Twice-weekly two hour seminars will focus on a particular theme, analysed in relation to relevant examples and case studies.
Seminar discussion of primary and secondary sources will help you to acquire an in-depth knowledge of the historiography and of the principal varieties of primary source material available to historians. Through discussion of these primary and secondary materials you will develop your understanding of the history of Africa during this period. Module Summary This module introduces you to important debates and issues in the history of sub-Saharan Africa in the Twentieth Century.
Aims This module aims to introduce you to the main historical approaches, historiographical debates and source materials used to understand the history of Africa in the Twentieth Century. Teaching and Assessment Twice-weekly two hour seminars will focus on a particular theme, analysed in relation to relevant examples and case studies. Further guidance is provided in the module course booklet, available through MOLE. Cooper Africa Since the Past of the Present Freund The Making of Contemporary Africa Iliffe Africans: the History of a Continent electronic version available.
London: Profile Books. Ferneyhough, C. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. Franklin, H. Fraser, A. London: Macmillan. Frost, M. London: Chatto and Windus, Gelfand, M. Oxford: Blackwell. Gewald, J-B, Hinfelaar, M. Leiden: Brill. Gewald,J-B, Hinfelaar, M. Gilroy, P. New York: University of Columbia Press. Geurts, K. Oxford: Berg. Amhurst: University of Massachusetts Press. Halbwachs, M. Coser On Collective Memory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Hall, B Tell Me, Josephine.
London: Pan. Hall, R. New York: Frederick A. Hansen, K. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Hansen, R. Hoelscher, S. Howarth, D. New York. Hoy, D. Hughey, M. Hyam, R. James, H. Kangwa, J. London: The Glass House Press. Kikamba, L. Kirk-Green, A. London: IB Tauris.
Larmer, M. Taylor ed. Notebooks, memoirs, archives: Reading and re-reading Doris Lessing. Lessing, D. London: Harper Perennial. Louw, E. Mamdani, M. Cambridge MA: Harvard University press. Martin, P. McCulloch, J. Adhikari ed. Milner-Thornton, J. Moore-Gilbert, B. London: Routledge.
Murphey, P. London: James Currey. Paxman, J. London: Viking. Phimister, I. Phiri, B. Asmara, Eritrea: Africa World Press. Powdermaker, H. New York: Harper and Row. Radstone, S. Rathbone, C. Moulin, C. To live in or leave South Africa. Cape Town: Two Dogs Publications. Ricoeur, P. Pellauer Memory, History, Forgetting. Roberts, A. A History of Zambia. New York: Africana. Roberts ed. The Colonial Moment in Africa: Essays on the movement of minds and materials Rosenthal, E. Part V. Zimbabwe: Jewish Board of Deputies.
Available as a pdf Rotberg, R. Oakland CA. University of California Press. Schumaker, L. Schwarz, B. Scott, G. Scudder, T. Working Paper , California Institute of Technology. Pasadena CA. Shapiro, F. Jerusalem: Gefen Publishing. Simoes da Silva, T. A Review of International English Literature. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. Shurmer-Smith, P. Shurmer-Smith ed. Doing Cultural Geography. London: Sage. Simpson, A. Werbener ed Memory and the Postcolony: African anthropology and the critique of power. London: Zed Books: Smailes, D. The new mass media promoted nationalism. Many of Europe's major elites also found ad- vantages in formal, overseas expansion: enormous monopolies wanted imperial sup- port to secure overseas investments against competition and domestic political ten- sions abroad; bureaucrats sought office, military officers desired promotion, and the traditional but waning landed gentry sought formal titles and high office.
The notion of rule over tropical lands commanded widespread acceptance among metropolitan populations. Even those who associated imperial colonization with op- pression and exploitation socialists concluded that the colonial peoples should be taken in hand by future European socialist governments and led by them to eventual independence. Student Activity: Explain how Hobson portrayed the whole idea of Imperialism as a feature of a Identify factors that induced governments to follow a policy of expansionism. Answer the following question from the given alternatives A.
Colonialism was not the logical outcome of advanced capitalism B. Colonialism was a feature of weakness rather than strength C. Colonialism was the result of the cheating of European governments by their own merchants D. Colonialism can be regarded as extensive farming E. None of the above 2. Which of the following theories of Imperialism answers the why of colonialism as the outcome of the European initiative to improve African life?
Marxist Theory B. Political Theory C. Social-Psychological D. Humanitarian Theory 3. The theory of imperialism that answers the why of colonialism in terms of the dif- fering military balance between Europeans and Africans is advocated by A. Daniel Headrick B. Hobson C. Marx D. Ronald Ryam 4. One of the following is incorrect about the political theory of imperialism A. The acquisition of colonies was taken as a sign of greatness in Europe B.
European government used their involvement in Africa to divert public at- tention from local politics D. Places African forces at the center of the story 5. The theory of imperialism that considers colonialism as the outcome of specific local development leading to other development rather than deliberate design of Eu- ropean governments is A. The Social-Psychological theory B. Destiny-Inevitability C. Marxist Theory D. Center-Periphery theory 6.
The argument of Finance theory of imperialism holds that A. Excess accumulation of finance in Europe had to be profitably invested in Africa. European goods had to be sold in Africa where there is excess capital and hence effective demand C. Investment opportunity in Europe was saturated that is was a must for capi- tal to seek outlet to Africa. Whites have natural and logical obligation to help blacks improve their lives. Blacks represent the main challenges for European advancement that they had to be eliminated.
Blacks can not naturally help themselves that they need the help of whites D. New Imperialism was different from imperialism in that A. It centered on the tropics B. It involved new colonial powers th C. It refers to European expansion after the late 19 c D. All of the above E. None of the above 9. According to A. Increasingly sympathetic outlook in Europe to help Africans B. The desire to expand Christianity and civilization to Africa D. None of the above One of the following shows the weakness of Marxist theory of imperialism A. It undermines the material interests of the colonizing countries B.
It was not worked out from Africa experience C. It attributes any change in Africa to foreign agency D. Only B and C E. Only A and C 3. Lesson Introduction: The real cause of African colonization has no one and definite answer; scholars differ in their reasoning. In the face of such perplex views the safest position to reach the truth will be to analyze the weakness and strength of each idea. In fact it is so unrealistic to try to explain all developments through out Africa from one angle. Below you are given a detailed description of how Hobson downplayed the Marxist theory of Imperialism.
The criticism of other sets of theories is given only at the most abstract form in the previous lesson; you are required to further elaborate them. In this lesson, we will only focus on Marxist theory because it is this theory that has commanded more attention world wide. Base your argum who used expansionism to avert economic stagnation. Considering the economic history of Europe, do you think expansionism was a feature of weakness or a feature of strength? Argue by giving evidence.
According to Hobson, what policy options could Europeans use to achieve economic development, rather than expansion? A famous British economist, J. Hobson-and following him Lenin, attributed the colonial expansions of these years to special new economic forces at work in the most industrialized nations of western and central Europe. This economic explanation of the urge to imperialism is usually taken to mean though political, religious or more idealistic excuses might be made, the real impulse was always one of capitalistic greed for cheap raw materials, advantageous markets, good investments and fresh fields of exploitation.
The argument has commonly been used, therefore, to denounce the events, and to at- tack the men, parties and nations that took part in them. The argument, in brief, is that what Hobson called "the economic taproot of imperialism" was "excessive capital in search of investment," and that this excessive capital came from over saving made possible by the unequal distribution of wealth. The remedy, he maintained, was inter- nal social reform and equal distribution of wealth.
Student Activity: According to Lenin, how do you explain imperialism as the highest stage of capitalism? Lenin believed that imperialism was the logical out growth of advanced capi- talism that it was unavoidable. Do you agree? Lenin elaborated the argument, in his pamphlet on Imperialism the Highest Stage of Capitalism , to emphasize the current importance of finance capital rather than industrial, and the priority of the desire to find new outlets for investment rather than new markets.
His thesis was that imperialism was "a direct continuation of the fun- damental properties of capitalism in general and that "the war of was on both sides imperialist. In the backward colonial peoples, argued Lenin, capitalism had found a new proletariat to exploit; and from the enhanced profits of such imperialism, it was able to bribe at least the "aristocracy of labor" at home into renouncing its revolutionary enthusiasm and collaborating with the bourgeoisie. But such improvement could only be tempo- rary, and since imperialist rivalries must lead to war, all workers alike must eventual- ly suffer from it.
This argument ignored the awkward facts that much of the foreign investment of the European powers was not in colonial territories at all but in countries such as South America and Russia, and that the standard of living of the working classes was high in countries like Denmark and Sweden which had no colonies, but low in France and Belgium which had large colonial territories. Nor, of course, could it be a general ex- planation of imperialism, which had existed centuries before there was a "glut of capital" and before finance capital was as plentiful or as well organized as it was in the later nineteenth century.
But it was a convenient and persuasive enough case, at the time, for explaining the First World War in exclusively economic terms, and for presenting it as the result of capitalist activities and the mal-distribution of wealth. Give short answer to the following questions 1. Unlike the expectations of Marxist scholars, there was no significant capital investment in Africa as a result of colonial rule. As a result, Africa was not industrialized and the new class of proletariat was not created. According to Lenin, what was the reason for this? Mention names of scholars who fall in the category of the economic model of colonial explanation.
How do they differ from each other? According to Marxists, how did capitalism led to war? Mention the features that distinguish Marxist theory from other theories.
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Explain how Europeans resolved problems with in themselves to make Af- rica an easy prey. Lesson Introduction: With the beginning of legitimate trade, Europeans developed interest in controlling trading systems of African interior. However, by the early s, much of Africa was under indigenous African rule and European presence was limited to coastal enclaves.
Nonetheless, the following are main causes agreed by scholars: 1. The need to get market for European manufactured goods. This hap- pened because the former idea of free trade gave way to protectionism as Europeans reached equal level of industrial out put. The need to get raw material. The presence of rubber from tropical forests and the discovery of diamond and gold in southern Africa in- creased expectations for the whole continent. The possession of colonies in Africa became a symbol of national prestige. Missionary agitation. Student Activity: Discuss the significance of treacherous treaties made between African chiefs and European government representatives or individual travelers in helping colonial troops.
How far was division and rivalry among African groups and states helpful to the European cause? Discuss with examples. Explain how Europeans cleverly avoided conflict between and among them- selves in a bid to realize their conquest of Africa. The purpose of this lesson is to understand the circumstances, both local and global, that caused or speeded up colonial conquest. The following essay will give you an insight on the European scramble, colonial conquest and African resistance.
With the causes mentioned above the Europeans were able to control Africa because of two main reasons: 1. They were able to exploit long standing rivalries between African peoples i. Europe had the advantage of upper hand in military and medical tech- nology. The absence of over- whelming military superiority had long impeded European penetration to the hinter- land of Africa. Early 19th century muskets took at least a minute to load and had an affective range of only 80 meters. Besides, it misfired three times in ten. By , Europeans had the maxim machine- firing eleven bullets in a second.
The effect of this advancement was shown at the battle of Omdurman in At this battle, the Sudanese lost 10, for only 49 British dead. Student Activity: Discuss how improvements in the area of medicine and firearms were achieved? Show how improvements achieved in those fields caused a difference. Com- pare and contrast with the situation before and after s. Check Points Economic explanations of colonial interest The nature and significance of treacherous treaties Causes for the victory of Europe over African resistance attempts The discovery of medicine for malaria and its significance Exercise A.
One of the following was not a cause for colonial aggression A. The desire to gain protected market B. The need to have secured source of raw materials for European industries C. Assumption of annexing overseas territories to be a sign of greatness and na- tional prestige D. The most decisive factor that enabled European conquest of Africa was A.
Better intelligence by European army about the interior part of Africa B. Availability of better firearms for Europeans C. Improved medicines to treat tropical diseases D. Agreement of Africans to be ruled by Europeans E. Only B and C B. Given Short Answers to the following questions 1. Give an account of how the medicine for malaria was developed. What were the kinds of firearms available for most Africans by the late 19th centu- ry?
Miguel Bandeira Jerónimo
What were the kinds of firearms available for Europeans by the late 19th century? Explain how different African groups met European aggression. Tell the agreements reached at the conference. Reflect their awareness to the factors that necessitated the Berlin Conference. A very crucial event that saved Europeans not to go to war was the de- cision that was reached at the Berlin conference in In this lesson, we will as- sess the circumstances that made Europeans sit for the conference. Besides, we will deal with some of the terms of the agreement and the significance of the conference in general.
Student Activity: Who were the participants of the Berlin Conference? What were the decisions of the conference? This Association had sent J. Stanley on explorations into the Congo between and , where he made treaties with the native chiefs and established Leopold's influence over vast areas of the int erior. By the beginning of , Britain and Portugal, apprehensive of this development, set up a joint commission to control navigation of the whole river.
The colony of Angola south of the Congo mouth had been held by Portugal since the fifteenth century, and now Britain recognized Portugal's claim t o control the whole mouth of the river. It looked like an alliance of the older colonial powers to strangle the expansion of the new; for France was increasingly interested in the tropical belt north of the Congo River, and Germany, in the Cameroon still further north. Leopold therefore looked to France and Germany for help, and the result was the Berlin Conference. Student Activity: n- ference to the claim of Ethiopia not to have been colonized by Italy?
It was concerned with defining "spheres of influence the significant new term first used in the ensuing Treaty of Berlin of It was agreed that in future any power that effectively occupied African territory and duly notified the other powers could thereby establish possession of it. This gave the signal for the rapid partition of Africa among all the colonial powers, and inaugurated the new era of colonialism. The conference did not decide on colonial boundaries but it passed a resolution to avert conflict among colonial powers.
Some of the decisions were: 1. That Leopold's African Association would have full rights over most of the Congo basin, including its outlet to the Atlantic, under international warran- tee of neutrality and free trade. In return, the Belgian king agreed to allow European traders and missionaries of free access to the area.
Slavery was to be made illegal. Both the Niger and the Congo were to be opened on equal terms to the trade of all nations. It acknowledged French rights through out equatorial Africa and insisted on freedom of trade through out the region. It agreed that any European claim to any part of Africa would only be recog- nized by other European governments if it was effectively occupied by that particular European power.
This was Bismarck's tactic to undermine British claim of 'sphere of influence' in east Africa. This article enabled him to d e- clare claim over 'German East Africa' later renamed 'Tanganyika' modern Tanzania where German adventurers had obtained treaties. However, treaties alone were not guaranties for the conquest of Africa that the s and swere years of African resistance to European conquest. The treaty was, in short, a compact among the powers to pursue the further partition of Africa as amicably as possible; and an attempt to separate colonial competition from European rivalries Check Points Terms of Agreement of the Berlin Conference Significance of the Berlin Conference The significance of the Berlin Conference for Germany Participants of the Berlin Conference Exercise A.
The Berlin Conference of A. Denounced British colonial claim in Africa C. One of the following was not part of the agreement reached at the Berlin Confer- ence A. Abolition of slave trade certain power C. Belgian claim over the Congo was accepted. None of the Above 3. One of the following suffices to dismiss the view that the five year period of Italian occupation in Ethiopia were years of colonization A. Ethiopians did not give up resistance throughout the period of occupation C.
Ethiopia herself was a colonial power D. Give short answer to the following question 1.
Give your own assessment of the significance of the Berlin Conference. What is the significance of the conference for Germany? Who, do you think, benefited most from the agreement? Tell the significance of treachery treaties made between African chiefs and Europeans. By the late 20th century, Africans lacked two things. One was what Europeans achieved at the Berlin conference- unity of purpose. The other was advanced firearms which Europeans had as a result of the Industrial Revo- lution.
Largely, the how and why of African colonization can be explained in terms of these two factors. The central idea of this lesson is therefore to highlight the disunity of Africans and the European possession of superior firearms as the main cause of the success of colonial conquest. Student Activity: Why do you think disorganized African societies became difficult for colonial conquest than organized societies? Based on European experience in Africa, can we generalize that fighting unarmed civilians was more challenging than fighting a well equipped army?
What similarities do you observe between French and British conquest of Africa? French conquest of West Africa in the s and s was achieved by using locally recruited Senegalese army trained in the use of modern weaponry from Europe. The Manteca Empire of Samara Initially, both used diplomacy rather than military conflict. However, they had no uni- ty, as they were rivals for power in western Sudan. French conquest of West Africa was facilitated by inter war of African states and by treachery treaties.
Samurai's re- sistance effort was defeated because: Lack of alliance among other states Inferior weaponry and Famine In central Sudan, French conquest met the toughest resistance from Rabin Ibn Fadl Allah. French superiority of arms Anglo- French cooperation In Dahomey, the French were welcomed by the Yoruba as liberators from Dahomian tyranny.
Ivory Coast was proclaimed a French colony in but its military subju- gation was not easily achieved as there was no centralized authority for the French to overthrow and it was more than twenty years before the numerous forest- chiefdoms were forced in to submission. British conquest of Ghana was possible by using African soldiers for the bulk of their front line troops equipped with the latest rifles.
This was further facilitated by the traditional lack of unity among Africans. Like the French in Ivory Coast, the British in Nigeria met the toughest resistance from the 'stateless' peoples. Here, when the French established their colonies of Gabon, Middle Congo and Ubangui- Chari mod- ern Central African Republic , they met no strong African resistance and there was no major kingdom to be overthrown. Student Activity: How was Belgian Congo different from other colonies?
He met opposition from the Tippu Tip's Sw ahili Arabs who wanted Leopold to accept the suzerainty of the sultan of Zanzibar. However, by the s the authority of Zanzibar was broken because of British and German action in East Africa. This solution helped to avoid a major war. Portuguese right over Angola was based on ancient claims to colonies in Africa. But she had no military strength to push its interests like other powers. As a result, she adopted the old technique of local rivalries.
Punitive expeditions were made by using Africans recruited from political rivals armed with Portuguese guns and officered by Portuguese ex-convicts. The Portuguese conquest of Mozambique was met with strong military resistance. This was because the local people had firearms which they acquired as a result of their age old trade in ivory and slaves with the coast.
However, after, Mozam- bique's strength d eclined because: Civil war between the various kingdoms and The development of migrant labor to Kimberley, Johannesburg and Natal. The final grip of Portuguese over Mozambique was achieved because: Anglo- Portuguese alliance. The Portuguese use of technologically superior rifles The Portuguese use of local African troops D The British and the Germans in East Africa Britain had long recognized the authority of the Sultan of Zanzibar and in return had gained free access to its merchants and missionaries in the region.
This symbiotic un- derstanding came to an end with the 'Effective Administrat ion' principle of the Berlin Conference. However, the possibility of major war between Britain and Germany was averted by a peaceful compromise agreement. Accordingly, the treaty of gave modern Kenya to Britain and main land Tanzania to Germany. Another Anglo German treaty in gave Uganda to Britain. Student Activity: Why did colonial powers delegate the administration of colonies to private companies?
In , the British government took over the administration from the company. Subsequent local resistance was crushed by the troops brought from India. The resistance offered by the coastal Swahili and other neighbors was known as the 'Mazrui rebellion ' which took nine months for the British to crush. On the contrary, they were sensitive about the security of Egypt. But they did not take any measure until because the middle Nile was controlled by the Mehadist State that was not a rival power. Britain was alarmed by French ambition. This made Britain to encourage Italian interest in Ethiopia leading to the occupation of Eritrea in But its advance southwards to the imperial Christian kingdom of Ethiopia was repelled by Menelik at the battle of Adwa in the greatest African victory against foreign invaders.
Student Activity: How was the victory of Adwa different from other African victories over Eu- ropean powers? What was most strikingly novel about the new imperialism was its intense concentra- tion upon two continents: Africa and eastern Asia. These were the only two important areas of the globe still not brought under European influence before The dec- ades between and speedily completed the expansion of European influence over the whole of the earth; and it was accomplished in an era when the realism, ruth- lessness and rivalries of European national governments were exceptionally great.
It therefore had a temper uniquely masterful and remorseless, brooking no obstacles and push fully self-assertive. This quality came as much from the nature of European poli- tics as from the urges of European economic development. There was no international organization fitted to exercise any kind of control or regu- lation over the scramble for territories in which the great powers now indulged. It was this combination of novel economic conditions with anarchic political relations which explained the na- ture of the new imperialism.
Among the economic forces behind it, the urge to find new outlets for the "glut of capital" and fresh markets for industrial output were in general more important than either the quest for raw materials or the factor of overpopulation. The special attrac- tion of Africa and Asia were, indeed, that they offered many of the raw materials needed by the multiplying factories of Europe: including cotton, silk, rubber, vegeta- ble oils, and the rarer minerals.
The products of the tropics were especially welcome to Europe. But many of these raw materials could be, and were, got by trading with- out political control. Student Activity: Assessing the level of British trade with Africa during the period of legitimate trade, do you think Great Britain had a logical need to establish colony in Af- rica to secure any of her raw material needs? Answer this question against a background that the raw materials that Africa supplied could be gained from other regions with fair price.
The pressure of population in Europe was becoming great by the early twentieth cen- tury, but it still found free outlet in migration to the traditional areas of reception in the United States and Australia.
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Neither Africa nor eastern Asia offered climatic or economic conditions inviting enough to attract large-scale white settlements, and the pressure of population within Japan, China and India was now itself so great as to ex- ert a steady demand for fresh outlets. It was against Asiatic immigrants, not Europe- an, that the main barriers began to be raised. The quest for markets in which to sell manufactured goods was more important. But here, again, the political factor was no less important than the purely economic. Until British manufacturers of textiles, machinery, and hardware had found good markets in other European lands.
They even began to produce a surplus for which they sought markets abroad.
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With increasing saturation of European mar- kets, all tended to look for more open markets overseas, and in the competitive, pro- tectionist mood of European politics they found governments responsive enough to national needs to undertake the political conquest of undeveloped territories. For this purpose, Africa and Asia served admirably. It was in these economic and po- litical circumstances that the urge to exploit backward territories by the investment of surplus capital could make so much headway.
It began especially after , and gained rapidly in momentum until Of the annual investment of British capital between and , 36 per cent went into British overseas territories. By then the main industrial countries had equipped themselves with an abundance of manufactur- ing plant, and the openings for capital investment at home were more meager. The vast undeveloped realm of Africa and Asia offered the most inviting opportuni- ties, provided that they could be made safe enough for investment and there seemed no better guarantee of security than the appropriation of these lands.
Again, govern- ments were responsive, for reasons that were not exclusively economic.
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The ports of Africa and the Far East were invaluable as naval bases and ports of call, no less than as inroads for trade and investment. Given the tangle of international fears and dis- trusts in Europe during these years, and the ever-present menace of war, no possible strategic or prestige-giving advantage could be forfeited. Once the scramble for parti- tioning Africa had begun, the powers were confronted with the choice of grabbing such advantages for themselves or seeing them snatched by potential enemies.
The international anarchy contributed an impetus of its own to the general race for colo- nies. It was normally the coexistence of economic interests with political aims which made a country imperialistic; and in some, such as Italy or Russia, political considerations predominated. With nations as with men, it is what they aspire to become and to have, not only what they already are or have, that governs their behavior.
There was no ir- resistible compulsion or determinism, and no country acquired colonies unless at least a very active and influential group of its political leaders wanted to acquire them. Britain had long had all the economic urges of surplus population, exports and capi- tal, but they did not drive her to scramble for colonies during the 's as much as during the 's and after. Neither Italy nor Russia had a surplus of man ufactures or capital to export, yet both joined in the scramble. Norway, although she had a large merchant fleet which was second only to that of Britain and Germany, did not.
Ger- many, whose industrial development greatly outpaced that of France, was very much slower than France to embark on colonialism. The Dutch were active in colonialism long before the more industrialized Belgians. What determined whether or not a country became imperialistic was more the activity of small groups of people, often intellectuals, economists, or patriotic publicists and politicians anxious to ensure national security and self-sufficiency, than the economic conditions of the country itself. And, as the examples of the British, French, Dutch, and Portuguese show, nations that had traditions of colonialism were more prompt to seek colonies than were nations, such as Germany and Italy, that had no such tradi- tions.
Answer the following questions from the given alternatives. French conquest of West Africa was facilitated by A. Natural disaster that caused famine C. Cooperation gained from Great Britain D. Advanced weapons E. All of the Above 2. British military occupation in West Africa A. Was made possible by using African soldiers B. Profited form lack of unity among African states C. Was happily welcomed by disorganized peoples D. Only A and B 3.
Looking at the powers involved in colonial annexation, one of the following is nec- essarily true. Being industrialized was a prerequisite to participate in colonial annexation B. Accumulation of capital for overseas investment was a must. A colonizer had to be militarily strong enough to assert its claims without any need to call the support of other colonial powers.
None of the Above B. Give Short Answer to the following questions 1. Which sections of a society were influential in deciding whether a European coun- try would be imperialist or not? Compared to Australia and North America, how far was Africa attractive to Euro- pean immigrant settlers? How far was the rhetoric of capital export a reality in justifying overseas territorial annexation? Discuss with evidence? Explain how public opinion in Europe looked like about the idea of colonial- ism.
Introduction Besides the direct political motives of imperialism, the desire to strengthen national security by strategic naval bases such as Cyprus and the Cape, or to secure additional sources of manpower as the French sought in Africa, or to enhance national prestige as the Italians did in Libya there was a medley of other considerations which, in vary- ing proportions, entered into the desire for colonies.
Prompted by a genuine devotion to scientific discov- ery or a taste for adventure or love of money and power, like Cecil Rhodes in South Africa, men of initiative and energetic enterprise played an important personal part in the whole story. Student Activity: Mention the names and achievements of prominent explorers and missionaries whose work latter gave service to colonial powers. A Missionaries Christian missionaries played their part too in the spread of colonialism. The most famous was the Scot, David Livingstone.
When Livingstone died in Africa in , his body was taken to London under naval escort, to be buried in Westminster Abbey as a great national hero. But Livingstone was only one among many, and France, even more than Britain, sent organized missions into Africa to convert the heathen to Christianity. The Catholic missions of France under the Third Republic were exceptionally active, and provided two thirds some forty thousand of all Catholic missionaries. They were spread all over the world, including the Near and Far East; and in Cardinal Lavigerie, installed only the year before in the see of Algiers, founded the Society of African Missionaries, soon to be known because of their Arab dress as the ''White F a- thers.
Gambetta said of Lavigerie, ''His pre s- ence in Tunisia is worth an army for France. Belgian missionaries were active in the Congo as early as Administrators and Soldiers Yet another element in the growth of imperialism was the administrator and soldier, the man with a mission, who was not a missionary but who welcomed an opportunity to bring order and efficient administration out of muddle. Such men became the great colonial proconsuls. Without such men, the extent and the consolidation of European control over Africa would have been impossible. The sources and the nature of the urge to imperialism were multiple, and varied considerably from one country to another.
It was not just that trade followed the flag, but that the flag accompanied the botanist and adventur- er, the Bible and the bureaucrat, along with the banker and the businessperson. Student Activity: Explain the aspiration and contribution of famous soldiers and administrators to colonial rule. In , less than one-tenth of Africa had been turned into European colonies; by , only one tenth remained uncontrolled.
The old colonial empires of Portugal and the Netherlands survived intact and assumed increasing importance. It was a histori- cal novelty that most of the world should now belong to a handful of great European powers. These immense acquisitions had no close correlation with the ascendancy of one po- litical party. In Belgium they were originally an almost personal achievement of the king; in Britain and Germany they were mainly the work of conservative govern- ments which had turned empire-minded, though in Britain former radicals like Joseph Chamberlain and liberals like Lord Rosebery supported them; in France they were the work of radical republicans like Jules Ferry and Leon Gambetta, and in Italy, of liber- als like Depretis; in Russia they were mainly the work of the official military class and bureaucracy.
The beneficiaries of imperialism were not always the initiators of it; and although King Leopold, Cecil Rhodes, and many of the other empire builders amassed great personal fortunes and powers, so too did many who merely stepped in later to reap the rewards of high administrative offices and rich concessions for trad- ing and investment. Popular Support Student Activity: Do you think the European public opinion was fully pro-colonialism? On the other hand some of the initiators; such as Ferry in France and Crispi in Italy, earned only disgrace and violent hatreds for their achievements.
Wherever there was any considerable section of public opinion generally in support of imperialism, it tended to be canalized into active propagandist associations and pressure groups, of- ten distinct from any one political party. In Britain, Disraeli committed the Conserva- tive Party to a general policy of imperialism in , backed by the purchase of shares in the Suez Canal in and by the conferring of the title "Empress of India" upon Queen Victoria in In the same year, the British con- servative imperialists founded the Primrose League, and the liberals soon followed suit with the Imperial Federation League.
For a decade after the Berlin Conference, imperialistic conservative governments ruled in Britain and Germany and anti-colonialist protests subsided in France and Ita- ly. Their policies of mercantilism and protection and the popular mood of assertive nationalism in all four countries favored colonialism.
Expansion into Africa was un- bridled. The success prompted other powers to set up chartered companies to develop other African areas. Such companies, granted by their government monopoly rights in the exploitation of various territories, became the general media of colonial commerce and appropriation in the subsequent decade. By these and every other means, each power established protectorates or outright pos- sessions, and made their resources available for home markets. Germany enlarged and consolidated her four protectorates of Togo land and the Southwest Africa and German East Africa.
She drove inland along the north bank of the Congo to consolidate French Equatorial Africa. On the east coast, she established her claim to part of Somaliland and by conquered the is- land of Madagascar. Great Britain was already firmly based on the Cape where she began to push north- ward.
This expansion, large- ly the work of Cecil Rhodes, involved her in constant conflicts with the Dutch Boer farmers, who set up, in the Orange Free State and the Transvaal, two republics of their own.