No cover image. Read preview. Synopsis This Festschrift is written in honor of theologian and philosopher Robert Doran, one of the most creative and important Lonergan scholars working today. His magnum opus, Theology and the Dialectics of History , integrated his reworking of depth psychology into a theory of history that serves as a foundation not only for systematic theology, but also for interdisciplinary collaboration. Excerpt Bernard Lonergan states in the Epilogue of Insight that he spent years reaching up to the mind of Aquinas and it was the reaching that changed him profoundly.
By Matthew L. Lamb Marquette University Press, Read preview Overview. McPartland University of Missouri Press, Renascence: Essays on Values in Literature, Vol. Theological Studies, Vol. They provide guidelines for systematic theology within the norms dealing with the formation of Jesuits and the universities of the Society of Jesus. They favor a Thomism open to current developments, without restricting the Jesuits to a specific school, and stress the importance of biblical and positive theology besides Scholastic theology. Overall, however, they are much more concerned with study-methods than with contents, as they call for a thorough humanistic education, a broad theological foundation, disputational experience, and a pastoral orientation.
During the early years of the Society of Jesus, several further factors contributed to carving out what it meant to be a Jesuit systematic theologian. Several authors have studied these efforts: Jos Vercruysse analyzes the views that Nadal, Pierre Favre —46 and Peter Canisius —97 held on Philipp Melanchthon — and his theology. Because of his catechisms and his talented preaching, Canisius was probably the most influential one of these theologians for wider audiences.
Contact with other religions in the Jesuit missions overseas triggered theological questions, too. According to Klaus Schatz, Francis Xavier —52 cannot be claimed a saint of inter-religious dialogue as many of his theological statements reveal an extreme soteriological exclusivism.
In Japan, he developed a more balanced response, but only Cosme de Torres —70 , one of his collaborators, arrived at a theory of salvation for those who did not know Christ. Ilaria Morali describes how the experiences from the missions led them, by comparison with Thomas Aquinas, to a more balanced theological understanding of non-Christians.
During this early phase of Jesuits dealing with theological challenges, the process of drafting the Ratio studiorum began. This document was meant to standardize the system of Jesuit education. Before the publication of the Ratio in , Jesuits debated the methods of teaching and the orientation of their theology for almost half a century—a process that Anita Mancia investigated and described in great detail. Both documents state that normally Thomas should be taught but that other positions are legitimate.
Ulrich Leinsle concludes that within the Society of Jesus a stance on systematic theology was not formalized, while the general orientation to Thomas existed only to avoid eclecticism. This further enabled Jesuits to pass on the Scotist and Nominalist traditions. Most of the academic studies in this field are groundbreaking work. Sven Knebel and Jacob Schmutz have collected extensive material for bio-bibliographies of many mostly unknown Jesuit philosophers and theologians in seventeenth-century Spain and beyond. In keeping with the growing importance of positive theology in this movement, Jesuits also started working on the church fathers.
Dominique Bertrand and Hermann-Josef Sieben shed light on Jesuits who did patristic studies, many of them by editing sources. Molina was one of the leading theologians and philosophers of his time with influence in many areas. Currently, however, he is most known for his controversial theory on human freedom and divine foreknowledge. Sven Knebel surveyed around four-fifths of all works published by seventeenth-century Jesuit theologians who treated this question. Some are available in digital editions and translations.
His major concern—against Protestant views—was the unchanging truth in changing historical formulations. There were Jesuits, however, who during the age of Enlightenment engaged in the debates with Jansenism, deism, rationalism, and libertinism. Most baroque Scholasticism seemed unable to make this move. Also, for other, non-theological reasons, the role of the Society of Jesus in theological formation was increasingly questioned in the course of the eighteenth century.
Academic interest in the study of the Catholic Enlightenment is currently growing, however; this development promises to shed further light on the history of Jesuit theologians of this time. Franzelin —86 : The Roman School. Intrinsically connected with the victory of neo-Scholasticism and the definitions of the First Vatican Council, Joseph Kleutgen is one of the most controversial theologians of the century.
It seems that the twentieth century has brought forth more famous Jesuit theologians than any other century.
MARQUETTE STUDIES IN THEOLOGY
Many of them are connected with new approaches and important debates; a considerable number of Jesuits contributed to the theological preparation and implementation of the Second Vatican Council. Since the process of reception of these theological developments is still in an early phase, there is not in every case much historiography yet, and it is difficult to identify the most important scholars. Only included here are those authors whose work has come to completion. The titles of the following chapters may indicate the variety of debates and approaches taken up by Jesuit systematic theologians.
Louis Billot was one of the most active Integralist proponents of the Thomistic revival in the early years of the twentieth century. If Hans Urs von Balthasar —88 had not left the Jesuits in before he published his major theological works, he could be placed alongside Przywara and function as an intellectual connection between Przywara and de Lubac. French and Italian translations had already been made in the s. Although very different in the scope of issues treated in their publications, Rahner and Lonergan share similar theological intentions.
They also, independently of each other, developed a transcendental method, which integrated historical consciousness and authentic subjectivity into theology. The discussion of their theologies is ongoing and thematically very wide-spread. Compared to the broad international reception of Rahner, most scholarship on Lonergan comes from the English-speaking world. Online bibliographies provide details of primary and secondary sources. The English introductory bibliography to Lonergan is dominated by Frederick Crowe, a close friend and dedicated scholar of Lonergan.
Robert Doran describes the Ignatian background of his theology. Of the manifold engagement of Jesuit theologians for a renewal of theology before, during and after the council, only a few aspects and examples can be mentioned here. Giovanni Caprile provides an impressive list of Jesuits as members of commissions, as consultors and periti , and of the Jesuit bishops as members of the council; Santiago Madrigal is one of the leading Jesuit theologians who, in many publications, has investigated their various theological contributions. Current research focuses on the diaries and journals of these theologians, which reveal the mutual influence of theology, institutional procedures, and personal relationships.
Pieter Smulders — , furthermore, played a decisive role in the development of Dei verbum , the constitution on divine revelation. For the implementation of the conciliar theological impulses, the continuous Jesuit engagement in ecumenical theological research, dialogues, and relationships must be mentioned. Further examples can be found in Jesuits as teachers of theology who helped in the formation of generations of theologians. One from the Spanish, the English, and the French speaking world each shall be mentioned. Two other influential teachers of theology worked for the implementation of the decisions of the Second Vatican Council mainly within the classical fields of theology: Avery Dulles — in the United States and Joseph Moingt — in France.
Both, during very long periods of academic activity, covered a wide range of central issues from the Catholic faith in their publications and teaching. Philosophers of Consciousness. Spinoza: Logic, Knowledge and Religion. Richard Mason. The Cambridge Companion to Spinoza. Don Garrett. Language, Desire and Theology. Philosophy of Religion.
Stephen Evans. The Cambridge Companion to Ockham. Paul Vincent Spade. Four Views on Christian Spirituality. Bruce A. Mapping Modern Theology.
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