Volume II: Employment Relations
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My profile My library Metrics Alerts. Sign in. Get my own profile Cited by All Since Citations h-index 10 10 iindex 10 Ultimately, we created a dataset including the public case facts of 83 Circuit Court cases from January 1, to September 1, Analyses We used a multi-step analysis process to narrow the dataset into clusters of information critical to the facts of each case that could be used to craft a practical model.
The first analysis step, to narrow down case facts into the most important and conceptually connected information, utilized OpenCalais, an open source semantic connection software available at www. OpenCalais utilizes a natural language processing algorithm to analyze text data and link together entities within it. OpenCalais found algorithmically-derived relationships that formed text clusters, or conceptually related topics, from our much broader text sample of all case facts within the 83 Circuit Court decisions. For this paper, we included two major clusters found by OpenCalais for further analysis: workplace behaviors attributed to a particular actor in the case, or some disputed outcome produced by an identified person in the case, and demographic or descriptor information about an identified person in the case.
Following Krippendorff , p. For behaviors, the text unit was usually one to three sentences forming some kind of cogent action or behavioral description. For demographics or descriptors, the text unit was a set of generally well known and recogniz- able categories, including gender, age, or religious affiliation. Plowman and colleagues Plowman et al.
For this project, the text data were initially independently coded by four people, including two of the authors. Author's personal copy Employ Respons Rights J —94 83 units within codebook categories. Ultimately, there were text units for behaviors and 30 for demographics. While coding the document, researchers agree that codes are present in the data, occur at the same level of frequency, and include the same text sources.
For any differences we encountered in coding, we discussed them and reached consensus for each code definition. The program allows us to see the clusters and the co-occurrence relationships, indicating both the relative strength of all of the codes within the dataset as well as the conceptual space among them. We also ran simple descriptive counts to ascertain relative frequency of positions and behaviors relevant to our research questions.
Results Table 2 provides the code names, brief descriptions, frequency and case occurrence counts for each code, below. Accommodation actions are also seen in all but two of the circuits. We would expect this, given the legal requirement for religious accommodation. We coded for accommodation actions when there was a request or need identified, not only when the accommodation was granted.
Displaying religion only occurred in two of the circuits and proselytizing in only four; given the popular press cases discussed above, there may be a sense that these kinds of disputes occur more frequently than have been previously seen in the courts. These two also appear in five of the 12 circuits, making them the most widespread of this category. This code was used whether or not the accommodation request was granted. We found no text data that could be coded into one expected category, being female.
Exploring code relationships and co-occurrences using the Jaccard Index reveals simi- larity co-efficients. A map in two dimensions, indicating relative conceptual proximity of codes as well as the relative frequency of occurrence, was created using MDS algorithms. Table 3, below, is the correlation matrix among codes in the dataset. In two-dimensional space we see relationships among the demographics codes and the behavior codes, in Fig. Looking at demographics and behaviors in 2D in Fig. The square icon group contains the most co-occurring variables, and there are other clusters shown, such as being a person of color and advocating for oneself [triangle icons], being gay, participat- ing in religious activities, and invoking God or scripture [diamond icons] and being Jewish, being white, and proselytizing [cross icon].
We also see codes occurring alone: using profanity [star icon], and disparate treatment—peer [trapezoid icon]. The operationalization of diversity in the workplace now includes religious and spiritual expressions Cunningham ; Paludi et al. It is within this changing workplace context that we sought to explain why the clusters may have fallen out as they did. These theories build on social psychology foundations in cultural risk theory Douglas and Wildavsky ; Kahan et al.
Religious identity, then, is a powerful self-concept creation and maintenance tool.
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Allport, and others since his research was published, e. Also part of social categorization literature, SRT notes that when we are deciding the level of relevance some stimulus has for us, we use the self as the most powerful referent frame. We are cognitively more comfortable deciding how important some stimulus is when we use ourselves as reference points. People selectively deal with identity conflicts in ways that reflect and reinforce their cultural worldview or preferences for how society should be organized Douglas and Wildavsky ; Kahan et al.
Through SRT-based experiments, respondents have shown resistance to internalizing information counter to their own self-schema Burnkrant and Unnava ; Cantone RIT and SRT help us understand how individuals assess similarity and dissimilarity within social groups such as the workplace e.
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In-group and out-group stereotyping behaviors can arise, and people are treated differently as a function of their group membership based upon beliefs about that group as a whole Brewer ; Pralle Thus, as we considered the behavioral outcomes from our study, the RIT and SRT research literature helped us model why employees might believe many of the destructive and anti-social behaviors were appropriate. We offer a model of religious identity threat and associated behaviors based on the cluster analysis map, below in Fig.
As we considered both the behaviors and the demographics integral to religious dispute cases, it was clear there were differences among behaviors initiated by the person of faith and towards the person of faith. Mapping behaviors from the largest cluster shown by the square icon in Fig. This puts us in the lower right-hand corner of the model, and close to the high threat end of the continuum.
Using profanity towards a person of faith is not empirically linked clustered with being Muslim in particular in our data, but we believe it would reasonably be considered an activity utilized by a person under identity threat if we utilize RIT and SRT as guides. Hewlett-Packard Co. Pearson, F. While these behaviors are indicative of a relatively high religious identity threat, case facts did not support them being considered as extreme as those enacted towards the person of faith. Moving to the upper left-hand quadrant, we believe the triangle cluster fits best here.
When compared to other behaviors in the data set, and in examining the case facts, we would consider advocating for the self as consistent with first steps in gaining Title VII protections and not indicative of strong religious identity threat behaviors. Finally, there were no clustered behaviors that we would place in the lower left-hand quadrant representing low religious identity threat enacted towards the person of faith.
Inequality and Organizational Practice
On the good news front, many of the behaviors on the right-hand side of the model [toward high religious identity threat] seem to be relatively overt and do not appear to be difficult to spot. Problems like retaliation and undermining may be harder to ferret out, but mocking other employees, calling them insulting names, displaying religious symbols and Bible quotes, and behaving in openly hostile ways are behaviors that should be observable to managers.
In an ironically positive way, perpetrators of religious intolerance in the workplace appear to be open to displaying their biases in documentable ways. We also found that although sexual orientation is not a protected class within Title VII, it represents a salient aspect of personal identity Beatty and Kirby Figure 1 indicates that being gay co-occurs with identi- fiable religious activities of invoking God or scripture and participating in religious activities [diamond icon]. This kind of behavior is never appropriate in the workplace. Although we have asserted that the salient nature of the behaviors enacted towards em- ployees of faith could be seen as good news, SRW disputes may represent an especially entrenched problem because SRW involves values and personal belief systems Exline and Bright We found evidence that Borstorff and Arlington were correct in believing that Muslim practices and faith-based requirements will pose special and increas- ing accommodation issues in the workplace.
Future research should examine how best to accommodate Muslim practice and belief systems while acknowledging the difficult nation- alism aspects of being Muslim in the United States Golembiewski ; Paludi et al. In other words, part of the issue with Islam in the workplace is that Title VII sees religious activities as adjuncts to life rather than integrated inseparably with life itself Paludi et al. How might legal protections be re-formulated to accommodate a form of religious expression undifferentiated from other workplace activities?
Next, as workplaces become increasingly diverse, additional demographic variables that co-occur with religious dispute data need examination. We antic- ipate the same will happen with sexual orientation, so research opportunities could track if this is indeed the case. The size of this group surprised many please see Laderman for a representative article and represents a major shift in the assumptions about and protections afforded by religious accommodation law. We should examine how those demographic groups will shape our understanding of SRW disputes, since neither is demonstrably protected under the law yet both represent particular beliefs and life experiences that deserve to be protected in the workplace.
Finally, we should expect that SRW disputes will not only continue, but grow, in both number and scope. Religious expression, and its protected status in American workplaces, occupies an interesting legal space. Although Title VII enjoys federally-mandated status, it is a law that increasingly challenges United States constitutional protections of freedom of speech, freedom of religion, and freedom from religion due to the increasing diversity of expression. The Courts have not yet addressed this incompatibility directly.
Avoid the minefield of accommodating religious beliefs. Legal Alert for Supervisors, 5 , 3. Offer reasonable religious accommodations—and then insist that workers follow them. When worried about religious accommodation, keep lines of communication open. Allport, G. Religion and prejudice. Allport Ed. Boston: Beacon. The religious context of prejudice.
Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 5 3 , — Personal religious orientation and prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5 4 , — Ashforth, B. Work organizations as secular religions. Journal of Management Inquiry, 11 4 , — Beatty, J. Beyond the legal environment: how stigma influences invisible identity groups in the workplace.
Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 18 1 , 29— Beaumont, P. Religious intolerance on the rise worldwide, says US report. Accessed 19 Nov Blair, C.
Bohn, L. Workplace Religious Freedom bill finds revived interest. Protecting religion in the workplace? What employees think. Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues, 14 1 , 59— Brewer, M. The social psychology of intergroup relations: Social categorization, ingroup bias, and outgroup prejudice. Kruglanski, W. Higgins Eds. New York: Guilford. Buri, J. Psychoanalytic theory and loving God concepts: parent referencing versus self-referencing. The Journal of Psychology, 1 , 17— Burnkrant, R.
Self-referencing: a strategy for increasing processing of message content. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 15 4 , — Burris, C. Social identity and the true believer: responses to threatened self- stereotypes among the intrinsically religious. British Journal of Social Psychology, 39 2 , — Cantone, J.
ISBN 13: 9780313379741
Religion at work: Evaluating hostile work environment religious discrimination claims. University of Nebraska, Dissertation Abstracts International. Carpenter, S. Self-relevance and goal-directed processing in the recall and weighting of information about others. How should they respond when a boss wants to talk about a new project just as they're leaving home to attend a religious service? How do they justify an unexpected, weeklong business trip to a spouse?
Managers struggle as well. How much on time should they expect from their employees? How can they allocate Paludi , Michel le A. Nydegger , Carmen A. Paludi , Rudy Nydegger Ph. Meanwhile, experts agree that risk factors, including psychological, behavioral, and situational stressors, are increasing in the context of today's volatile business environment.
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