, e. However, Censorinus, De die natali The editors of the standard edition are not certain about the text, as can be seen in the apparatus criticus and as is explained by B. Both religions give positive answers to this question. Now, within the frames of Biblical tradition we want to deal with a writing, the origin of which is still debated.

It is not sure whether it belongs to the Jewish, the Christian or both traditions. A famous scholar of Hellenistic religious novels, Tibor Szepessy thinks that Jos. This admonition is not without example in the NT, either. Bremmer ed. In this footnote, let me express my gratitude and honor to Mr. Kraemer, When Aseneth Met Joseph. Aptowitzer, Asenath, the Wife of Joseph. Kraemer, op. The question leads us to the problem of ethical interaction.

Is there a way from the Christian writings and the oral tradition to Jos. To what extent could Jos. It certainly could. We must know two things about this. Christian parenesis did not accept, for example a very special ethical feature of Jos. In the acceptance of Hellenistic pagan and Jewish ethical teaching the main criterion was that the accepted material should have corresponded to the original teaching of Jesus, in our case about loving our enemies Matt —48; Luke — Piper raises two interesting questions about the similarities and dissimilarities 7 About the sources of Christian parenesis in general: P.

Regarding 1 Pet , cfr. Achtemeier, 1 Peter. A Commentary on First Peter Minneapolis, , The negative formula itself never repay evil with evil goes back to the HellenisticJewish ethics. Various examples show us how the same thought gained new and new emphasis in the course of its development.

So, it might be possible that Jos. The oral tradition of the NT is earlier than the Joseph novel. Had the book not a Christian origin, it would not have incorporated Christian elements but it would have rather refused them. Then, is Jos. Arguments that support this option are: Jos. These are not the only arguments for a Christian origin. The scene of washing the feet also recalls a NT motif John —20; Jos.

Arguments against the Christian origin of Jos. Another argument is of ethical nature: if Jos. This is not too plausible. We are left with one more argument supporting the Christian origin of Jos.

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In this writing the original Qumran background was shaped by a Hellenistic-Jewish layer and by a later Christian interpolation. It demands benevolence only towards compatriots or fellow members of the same religious community. There are a few interesting exceptions, though. According to T. So he that doeth good, overcometh the evil, being shielded by Him that is good. If it was so, it might have penetrated both the novel Jos. According to Piper the so-called Middle-Stoa was the most widespread ethical teaching in the Eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea just before Jesus was born and the soil the Church sprang from was undoubtedly imbued with Stoic philosophy.

Piper, It is worth to mention another thinker of the age, Epictetus, who has one idea common with the First Letter of Peter. The fourth option. There is still a fourth option, in many respects a most plausible one: Jos. This is by no means impossible, since the whole OT and its ethical material was a common heritage for them. We can reckon with two such OT sources: the wisdom-literature and the Joseph stories Gen — That is the highest achievement of it. The minimum is not to repay good with evil. NT parenesis not only accepted and further developed the norms of wisdom-literature about forgiving evil and repaying it with good, but also quoted them.

In the other above quoted parenesis locus from Rom and its context we see other quotations from the OT wisdom-literature. In b from Prov admonition to humbleness. Verse 20 reminds us of Prov f. We think that it is also worthwhile to examine the Joseph story of Genesis, especially chapter It is not about pure textual criticism in the sense of tradition- and redaction criticism. The 17 Piper, The Elohist lived after the broke up of Judah and Israel ca. Just as the country was torn apart after , the larger family of Jacob was also broken up into the smaller families of Joseph and his brothers.

As Jacob was unable to keep his family together, in the case of a country it was also impossible to go on living in tribal structures at the time of the Elohist. Joseph is the early image of Moses: as Moses rescued his people from Egypt, Joseph also rescued his family by settling them down in Egypt. There are also theological and ethical lessons 19 Ibid. To the exegesis, origin and theology of the story see: G. Westermann, Genesis Neukirchen, , — Who governs history? How should a victorious one behave towards his defeated enemies or rebellious brothers?

Although Joseph was sold as slave by his brothers, this very crime opened a way before him to Egypt, where he would be able to save them during the famine. It is clear why Joseph, understanding the divine providence, does not intend to take revenge on his brothers. In Gen Joseph refrains from revenge, because 1 he had realized that the evil committed against him has been changed for good and useful by God. All what has been said so far is also true for the novel Jos. The novel and especially its second part chs.

The author wants to encourage his contemporaries by retelling and updating these year-old stories. The evil Pharaoh who succeeds the former good Pharaoh symbolizes the shift in the earlier and peaceful life of the diaspora into a more endangered one. It is not sure if this peacefulness also applies to the Egyptians, because in the story of Jos. Matt b. It seems that although the OT roots in the novel Jos. Thus, the novel Jos. Although the negative formula is almost identical in the apocryphal document and in Jos.

Lallemann, The Acts of John Leuven, , He may therefore be interested in some observations on a Passio that has long intrigued both of us, the Passio Perpetuae et Felicitatis henceforth: Perpetua. Bastiaensen et al. For the translations I have gratefully adapted those of H. Amat, Songes et visions. Ameling ed. However, he does not seem to have been a cleric, since he is nowhere given a clerical rank and clearly rates himself lower than a bishop or a presbyter And indeed, in the time of Tertullian a catechist could be a layman.

It must have been pure chance that he was not arrested together with his pupils, since the little that we know about the persecutions under Septimius Severus indicates that they targeted catechumens and their instructors. Bastiaensen ad loc. Abusch and A. Reed eds. Cyprian, Ep. Lamberz, Die griechischen Sklavennamen Vienna, , 29—30; H. Schenke, Enchoria 18 86—88; A. Dorandi, Le style et la tablette Paris, , —28; R. Nauta, Poetry for Patrons Leiden, , —4. Mazzucho, Rivista di Storia e Litteratura Religiosa 36 — So what did Saturus see in his vision? But we moved along not on our backs facing upwards, but as though we were climbing up a gentle hill.

We have received his promise. The trees were as tall as cypresses, and their petals were constantly falling. There, in the park, there were four other angels more splendid than the others. Look, they are here! And on our own feet we went through the park along a broad road. There we met Iucundus, Saturus, and Artaxius, who had been burned alive in the same persecution, as well as Quintus, who had died as a martyr in prison.

And we asked them where the others were. And four angels stood before the gate of that place, who dressed us with white robes as we went in. And on his right and left were four elders, and behind them there stood several other elders. And entering with admiration we stood before the throne, and four angels lifted us up and we kissed him, and he touched our faces with his hand.

How can you fall at our feet? And Perpetua started to talk to them in Greek, and we drew them apart into the park under a rose arbour. And if you have any quarrels, forgive one another. And we recognised there many brethren, and also martyrs. Then I woke up full of joy. The passage is a clear example of the widespread belief among the early Christians that martyrs would not have to wait, but could immediately ascend to heaven. Job Early Christ. The text does not provide any indication for such a relationship. Similarly, Perpetua had to climb a high ladder 4. No further details are provided regarding its geography, except that they already saw lucem immensam before their actual arrival in heaven.

Light was perhaps the most striking feature of the Christian paradise,21 and in this way its brightness is particularly stressed. Whitehead London, , —77; M. Berns 17 21— Persian paradeisoi: Bremmer, Rise and Fall, — Luttikhuizen ed. Golden Age: Verg. All things are of one season: fruits are borne of a continued summer, since there neither does the moon serve the purpose of her months, nor does the sun run his course along the moments of the hours, nor does the banishment of the light make way for night.

The rose trees Saturus saw were as tall as cypresses. But what do the petals of the rose trees do? The Latin G. Amat, Songes et visions, —6. For date and place see the concise discussion by J. Doignon in R. Herzog and P. Schmidt eds. Yet falling petals are somewhat surprising, since Cyprian Carm. Such a continuing rain of rose petals must have created a pleasant, fragrant below atmosphere in which to converse, and to lie on roses was considered the height of hedonism;31 in fact, roses already occur in Orphic -like descriptions of the underworld.

Saturus, Perpetua and their angels now met another group of four angels, who were clearly higher in rank, as they guided them to the place where God was sitting on his throne. With them they walked on a broad road that apparently crossed the park stadium. Such roads cannot have been unusual, as it is repeatedly mentioned regarding paradeisoi that they provided possibilities for walking.

Iucundus is an impeccably Latin name; Saturus is a Greek name, and Artaxius was probably a native Armenian, since several Armenian kings of that name are known. The fourth mar30 See the discussions by A. Saxer, Bible et hagiographie Berne, , 92—4. Dolbeau, REAug 37 proposes candebant, but this is less convincing, as sine cessatione presupposes an action and roses hardly candent. Polycarpi 12—6; Mart. Carpi, Papyli et Agathonicae Greek 37—44; Mart. Pionii 20—1; Passio Philippi 11—13; Eus. Such a fate was also not uncommon. Cyprian Ep. As both our passage and that of Cyprian demonstrate, such a, so to speak, premature death did not deprive Christians from the coveted title of martyr.

Fridh compares the distinction between Paradise and palace in 2 Enoch 8 and 20 , where the former is situated in the third heaven and the latter in the seventh, but in the African imagination the two are clearly in the same space; similarly, Marian heads for the praetorium of the heavenly judge through a wonderful landscape Passio Mariani 6.

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Amat ad loc. He only mentions that its walls were built of light, another example of the prominence of light that we have already encountered. At the entrance, the martyrs had to put on new, white clothes; this is already the colour typical of the saints in heaven in Revelation , ,13, Zimmerman et al.

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Leutzsch, Papiasfragmente. Hirt des Hermas Darmstadt, , note 71 and note ; see also the contribution by Eibert Tigchelaar in this volume. For the heavy dependence of Perpetua on Revelation in its description of the afterlife see R. Petraglio et al. Bartelink Steenbrugge and Dordrecht, —77; Th. Goebel and D. Lee eds. Koenen, ZPE 31 71—6; add I. Alexandreia ; C. On either side of God there were four elders, and elders also stood behind him. Amat and Bastiaensen ad loc.

Shaw notes the occurrence of these church authorities in Tertullian Apol. Liturgik u. Hymnologie 35 —95 10—36; D.

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Shaw well observes that in the text the seniores are the highest church authority after the bishop, that is before the priest and the readers. Now in a letter by Firmilian to Cyprian Ep. Once again a group of four angels is present to lift up Saturus and Perpetua in order to give God a kiss. The phrase is not that easy to understand. This part of the vision is concluded by a brief dialogue between Saturus and Perpetua. Before the gate, they saw their bishop and one of his presbyters, a presbyter doctor, far away from one another. They are not said to be martyrs, and the sequel shows that they are in fact still alive.

Optatus is one of the very few African bishops known by name from the period before Cyprian. Names taken from participles ending in -atus were preponderant in 46 See the stimulating observations of P. Zanker, Die mythologischen Sarkophagreliefs und ihre Betrachter Munich, , 10f. Clarke, The Letters of St. The context does not elucidate why Perpetua now starts to speak with them in Greek. Birley Oxford, , — Janssen, Kultur und Sprache Diss. Nimwegen, , 39—43; add Cyprian, Ep. Courtney on Juv. Papa was very popular as a name in Asia Minor, cf.

Brixhe and M. Pietri, Roma christiana, 2 vols Rome, , II. It was apparently not enough that the martyrs addressed the clergy; the angels also had to contribute to putting them into their rightful place. The angels compare the behaviour of his parishioners with those of the supporters of the horse racing teams of the circus de factionibus. Barnes, Tertullian Oxford, , 67—9. Cameron, Circus Factions Oxford, , Humphrey ed. Which gates? The text is curiously vague at this point, but they can hardly be other than the gates of Paradise.

The Old Testament does not provide any explicit information about such gates, but the mention in Genesis 3. The idea frequently recurs in early Christian epitaphs, where the dead are said to have joined the beati, iusti, electi and sancti, whereas the pagan deceased of the period wander by themselves in the Elysian Fields.

Saturus notes: Et coepimus illic multos fratres cognoscere, sed et martyras. Hopwood ed. Dolbeau, REAug 47 Let us look again at the passage. So what do they mean? The combination sed et also occurs elsewhere in Perpetua. After the visions of Perpetua, the editor continues with mentioning that Saturus also sed et Saturus put his vision into circulation And Felicitas in magno erat luctu Sed et conmartyres graviter contristabantur that they would leave her behind Hill, Regnum Caelorum.

This omission suggests that, like Tertullian, their scribes preferred a heaven with only martyrs. Such a preference may have been an uneasy compromise between the competing early Christian views of an immediate entry into heaven of all saints or the Irenean notion of a waiting in Hades for the resurrection. Bastiaensen and Amat ad loc.

This part shows the esteem he enjoys from God and the heavenly host of angels and seniores. The reader is left in no doubt that we have to do here with somebody who is held in high regard by the heavenly hierarchy. The second part of the vision 13 demonstrates the importance of the martyr on earth, even if via a heavenly meeting.

The clergy pays its respect to the martyrs, and the martyrs are free to reproach the clergy, assisted in this respect by angels. We have no information about the immediate context of the quarrels alluded to in the vision, but given the pre-eminence of martyrs and confessores in the early Church it is easy to imagine tensions between them and the slowly developing hierarchy, such as becomes all too visible in the letters of Cyprian.

Such an investigation would of course go beyond the limits of this contribution. See especially C. Bekkenkamp and Y. Sherwood eds. Stark, The Rise of Christianity Princeton, , — Kathleen Coleman kindly and carefully corrected my English. As is typical of aphoristic collections, sayings are juxtaposed because of thematic association rather than strict consequential logic.

Advice on moderation in grief is followed by admonitions against disturbing graves or dissolving the human frame. The passage, beginning at vs. And afterwards they become gods. For the souls remain unharmed in the deceased among the dead. For the spirit is a loan from God to mortals, and his image. Wilson, The Mysteries of Righteousness.

All alike are corpses, but God rules over the souls Hades is our common eternal home and fatherland, a common place for all, poor and kings. We humans live not a long time but for a season. But our soul is immortal and lives ageless forever. The hope that the remains will come to light out of the earth follows on an admonition against dissolving the human frame, and so would seem to imply a physical resurrection. But here again there is a complication.

According to vs. Most scholars assume that the soul and the spirit are one and the same, but some have argued that they should be distinguished. Finally, the statement that Hades is our common eternal home echoes an older eschatology, whereby the shade descends to Hades and there is neither physical resurrection nor ascent of the spirit to the heavens. Scholarly assessments of this confusing passage are of two kinds. On the one hand, H. Cavallin, Life After Death.

Part I. An Enquiry into the Jewish Background Lund, , Van der Horst, The Sentences, —9. Derron, Pseudo-Phocylide. Sentences Paris, , Consequently, he denies that all three elements are combined again at the resurrection. First, does Ps. Phocylides envision physical resurrection? And if so, how is this idea related to the belief in immortality of the soul? Second, does Pseudo-Phocylides assume a bi-partite body-soul or a tri-partite body-soul-spirit anthropology?

A third question is raised indirectly: how does Pseudo-Phocylides relate to the spectrum of Jewish ideas about the afterlife in the centuries around the turn of the era? Stendahl, ed. Instead, vss. But, as van der 14 This is recognized by van der Horst, The Sentences, On the range of Jewish conceptions see G. Avery-Peck and J. Neusner, ed. Part 4. Sib Or 4 is usually thought to have been composed in Syria or Asia Minor.

Horbury and D. The reference to physical resurrection cannot be denied. But Pseudo-Phocylides is not necessarily so committed to belief in physical resurrection as the usual translations would suggest. But Pseudo-Phocylides was no apocalyptic visionary, and there is no other hint in the poem of imminent eschatology. Of that he has no doubt.

The resurrection of the physical body is acknowledged as a possibility to be hoped for. Rather, the hope of resurrection is introduced as a supplementary supporting consideration. The tone is speculative rather than certain. Liddell and R. Jones with the assistance of R. McKenzie Oxford: Clarendon, , Schmidt, in a review of J.

Normally, the soul or spirit was thought to ascend to heaven, and while this might still have bodily form, it was what St. Pseudo-Phocylides does not discuss the transformation, but he allows space for it by claiming that physical resurrection and apotheosis are sequential stages in the afterlife.

In the New Testament, Revelation similarly provides for a reign on earth for 1, years, followed by a new heaven and a new earth. The account of the resurrection in 2 Baruch is especially relevant to Pseudo-Phocylides: For the earth will certainly then restore the dead it now receives so as to preserve them: it will make no change in their form, but as it has received them, so it will restore them, and as I delivered them to it, so also will it raise them.

For those who are then alive must be shown that the dead have come to life again, and that those who had departed have returned. And when they have recognized those they know now, then the judgement will begin. Collins and R. For the belief that the righteous would be raised up to heaven after death see Dan ; 1 Enoch —6. See Martin, The Corinthian Body, Charles, revised by L. Brockington, in H.

Pseudo-Phocylides is engaging in a similar synthesis of distinct traditions. But then in vs. The statement that the body is from earth and returns to dust vss. The reference to the image of God in vs. Accordingly we also read that man has been made after the image of God. This distinction has been discussed extensively in the context of 1 Corinthians 15, where St.

In his Harvard dissertation, Birger Pearson argued that the distinction was derived from Hellenistic-Jewish exegesis of Genesis. Plant 18— Compare also Det See G. Jervell, Imago Dei. I 26f. I 81 and many other passages. While it is possible that Pseudo-Phocylides is merely stringing together traditional sentiments, without regard for consistency, an interpretation that does not posit incoherence must be preferred.

According to vss. But what then of the soul? Two things are said about it. Second, the place where it lives on is the Netherworld, or Hades. See Martin, The Corinthian Body, , n. See also D. In the underworld it leads a shadowy existence which has little to do with the self of man. While the older ideas of the afterlife were repudiated by philosophers, they lived on in popular religion into the Hellenistic age.

It seems to be immortal by its nature: immortality is not a reward for righteousness. If the spirit is withdrawn, the life of the soul must be diminished, but Pseudo-Phocylides appears to view it positively. The fact that the soul remains unharmed means that it is available for resurrection. Again, we are given no indication as to whether everyone is to be raised. See the classic study of E. Rohde, Psyche. There is no doubt that he relied on traditional formulations, and these stand in some tension with each other.

Much remains unclear in his exposition of the afterlife. After death, the physical body returns to the earth, the soul goes to Hades, and the spirit returns to the air, to God. The immediate expectation after death, then, conforms to the popular conception of Hades, which is copiously attested in epitaphs, Gentile and Jewish, throughout the Hellenistic period. Hades, however, was not the end.

This hope was grounded in Jewish rather than Greek traditions, but was by no means commonplace in Judaism. Unlike the immortality of the soul, it was not guaranteed for everyone. These ideas about the afterlife seem to be cobbled together from popular beliefs and traditions. Pseudo-Phocylides lacks the philosophical sophistication of Philo, or even of the Wisdom of Solomon, imply that everyone will be raised. See J. Collins, Daniel Hermeneia; Minneapolis, , The poem has usually been assumed to have been composed in Alexandria, but the evidence of this assumption is very slight.

The Sentences certainly come from a Greekspeaking environment. Egypt remains the most likely candidate. Whatever its provenance, this poem is an intriguing witness to the variety of Judaism in the Hellenistic period. Wis —16 complains that the Egyptians practiced the most bitter hatred of strangers. Barclay, Jews in the Mediterranean Diaspora Edinburgh, , John has not yet been examined in this context. Later on 6. Amsler, Acta Philippi, vol.

Groningen, , — Professor Jan N. Bremmer kindly read the manuscript and made useful suggestions about the Greco-Roman material. Herzer, op. He rejects the idea of other Christian interpolations in the text. Then 7. The eagle greets Jeremiah, and tells him it brought a letter from Baruch and Abimelech. The prophet praises God and calls the people together. When the people arrive, the eagle comes down on the corpse and revives it.

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John is a Gnostic Christian writing. Both versions were translated into Coptic in the fourth century. For a synopsis and translation of the texts, see M. Waldstein and F. Wisse, The Apocryphon of John. Waldstein and Wisse, ibid. If Irenaeus knew the text, it dates to the second century; cf. Bovon et al. Philip sits down under the tree and begins to eat. A further text to be mentioned is 2 Baruch Syrian Apocalypse of Baruch. Baruch also instructs the bird not to rest anywhere until it arrives at the people beyond the Euphrates.

Given the evident parallels between the three texts, can we establish a literary dependence between them? In his commentary on the Acts Phil. First, the Ap. John, and the Acts Phil. Whereas the eagle appears as a positive symbol in both religions,11 the epiphany of God or Jesus in the form of an eagle is unusual. The eagles in the Acts Phil. The heroes encounter them on the road at daytime, and identify them as appearances of the deity.

There is, however, no trace of regarding the animal as an epiphany in 2 Baruch. Provided that the writer of the Par. Third, the Par. For the dating of the text cf.

Czachesz, op. I will examine how the Par. II The eagle was an important symbol in both Greek and Christian religions, and to a lesser degree, it played a positive role also in Judaism. The mutual associations between the eagle, the king, and the supreme god were so widespread in ancient cultures that it should be little surprising when Jewish and Christian texts call the eagle the king of birds and associate it with God or Jesus.

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The deity appears in the form of an eagle that sits on a pole or tree in our texts. There are parallels to this particular motif in Homer. Gods appear in the form of birds or are compared to birds in a number of Homeric passages. Apollo inspires Hector to suspend the battle, and Agamemnon stops the Achaeans.

Schneider and E. Klauser ed. Cancik and H. Schneider eds. Kirk, The Iliad: A Commentary, vol. Wyatt in LCL. The parties agree to hold armistice and bury the dead. The second, perhaps less interesting text is Iliad XIV. At this place we read that Hypnos climbed the highest tree on Ida to observe Zeus without beings seen by him. Hypnos sits there like enalinkios a bird that has a clear sound and is called either chalkis or kymindis.

Did the gods put on the form of birds, did they become birds for a time, or were they only similar to birds in some respect? The problem becomes especially interesting if we relate it to the Par. Whereas the rest of early Christian and Jewish literature uses the image of the eagle as a simile or metaphor, these two writings seem to surpass that level and describe theriomorphic epiphanies.

Could they rely on Homer in doing so? Authors made up various lists of Homeric passages that are likely candidates for being metamorphoses, and Iliad VII is one of the key texts. In fact, most authors have taken this locus as a case of metamorphosis. It is impossible to summarize the whole research at this place, yet it is worth mentioning four characteristic opinions in order to gain a general overview of the discussion. Nilsson marshals evidence from Mycaenean archeology to prove that birds were not only attributes of gods, but also their actual forms of appearance.

He examined the issue in general, and six passages in particular that had been widely quoted as metamorphoses. More recently see J. Bremmer, Greek Religion Oxford, , 7.


Nilsson, Geschichte der griechischen Religion, vol. Pollard remarks that the Homeric gods rarely appear in their own shape, except when consorting with one another. Schnapp-Gourbeillon lists three passages that she takes for metamorphoses, two of which are our examples. When the gods appear as humans, sometimes the metamorphosis is so perfect, that the heroes do not recognize them.

Pollard, op. One may answer, however, that they still need metamorphosis to assume the form of a particular human person. The hero is a lion for a short moment. This is probably the passage that Schnapp-Gourbeillon, op. Burkert, Greek Religion trans. They were, in contrast, highly unacceptable for most Jewish and Christian authors. Although we cannot fully exhaust that topic at this place, it will be useful to mention some examples. On one of the coins, Europa holds a scepter with a bird. He reports that before the altar of Zeus Lykaios there are two pillars 29 Tatian, Address to the Greeks 10; cf.

Tertuallian, Ad nationes 2. For Revelation 5—7 see below. In the Acts of John, Jesus changes his appearance several times, but never appears as an animal; cf. Cook, Zeus, vol. The aquilae enjoyed religious veneration. The triumphant warlord carried an ivory scepter scipio eburneus with an eagle. John, and the Acts Phil.? Did they use the image of the Roman military standards? If the second Jewish war was the Sitz im Leben of the Par. They could easily decipher the symbolism of the eagle 36 Pausanias 8.

Jones in LCL; cf. Nilsson, op. Pausanias 5. For Aristophanes, see Pollard, op. Ziegler et al. Neumann, op. In the latter example, there is a scipio eburneus but no explicit mention of the eagle. The Par. Further, the eagle of the Par. For similar reasons, it is unlikely that this motif was inspired by any of the Greco-Roman eagle images representing Zeus or Juppiter. To the reality of the second Jewish war, we have to add two historical records of instances when the image of an eagle scandalized the Jews.

Yet, the same Jewish person had some Greek education, and therefore knew Homer. Koch, Daniel Neukirchen-Vluyn, , —; D. Freedman ed. This problem can be solved if one considers that the two species were often confused in antiquity and the usage of the two names varied. When the eagle arrives, the people are busy carrying a corpse to bury it outside the city. Burying the dead was a pious act, of which the famous example was Tobit. The author of the Par. Koehler and W.

Payne Smith ed. Liddel et al. Sirah ; If the author of the Par. May this sound speculative, one should keep in mind that the epiphany of God as an eagle on a tree is quite strange in the context of Jewish literature. I hope to have shown that Iliad VII. Of course, that parallel does not explain every detail of the episode. Whereas sudden recognition has its parallels in Homer see, for example, Odyssey 1. This feature is not Homeric, and must be read against the background of Hellenistic, Jewish, and Christian miracle stories.

A similar phrase, in contrast, does not occur in either 2 Baruch or the Par. Further, in the Ap. It can be concluded that the short text of the Ap. John relied on the classical imagery of the eagle on the tree, possibly on Homer. Although it is later than 2 Baruch and the Par. The longer text of the Ap. John dates to the middle or end of the third century. When the long version of the Ap. John was made, the eagle was already known as a symbol of Christ. Cotter, Miracles in Greco-Roman Antiquity. A Sourcebook London, , 45—46 and passim; J. Cavadini ed. Amsler, op.

The Acts Phil. From this time there is archaeological evidence of the eagle symbolising Christ on the cross. An eagle on a cross is depicted on a sarcophagus and an eagle with a cross on its chest decorates a capital of a fourth century cathedral. It remains unique, however, as far as the eagle in the narrative is Christ who acts and speaks. The closest parallel to the scene is found in the long version of the Ap. For they were both in a fallen state and they recognised their nakedness.

We can compare this passage with Acts Phil. Freedman, ed, Anchor Bible Dictionary, vol. However, Revelation situates the whole account in the heavenly court, clearly separating it from while emphasising its importance for the events on earth. The Ap. John, where the Saviour appears in the form of eagle, clearly belongs to the same genre of revelation BG This association also supports the interpretation that the author viewed the eagle episode as a metamorphosis. Homeric gods show considerably more inclination to appear in the form of or change into animals in a story than God or Christ in Jewish and early Christian literature.

It is remarkable that Philip asks the eagle to carry his prayers to God. Although the eagle carries letters in 2 Baruch and the Par. Our curiosity about the Vallicellian codex arose even more when it became clear that in the manuscript the text of Mart. But we are afraid we must disappoint the reader already: the Vallicellianus does not contain a full Greek text of Pol. It might be added immediately that, only speaking about Mart.

Dehandschutter, Martyrium Polycarpi. The fragmentary Jerusalem codex BHG c dates from the seventeenth century, and the Ottobonianus 92 BHG a , actually a copy from the Vindobonensis, dates from the sixteenth century. BPH and A, remaining on the whole congruent only with B. It is this observation we want 5 See on this our Martyrium Polycarpi , 33— Vossius, see F. Funk, Patres apostolici, vol. admin