Canadian French vs. French: 7 Important Differences You Need to Know
None of those rules are valid today but in my opinion it's important to notice that these reforms started here. Often the approach to Chilean Spanish is through slang but CS is not just slang or juvenile jargon. There are so many articles on this subject that it'd be repetitive to show you a list of words that are used differently or those that don't exist anywhere else but there are a few ones that are especially basic and important.
Our local words anyway have mostly aymaran, mapuche and lunfardo origin or influence. Some of the most basic and interesting for me are:. Poh: People love this word that's so common that you'll hear it as soon as you arrive. Poh is what you call "pues" in standard. It's more than a distinct word a variation in pronunciation. Fome: This word is interesting because it could be related to the portuguese word for "hunger" but it means "boring". Besides there are guides for Chilenismos for English speakers that you can get from Amazon and on the web there are lists of slang phrases often poorly written.
I don't know if it's available overseas but it can be found in any bookstore in Chile. Some believe that we have more slang than other countries but I haven't seen basis for this belief. Chilean Spanish is indeed difficult to follow in the beginning. It's a strong accent and unlike Spaniards or Argentinians people in my opinion don't speak too loud or opening their mouth too much so it's arguably less clear in comparison.
Plus its pronunciation traits seem aimed at speaking faster like Andalusian accents. I've seen people afraid of speaking secluding themselves to English speaking environments but they are usually people with little actual knowledge of Spanish so if you are learning Spanish you don't have to worry, moreover Chileans will certainly be friendly and will slowdown and standarize their Spanish enough if they see you struggling to understand or to say what you want.
Again I'm going to focus only on general features and not in pronunciation traits that denote a lack of education. Essentially any final "s" on any syllable will be aspirated. Aspiration however is not at least not always a complete lack of sound. Sometimes or depending on the speaker the final "s" is replaced by a brief exhalation which could be compared to a "j" sound but softer. You can easily relate this aspiration to the Andalusian accent s but I believe that their aspiration is stronger or more audible than ours.
Do you remember the examples of voseo above? That's not all as aspiration happens in the middle of words like "sistema" which becomes "sihtema" or "Estar" which converts into "ehtar". Bear in mind that this "h" sound is not the same used in English that's stronger. It's similar to what happens with the "d" sound at the end of a word.
What about a word with "V". Its sound is not aspired most of the time but when you find a syllable at the end of a word that contains a "v" it will be aspired:. Vivo alive : It's pronounced like "vi'o". Huevo egg : It's pronounced like "hue'o". It was therefore Ontario English that became the main model for the English of western Canada, despite the diverse origins of the general population of the West.
Nevertheless, Canadian English, like all dialects and languages, continues to evolve, with small changes seen in each generation of speakers.
Boberg, from the late s and early s, to surveys of Canadian English carried out in the s by H. Allen, W. Avis and R. Scargill and H. Even if the main features of Canadian English are relatively stable, new words and ways of saying things arise all the time, while older expressions go out of fashion and disappear. Some of these changes, together with the stable features of Canadian English, are discussed in the following sections. This is indeed what we find, together with a few features that are uniquely Canadian.
This is particularly true of its grammar how words and sentences are put together, which linguists call morphology and syntax and of the most systematic aspects of its pronunciation what linguists call phonology and phonetics. In most places, the children of 19th-century British settlers and those who came after them would have adopted the local variety of English that had developed from 18th-century Loyalist speech, which was later transferred to western Canada when Ontarians settled there in the lateth century. Several of the main features of Canadian English, however, can also be found in the regional dialects brought to Canada by British settlers from northern and western England , Scotland and Ireland , so their presence in Canada may reflect a combination of both sources of influence.
The English of Newfoundland , which remained a separate British colony until , has traditionally been seen as distinct from that of mainland Canada, reflecting its more specific origins in southwestern England and southeastern Ireland especially the region around Waterford. Though many young Newfoundlanders have recently been shifting their speech toward general Canadian patterns, the speech of most people in the capital, St. The rich local vocabulary of Newfoundland has been catalogued in a Dictionary of Newfoundland English with thousands of entries see Dictionary.
The colonial American English that the Loyalists brought to Canada was established in the 17th century, before several of the changes that created modern Standard British English had occurred in southeastern England. Other general North American features shared by Canadian English may reflect more recent American influence. Other phonological features divide North Americans by region. These sound different in Britain and in parts of the eastern United States.
In Canada, as in the western United States, they sound the same; lot and thought rhyme, while cot and caught , stock and stalk and don and dawn are homophones. This merger is thought to be the cause of a phonetic pattern called the Canadian Shift, a change in progress in modern Canadian English that involves a lowering and retraction of the short front vowels in words like kit , dress and trap. Another distinctive Canadian pronunciation pattern is called Canadian Raising. This is a shortening of the diphthongs in words like price and mouth , causing the vowel to be produced somewhat higher in the mouth than in other dialects.
While some American dialects also raise the vowels of price words, raising in mouth words is more distinctively Canadian. In a related pattern, most Canadians, like the British, use the vowel of cost in words like Costa Rica , whereas Americans prefer the vowel of coast. Though the most systematic aspects of Canadian pronunciation follow North American patterns, pronunciation of individual words sometimes follows the British norm.
For instance, Canadians pronounce the — ile suffix in words like fertile , futile , hostile , missile and mobile with a full vowel like that in profile , whereas Americans rhyme futile with brutal , hostile with hostel , missile with thistle , mobile with noble , etc. For most Canadians, shone , the past tense of shine , rhymes with gone , as in Britain, not with bone , as in the US. British and American English have developed distinct vocabularies for many aspects of modern life, especially in such semantic domains as clothing , food and transportation.
In general, Canadians follow the American model in these cases; like Americans, they say apartment rather than flat , diaper rather than nappy , elevator rather than lift , flashlight rather than torch , freight car rather than goods wagon , fries rather than chips Canadian chips are what the British call crisps , pants rather than trousers , sweater rather than jumper , truck rather than lorry , and wrench rather than spanner. Canadian cars, like American, have hoods , fenders , mufflers , trunks , turn signals and windshields — not bonnets , wings , silencers , boots , indicators and windscreens — and drive on gas from gas stations , not petrol from filling stations or petrol stations.
In a few cases, however, most Canadians prefer British words: bill rather than check for the tally of charges in a restaurant; cutlery rather than silverware for knives, forks and spoons; icing rather than frosting for the top layer of a cake; icing sugar rather than powdered sugar for the finely ground sugar sprinkled on desserts; tap rather than faucet for the device that controls the flow of water into a sink; and, zed rather than zee for the last letter of the alphabet.
Canadians also display a small set of their own unique vocabulary, which can be called Canadianisms. In discussing Canadianisms, it is important to distinguish between international words for things that occur only or mostly in Canada, and uniquely Canadian words for things that occur internationally. The first type of word represents the uniqueness of Canada but not of Canadian English. All of these things contribute to a Canadian cultural identity and their names are Canadian words in one sense, yet if people outside Canada found occasion to refer to them, they would use the same words as Canadians.
In a parallel way, Canadians use Australian words like boomerang, didgeridoo, kangaroo and koala; these words are part of World English, not of Canadian or Australian English exclusively. Only the second type of word, where Canadians use their own word for something that has other names in other dialects, is a true Canadianism in the linguistic sense. Some examples include the following: a small apartment without a separate bedroom is a bachelor in Canada but a studio in the US and Britain; a machine that performs banking services is a bank machine in Canada but an ATM in the US and a cash dispenser in Britain; the structures along the edge of a roof for collecting rainwater are eavestroughs in much of Canada but gutters in the US and Britain; the years of school are grade one , grade two , etc.
Nonetheless, Canadian English often shows variation in the use of these words, with Canadianisms competing with other words, usually the American variants. This sometimes results in the decline or disappearance of Canadianisms. The best-known example is chesterfield , which used to be the standard Canadian term for what is called a couch in the US and a sofa or settee in Britain; today, while some older Canadians continue to use chesterfield , most younger Canadians say couch.
The Grammar of English Grammars/Part II
The French and British were not, of course, the first people to occupy the land that became Canada; for thousands of years before their arrival, it was home to a wide array of Indigenous cultures and their languages. When European settlers arrived, many of the things they encountered, like aspects of the natural environment , were already familiar to them and were given pre-existing European names: bay , bear , beaver , birch , bison , cod , deer , duck , eagle , fir , fox , frost , glacier , grasshopper , gull , hail , hare , ice , lake , lobster , loon , maple , marsh , mosquito , mountain , owl , pine , poplar , prairie , puffin , river , salmon , seal , sleet , slush and snow are all European words, among thousands of other examples.
Even many unfamiliar things were given European names, adapted to fit new, North American meanings, like robin , which denotes different birds in North America and Europe.
- The first vernacular grammars in Europe : the Scandinavian area - Persée.
- BJu Tijdschriften?
- Statistics of Earth Science Data: Their Distribution in Time, Space, and Orientation.
- Science and Psychic Phenomena: The Fall of the House of Skeptics.
Many terms connected with Indigenous cultures, like chief , dogsled , harpoon , peace pipe , snowshoe , sun dance and sweat lodge , are also of European origin. In a few cases, however, words were borrowed from Indigenous languages. Many of these are shared with American English, since the international border is irrelevant to the natural and Indigenous worlds.
A few examples of Indigenous loanwords in North American English are caribou , chinook , chipmunk , husky , igloo , inukshuk , kamik , kayak , moccasin , moose , mucky-muck , mukluk , muskeg , powwow , raccoon , saskatoon , skunk , sockeye , teepee , toboggan , wapiti and wigwam.
Admittedly, most of these do not occur very often in everyday speech and their number is remarkably small, compared to the much larger vocabulary transferred from European languages. The major contribution of Indigenous languages to Canadian English is therefore not in common nouns or other parts of ordinary vocabulary, but in place names, something few modern Canadians stop to think about: the names Manitoba , Mississauga , Niagara , Nunavut , Ontario , Ottawa , Quebec , Saskatchewan , Toronto , Winnipeg , and Yukon — as well as the name Canada itself — all come from Indigenous languages.
Along with Canadian Raising of mouth words, discussed above, the most popular stereotype of Canadian English is the word eh , added to the end of a phrase to solicit confirmation that the hearer has understood or agrees with what the speaker is saying. One domain where Canadian English shows a more balanced mixture of American and British standards is spelling, reflecting a continued belief among many Canadian educators and others in positions of linguistic authority that British English is more correct than American.
Religious houses caused lives of native saints to be written, and the nobility had a taste for romances about imaginary English ancestors. Thus social and political differences between the two countries prevented Anglo-Norman literature from being a mere provincial imitation of French. The same century saw the beginning of the magnificent series of Anglo-Norman apocalypses , best known for their superb illustrations, which served as a model for a series of tapestries at Angers, France. The resurrection play La Seinte Resureccion was probably 12th century but was rewritten more than once in the 13th century.
Edmund of Abingdon. In the 13th—14th century countless treatises appeared on technical subjects—manuals for confession, agriculture, law, medicine, grammar, and science, together with works dealing with manners, hunting, hawking, and chess. Spelling treatises produced in the late 13th, 14th, and 15th centuries are valuable for the light they shed on continental French as well as Anglo-Norman. Anglo-Norman literature was well provided with romances. In the 12th century one Thomas wrote a courtly version of the Tristan story, which survived in scattered fragments and was used by Gottfried von Strassburg in Tristan und Isolde as well as being the source of the Old Norse, Italian, and Middle English versions of the story.
In the 12th century some romances were composed in the form of the chanson de geste; for example, Horn, by Master Thomas, which is connected with the Middle English Horn Childe and Maiden Rimnild. In the 13th century the more courtly type of romance reappeared in Amadas et Idoine and in Amis et Amiloun.