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Matsumoto, S. Yoo, Culture and Applied Nonverbal Communication. Du kanske gillar. What's Wrong With Leadership? Ronald E Riggio Inbunden. Inbunden Engelska, Spara som favorit. Skickas inom vardagar. Laddas ned direkt. The goal of this edited volume is to provide a much needed bridge between the research on nonverbal communication and the application of those findings. The book features contributions from some of the leading researchers in the field. These distinguished scholars apply their understanding of nonverbal communication processes to a variety of settings including hospitals and clinics, courtrooms and police stations, the workplace and government, the classroom, and everyday life.
It explores nonverbal communication in public settings, in intimate relationships, and across cultures and general lessons such as the importance of context, individual differences, and how expectations affect interpretation. Applications of Nonverbal Communication appeals to a diverse group of practitioners, researchers, and students from a variety of disciplines including psychology, health care, law enforcement, political science, sociology, communication, business and management.
It may also serve as a supplement in upper level courses on nonverbal communication. Responding to Sexual Provocation. Rather than using a list of specific rules , I suggest people develop more general tools that will be useful in and adaptable to a variety of contexts. The second guideline for decoding nonverbal signals is to recognize that certain nonverbal signals are related.
To get a more nuanced understanding of the meaning behind nonverbal cues, we can look at them as progressive or layered. For example, people engaging in negative critical evaluation of a speaker may cross their legs, cross one arm over their stomach, and put the other arm up so the index finger is resting close to the eye while the chin rests on the thumb.
Instead, he or she would likely start with one and then layer more cues on as the feelings intensified. If we notice that a person is starting to build related signals like the ones above onto one another, we might be able to intervene in the negative reaction that is building. Of course, as nonverbal cues are layered on, they may contradict other signals, in which case we can turn to context clues to aid our interpretation. We will learn more specifics about nonverbal communication in relational, professional, and cultural contexts in Section 4.
People have idiosyncratic nonverbal behaviors, which create an individual context that varies with each person. Even though we generally fit into certain social and cultural patterns, some people deviate from those norms.
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For example, some cultures tend toward less touching and greater interpersonal distances during interactions. The United States falls into this general category, but there are people who were socialized into these norms who as individuals deviate from them and touch more and stand closer to others while conversing. As the idiosyncratic communicator inches toward his or her conversational partner, the partner may inch back to reestablish the interpersonal distance norm. Such deviations may lead people to misinterpret sexual or romantic interest or feel uncomfortable.
While these actions could indicate such interest, they could also be idiosyncratic. As this example shows, these individual differences can increase the ambiguity of nonverbal communication, but when observed over a period of time, they can actually help us generate meaning. In such cases, we have to turn to our knowledge about specific types of nonverbal communication or draw from more general contextual knowledge.
In addition, many of the suggestions in the section on encoding competence can be adapted usefully to decoding. Head Movements and Posture. Personal Presentation and Environment. Although people rely on nonverbal communication more than verbal to determine whether or not a person is being deceptive, there is no set profile of deceptive behaviors that you can use to create your own nonverbally based lie detector.
Research finds that people generally perceive themselves as good detectors of deception, but when tested people only accurately detect deception at levels a little higher than what we would by random chance. Given that deception is so widespread and common, it is estimated that we actually only detect about half the lies that we are told, meaning we all operate on false information without even being aware of it.
Although this may be disappointing to those of you reading who like to think of yourselves as human lie detectors, there are some forces working against our deception detecting abilities. One such force is the truth bias Our tendency to believe that people are telling the truth, especially if we know and like them. Conversely, people who have interpersonal trust issues and people in occupations like law enforcement may also have a lie bias, meaning they assume people are lying to them more often than not.
It is believed that deceptive nonverbal behaviors result from nonverbal leakage Nonverbal behaviors that occur as we try to control the cognitive and physical changes that happen during states of cognitive and physical arousal. London: Routledge, , Anxiety is a form of arousal that leads to bodily reactions like those we experience when we perceive danger or become excited for some other reason.
Some of these reactions are visible, such as increased movements, and some are audible, such as changes in voice pitch, volume, or rate. Other reactions, such as changes in the electrical conductivity of the skin, increased breathing, and increased heart rate, are not always detectable.
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Polygraph machines, or lie detectors, work on the principle that the presence of signs of arousal is a reliable indicator of deception in situations where other factors that would also evoke such signals are absent. These signals appear and increase because we are conflicted about the act of deception, since we are conditioned to believe that being honest is better than lying, we are afraid of getting caught and punished, and we are motivated to succeed with the act of deception—in essence, to get away with it.
Leakage also occurs because of the increased cognitive demands associated with deception. Our cognitive activity increases when we have to decide whether to engage in deception or not, which often involves some internal debate. If we decide to engage in deception, we then have to compose a fabrication or execute some other manipulation strategy that we think is believable. To make things more complicated, we usually tailor our manipulation strategy to the person to whom we are speaking.
Of course, skilled and experienced deceivers develop new scripts that can also become familiar and comfortable and allow them to engage in deception without arousing as much anxiety or triggering the physical reactions to it.
There are certain nonverbal cues that have been associated with deception, but the problem is that these cues are also associated with other behaviors, which could lead you to assume someone is being deceptive when they are actually nervous, guilty, or excited. In general, people who are more expressive are better deceivers and people who are typically anxious are not good liars.
Research also shows that people get better at lying as they get older, because they learn more about the intricacies of communication signals and they also get more time to practice. Studies have found that actors, politicians, lawyers, and salespeople are also better liars, because they are generally higher self-monitors and have learned how to suppress internal feelings and monitor their external behaviors.
The research on deception and nonverbal communication indicates that heightened arousal and increased cognitive demands contribute to the presence of nonverbal behaviors that can be associated with deception. Remember, however, that these nonverbal behaviors are not solely related to deception and also manifest as a result of other emotional or cognitive states.
Additionally, when people are falsely accused of deception, the signs that they exhibit as a result of the stress of being falsely accused are very similar to the signals exhibited by people who are actually engaging in deception. There are common misconceptions about what behaviors are associated with deception. Behaviors mistakenly linked to deception include longer response times, slower speech rates, decreased eye contact, increased body movements, excessive swallowing, and less smiling.
None of these have consistently been associated with deception. This predisposition can lead us to focus on nonverbal cues while overlooking verbal signals of deception. A large study found that people were better able to detect deception by sound alone than they were when exposed to both auditory and visual cues. Aside from nonverbal cues, also listen for inconsistencies in or contradictions between statements, which can also be used to tell when others are being deceptive.
The following are some nonverbal signals that have been associated with deception in research studies, but be cautious about viewing these as absolutes since individual and contextual differences should also be considered. One of the most powerful associations between nonverbal behaviors and deception is the presence of adaptors. Self-touches like wringing hands and object-adaptors like playing with a pencil or messing with clothing have been shown to correlate to deception.
Some highly experienced deceivers, however, can control the presence of adaptors. Eye contact. Deceivers tend to use more eye contact when lying to friends, perhaps to try to increase feelings of immediacy or warmth, and less eye contact when lying to strangers. A review of many studies of deception indicates that increased eye blinking is associated with deception, probably because of heightened arousal and cognitive activity. Facial expressions. People can intentionally use facial expressions to try to deceive, and there are five primary ways that this may occur.
People may show feelings that they do not actually have, show a higher intensity of feelings than they actually have, try to show no feelings, try to show less feeling than they actually have, or mask one feeling with another. One of the most common nonverbal signs of deception is speech errors. Studies also show that an increase in verbal pitch is associated with deception and is likely caused by heightened arousal and tension. Speech turns are often thought to correspond to deception, but there is no consensus among researchers as to the exact relationship.
Most studies reveal that deceivers talk less, especially in response to direct questions. Scenario 1. A politician is questioned by a reporter about allegations that she used taxpayer money to fund personal vacations.
Scenario 2. You ask your roommate if you can borrow his car to go pick up a friend from the train station about ten miles away.
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I mean, is there someone else you could ask or someone else who could get her? Scenario 3. Those were my ideas. Help Creative Commons. Creative Commons supports free culture from music to education. Their licenses helped make this book available to you. Help a Public School.
Nonverbal Behavior - 1st Edition
Previous Section. Table of Contents. Next Section. Identify and employ strategies for improving competence with interpreting nonverbal messages. Understand That Nonverbal Communication Is Multichannel Be aware of the multichannel nature of nonverbal communication. Understand How Nonverbal Communication Regulates Conversations The ability to encode appropriate turn-taking signals can help ensure that we can hold the floor when needed in a conversation or work our way into a conversation smoothly, without inappropriately interrupting someone or otherwise being seen as rude.
Understand How Nonverbal Communication Relates to Impression Management The nonverbal messages we encode also help us express our identities and play into impression management, which as we learned in Chapter 1 "Introduction to Communication Studies" is a key part of communicating to achieve identity goals. Increase Competence in Specific Channels of Nonverbal Communication While it is important to recognize that we send nonverbal signals through multiple channels simultaneously, we can also increase our nonverbal communication competence by becoming more aware of how it operates in specific channels.
Kinesics The following guidelines may help you more effectively encode nonverbal messages sent using your hands, arms, body, and face. Gestures Illustrators make our verbal communication more engaging.
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Remember that adaptors can hurt your credibility in more formal or serious interactions. Figure out what your common adaptors are and monitor them so you can avoid creating unfavorable impressions.