In the last decade this simple view was challenged by the discovery that via the phloem also specific subsets of RNA molecules are transported to distant tissues. Notably, we uncovered that a surprisingly large fraction of nearly of approx. An analysis revealed that subsets of mobile mRNAs are specifically delivered to distinct tissues or are only transported under nutrient starvation conditions. We uncovered in subsets of mobile mRNAs an evolutionary conserved structure named tRNA like sequence that is necessary and sufficient to mediate transport.
Long-distance transport of macromolecules through the phloem
The two ecotypes were grafted and the mRNA present in shoots and roots of the chimeric plants were sequenced to identify ecotype specific mRNAs present in the heterologous tissue. Detection of transport in grafted plants. Presence of green fluorescence in the root tip of wild-type plants detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy indicates transport of either protein or mRNA or both to distant root tissue. In plants cell-to-cell transport of proteins and RNA molecules seems to be actively regulated depending on a number of cellular factors.
Small heterologous proteins can diffuse non-selectively to neighboring cells whereas distinct endogenous- produced RNAs and proteins are actively selected for transport. Diffusion of small molecules is regulated by closing the plasmodesmatal pore by callose deposition, whereas actively transported macromolecules expose a transport motif that is recognized by cellular components facilitating delivery to neighboring cells via plasmodesmata.
Despite these insights our knowledge is still limited regarding the structural features of protein and RNA transport motifs, interaction partners facilitating or regulating transport, the function of delivered RNAs in the receiving cells, and the identity of the distant cells receiving RNAs. IB was performed according to standard techniques with cell lysates prepared as previously described and proteins quantified by Biorad protein assay reagent Hercules, CA, USA. Tissue lysates were prepared from frozen samples kept ice-cold.
Cleared supernatants were collected and used in IB or IP procedures. Replicas were probed with the different Abs by IB under reducing conditions. Pellets were treated with formaldeheide for 30 min, washed twice with ethanol and paraffin embedded and routinely stained with antibodies at and dilution. Heat-induced antigen retrieval was achieved heating the slides for 30 minutes in the presence of citrate buffer 10 mM, pH 6. Mismatched oligoduplexes were used at a concentration of 50 nM.
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Silencing was evaluated by IB and flow cytometry performed at day from treatment. We thank Prof. Paola Defilippi for constructive suggestions and helpful discussion. All authors were involved in writing the paper and had final approval of the submitted and published versions. We gratefully acknowledge ARC-net biobank- Verona for providing frozen prostate tissues.
Global cancer statistics, CA Cancer J Clin. Is prostate-specific membrane antigen a multifunctional protein?
Intercellular Macromolecular Transport | Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. Prostate-specific membrane antigen regulates angiogenesis by modulating integrin signal transduction. Mol Cell Biol. Detection of prostate-specific membrane antigen on HUVECs in response to breast tumor-conditioned medium. Inter J Oncology.
Prostate specific membrane antigen produces pro-angiogenic laminin peptides downstream of matrix metalloprotease Mod Pathol. BCAR1 expression improves prediction of biochemical reccurence after radical prostatectomy.
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Macromolecules Regulating Growth and Development
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J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. Pathol Oncol Res. Nuclear versus cytoplasmic localization of filamin A in prostate cancer: immunohistochemical correlation with metastases. Animals obtain nutrients by consuming food, while plants pull nutrients from soil. Sources of biological macromolecules : Foods such as bread, fruit, and cheese are rich sources of biological macromolecules.
Many critical nutrients are biological macromolecules. Staudinger was the first to propose that many large biological molecules are built by covalently linking smaller biological molecules together.
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Living organisms are made up of chemical building blocks : All organisms are composed of a variety of these biological macromolecules. Biological macromolecules play a critical role in cell structure and function.
Most but not all biological macromolecules are polymers, which are any molecules constructed by linking together many smaller molecules, called monomers. Typically all the monomers in a polymer tend to be the same, or at least very similar to each other, linked over and over again to build up the larger macromolecule. These simple monomers can be linked in many different combinations to produce complex biological polymers, just as a few types of Lego blocks can build anything from a house to a car.
Monomers and polymers : Many small monomer subunits combine to form this carbohydrate polymer. Examples of these monomers and polymers can be found in the sugar you might put in your coffee or tea.