Log In Sign Up. Bibliography of English Copulative Perception Verbs. Fuminori Nakamura. The complement structure of perception verbs in an autonomous framework. Culicover, A. Akmajian, and T.
Wasow, eds. New York: Academic Press. Ando, Sadao. Tokyo: Kaitakusha. Asudeh, Ash and Ida Toivonen. Copy raising and perception. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 30 2 — Austin, John Langshaw. Sense and Sensibilia. Oxford: Oxford Uni- versity Press. Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. London: Longman. Broccias, Cristiano.
- Language in Society;
- Evidentiality and Perception Verbs in English and German.
- 2. Evidential concepts in Manchu.
English Language and Linguistics 16 1 — Caplan, David. A note on the abstract readings of verbs of perception. Cognition 2 3 — Evidentiality in English conversation and academic writing. Chafe and J. Nichols, eds. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Chafe, Wallace and Johanna Nichols, eds. Evidentiality: The Linguis- tic Coding of Epistemology. Norwood, N.
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J: Ablex. Declerck, Renaat. A Comprehensive Grammar of English. Frantz, Donald G. Copying from complements in blackfoot. Linguistic Studies of native Canada pages 89— Ascensions to subject in blackfoot. Gisborne, Nikolas. English Perception Verbs. The complementation of verbs of appearance by ad- verbs. Denison, and R. Hogg, eds. Also called perception verb or perceptual verb. Distinctions can be drawn between subject-oriented and object-oriented verbs of perception.
I began to listen to everything. I probably hoped that after I had heard all the sounds, really heard them, and packed them down, deep in my ears, the world would be quiet around me. Random House, I stand at the window and look down at the batteries and batteries of offices across the way, recalling how the thing looks in winter twilight when everything is going full blast, every cell lighted, and how you can see in pantomime the puppets fumbling with their slips of paper but you don't hear the rustle , see them pick up their phone but you don't hear the ring , see the noiseless, ceaseless moving about of so many passers of pieces of paper.
White, Here Is New York. Harper, I see a skunk on bare garden hill stealing noiselessly away from me, while the moon shines over the pitch pines which send long shadows down the hill. I smell the huckleberry bushes. San Roque ; Zariquiey Biondi The shifter-like nature of evidentials entails sensitivity to changes in person and sentence-type, a feature that makes evidentiality comparable to egophoricity and other related forms of epistemic marking. In addition to the number of available meaning contrasts and the degree of grammaticalization of forms, a typology of evidentiality should also explore the interface between evidentials and conceptually adjacent resources like sentence-type markers e.
Hardman and the semantic effects of changes to subject person cf. Curnow In some languages, there are restrictions in the distribution of evidentials in non-declarative utterances and changes of "perceiver identity" may also result from interaction with non-declarative sentence types. In the case of effects relating to subject person, it is not clear how languages with egophoric marking systems differ from ones with evidential marking. It is sometimes also the case that a language harbors both expressions e.
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Dickinson The problem that the aforementioned notions of perspective and involvement pose to the analysis of evidentials is well illustrated by data from the Arwako-Chibchan language Ika, which displays an epistemic marking system that has been described as a version of egophoric marking cf. The presentation will overview some of the literature dealing with the notions of perspective and involvement in epistemic marking and discuss first-hand data from Ika Arwako as an illustration of how the interaction between these notions can converge in a specific instance of epistemic marking that may be defined according to different, sometimes competing criteria.
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Epistemic marking in Ika Arwako. Studies in Language News from the field John Benjamins Chafe, Wallace and Johanna Nichols. Evidentiality: the linguistic coding of epistemology. Norwood N. Curnow, J. Nonvolitionality expressed through evidentials. Studies in Language 27 1 : Hardman, Martha James. San Roque, Lila. An Introduction to Duna Grammar.
Zariquiey Biondi, Roberto. A grammar of Kashibo-Kakataibo. Any active domain of research inevitably invites a plethora of divergent opinions on it. Langacker 43ff. Within the domain of evidentiality, the reportive branch in particular has been subject to much debate. As Plungian points out, this branch is accorded a special status in comparison to other evidential branches, being the most indirect of all of them. The latter, which include reported speech constructions, imply a deictic shift away from the current speaker's vantage point, whereas the former do not, and therefore only Reportives allegedly can be included under an evidential heading.
German provides an interesting case study for several reasons. First, it is a language not traditionally considered to have an evidential system cf. Aikhenvald , though studies on "evidential" sollen have already been published e. Letnes and Second, both sollen and wollen function in or involve the domain of reportive evidentiality. Third, both verbs are traditionally defined as epistemic modals cf. Glas , Diewald , but can be demonstrated to not actually denote an epistemic sense, so theyprovide an excellent insight into the relation of evidentiality and epistemicity.
This last point has been subject to at least as much contention as the classification of evidentiality itself. The present paper will argue for sollen as a linguistic element expressing reportive evidential "meaning" and will illustrate its use with actual language data. Wollen, in turn, will allow insight into the relation of Quotatives to Reportives and will unearth a need to refine these concepts. Finally, the paper will illustrate how both verbs cannot be accorded epistemic status. Boye, K.
Evidentiality in German
Linguistic categories and grammaticalization'. Diewald, G. Song , Binnick have ascribed evidentiality to the finite past tense markers - v , - lAA and - jee and sometimes also the participle - sAn. The difference between - lAA and - jee involves remoteness, - lAA marking recent firsthand events without a clearly determinable cut-off point and - jee events that are remote Binnick or not marked for remoteness at all.
It is probably best described as "factual" a term already used by Kalchofner , but without definition , a category that disassociates the speaker and her source of information from the statement, which thus becomes perfectly objective, implying "that the source of information is unimportant to the establishment of the validity of the information" Mushin The difference between - v and - san has sometimes been described as literary vs.
However, the expression of evidentiality in Khalkha is by no means limited to these markers. It is most prominent in the two Present Progressive forms - j-ai-n and - j-ai- g aa.
For Khalkha, Brosig , taking up Rentzsch 's analysis of modern Uyghur, tried to draw a slightly different distinction according to which an action is portrayed as an ongoing telic process or as a static situation. For the Perfect, it is the form - san bai-n that is clearly inferential not usually hearsay , and the same appears to hold for - dag bai-n.
The distinction is harder to draw for the Progressive and the Durative where the difference rather seems to be between a newly observed firsthand fact and established knowledge about the event. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner. Die satzfiniten Aspektmarker des modernen Khalkha-Mongolischen.
Bonn: Unpublished magister thesis. Byambasan, P. Ulaanbaatar:Shinjleh uhaanii akadyemi. Ebert, K. Degrees of focality in Kalmyk imperfectives. In: W. Kurilov Eds. Tense-aspect, transitivity and causativity. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Friedman, V. The expression of speaker subjectivity in Lak Daghestan. In: Z. Landaburu Eds. Louvain: Peeters. Hashimoto, K. Metarepresentational motivations - the grammaticalization of the verb of saying ge - in Mongolian.
Tsukuba English studies , Kalchofner, P. Allaa - I get killed. Altaica budapestinensia MMII. Mushin, I. Evidentiality and Epistemological Stance - Narrative Retelling. Philadelphia: Benjamins. Ulaanbaatar: Mongol ulsiin bolovsroliin ih surguul. Song, J. Tense, aspect and modality in Khalkha Mongolian. London: SOAS. Unpublished dissertation. Grammaticalization of the verb ge - 'to say' in Khalkha Mongolian. Dumdadu ulus-un monggul sudulul , 4.
Besides their literal use, these verbs can be used in different non-literal ways, one of them being evidential, in particular when used in the first person. Our analyses are based on twitter corpora, which turn out to be a rich source for evidential use of these verbs.
Evidentiality - Wikipedia
Besides this general characterization of the evidential use of the two types of verbs, we will also show that their use differs across the four languages studied. The differences can only be understood if other verbs find in English, meinen in German are taken into consideration as well.
Evidence from conversational data. In this function, the suffix indicates that a referent is similar to or looks like the entity denoted by the noun, like in example 1 :. In addition to this verbalizing use, -shi can occur as a verbal suffix with a more evidential-like interpretation, indicating that the speaker has visual evidence that points to the expressed proposition, as exemplified in 2 :. However, some of these evidentials seem to express concepts that are rather inferential in nature.
International Journal of American Linguistics The paper analyses how the expressions of knowing are used in argumentative text type. The main focus is on the rhetorical and intersubjective functions of these grammaticalized lexemes and their relation to the epistemic modality.
The data come from the Finnish newspaper "Helsingin Sanomat" Internet discussions compilation, consisting of news text and of 86 comments collected during 5. The aforementioned adverbs represent a special case of evidentials because they convey only a non-specific reference to the source of information. However, the lexemes convey this image differently in the sense that they create different construals concerning the interlocutors' epistemic access and epistemic primacy to knowledge c.
Stivers, Mondada and Steensig Langacker, Ronald W. A Basic Introduction. Oxford University Press. Martin, J. Appraisal in English. Palgrave Macmillan. A corpus-based study on English adverbs. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Stivers, T. Stivers, L. Steensig Eds. The Morality of Knowing in Conversation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In his classification of evidential values, Plungian used the term "endophoric evidence" to refer to non-visual, direct evidence based on a feeling or an inner state, physical or mental.
They argued that such expressions are best understood as endophoric evidentials, which mark not so much the actual source of information as the speaker's construal of source of information in response to a recurrent social situation in which the interlocutors' face, image, and relationship are at stake. In other words, fear-based endophoric evidentials are pragmatically exploited for social purposes. It is shown that the two German apprehensives are in complementary distributions in the. Keywords : German apprehensives, fear, endophoric evidential, epistemological stance,. The apprehensive: Fear as endophoric evidence and its pragmatics in English, Mandarin, and Russian.
Journal of Pragmatics 44, Mushin, Ilana, Evidentiality and Epistemological Stance: Narrative Retelling. John Benjamins, Amsterdam. Plungian, Vladimir A. The place of evidentiality within the universal grammatical space. Journal of Pragmatics 33, Evidentiality, as a linguistic category, concerns the source of information speakers have for their statements. At present, evidentiality is being studied from different perspectives by numerous scholars working at different research institutions. The extensive research on evidentiality has the obvious consequence that many different methods are being applied in studies of evidentiality.
The goal of our talk is to discuss the pros and cons of some research methods and their applicability to the study of evidentiality. Our approach is functional-typological with a strong emphasis on field linguistics methods. Grammars are, naturally, the primary source of data for any typological study of evidentiality. Grammars enable us to get a very broad overview of what is possible in a language, but one of the main problems with them is that the gathered data will be focused on languages with grammaticalized evidentiality.
Therefore, the overview we get is thus somewhat biased towards fully grammaticalized elements with the source of information as their primary meaning, while. Moreover, grammars only rarely provide information on the examined elements in actual language use. The most obvious benefit of using corpora is to get information on how evidential markers are actually used in texts and conversations. We proceed from form to function and use context for explaining the examined phenomenon. One thing that we must consider is that different genres differ from each other in what kind of evidentials they prefer, for example folktale narratives may use only hearsay evidentials, while newspaper texts lack evidentials altogether in many languages, such as Finnish.
Moreover, corpora are not available for most languages, and the results may be somewhat biased, but differently from using grammars. Next, many different kinds of field methods are highly relevant to studying evidentiality. First, we may use translation equivalents, in which case interference from the source language may cause some problems. In addition, series of pictures, video materials and other stimuli-based techniques of data collection may be applied, which enable us to gather information on evidentiality in different extra-linguistic contexts.
It is also very important to study, not only monologues, but. Carefully designed questionnaires, in turn, make it possible to focus on such features that cannot be captured by corpora. Corpora do not, for example, reveal what is not possible in a language and what kind of evidentials are favored when more than one kind of information is available. One further advantage of questionnaires is that a single questionnaire may be filled in by a very high number of informants.
In the case of questionnaires, we proceed from context to actual language use, both of which are relevant. Finally, all methods of data collection may be supplemented by participant observation, which gives us further information on how evidentials are used in real situations. This is important for studying how evidentials may be used to express, e. In our presentation, we will illustrate the dis advantages of different data collection methods in light of a concrete case study focusing on reported evidentials from different perspectives.
We will show that the different methods are by no means mutually exclusive, but all of them are needed for arriving at a more comprehensive overview of evidentiality. Scope and aim. Across languages, future morphemes have an epistemic The French will be on holiday Palmer,.
Here we focus on the epistemic interpretation of. Theoreticians have attempted to establish whether, on this use, the future is an epistemic. Recent work on future in Greek and Italian has shown that the future is a multidimensional weak modal the truth of the prejacent p is not entailed with a presupposition of partial evidence Giannakidou and Mari, They define partial evidence as a set of propositions that are compatible with possible p and possible not p.
Complete evidence is a set of propositions that entail p. The typical example is 1. While seeing the rain, the sentence is odd. It is felicitous if one sees wet umbrellas. The same observation holds for Italian dovere must. This talk addresses the question of whether future is a homogeneous category across languages and answers. Comparing the Italian to the French future and to the epistemic modal devoir must in French , we.