Adaption of Microbial Life to Environmental Extremes: Novel Research Results and Application

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Dementia Intelligence Behavior. Now new research has uncovered why that is: lipid turnover in the fat tissue decreases during aging and makes it easier to gain Diet and Weight Loss Obesity Fitness.

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The pattern isn't unique to humans. But for baboons, the impacts aren't just borne by one generation -- the next generation bears the brunt as well. A study finds that a baboon mother's early trauma is linked to shorter lifespans for However, a new study casts doubt on the value of sleep time suggesting that women who experience night sweats are more vulnerable to cognitive dysfunction as their sleep duration Soft Robotics and Smart Prosthetics.

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The white substance is the urine. But according to new research, uric acid can't be the answer. That's because there is no uric acid in excreted bird Now a team of researchers has a model that can locate the best place for the wind farm and even help with hour predictions of energy A researcher proposes an improved way to assess day-ahead solar forecasting, which combines two popular reference methods for weather forecasting, namely persistence and climatology.

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For applications in bendable electronic devices, this is precisely the kind of battery they Because the greatest source of measurement errors are human factors, AI has the potential to improve future clinical decision Aquaculture in China Dating Back 8, Years. Antibiotic Resistance Surges in Dolphins. By comparing the body-length distributions and species-composition ratios of the bones with Fish Fisheries Marine Biology. Bacteria Microbes and More Dolphins and Whales. A pair of companion papers reveal that mountain regions -- especially those in the tropics Earth Science Nature Biodiversity.

Climate change may reduce the ability of soils to absorb water Soil Types Water Environmental Issues. With this new approach, the researchers hope to dramatically expand the CRISPR-based tools available to biomedical engineers, opening up a new and diverse frontier of genome engineering A study of traditional fish preparation employed by fisherfolk in Panama and Egypt, revealed patterns of modifications to the fishes' skeletons which are comparable to those found among fish remains recovered in archaeological She reports today the answer to a puzzling Hurricane Resilience in the Bahamas: Ecosystem Sep.

While models are very useful, there is nothing quite like Earth's history to reveal details about how oceans, animals, and plants respond to and recover from a warming Thus, most of the carbon forming the atmosphere and life on Earth may have been delivered by a carbon-rich embryo after the core formation. In the subsurface however, it can grow partner-independently as a "monospecies" biofilm.

Microbial Life in Extreme Environments – Microbiology - Lecturio

Even though the SM1 euryarchaeon is still uncultivated in the laboratory, it is accessible via an in situ cultivation technique using its own biotope as a natural chemostat. This approach allowed the study of its biology, and enabled the discovery of unique cell surface appendices with unexpected and unusually high complexity. Each of the archaeal cells is surrounded by approximately protein filaments that are up to 3 micrometres long and show a high resemblance to barbwire with a tripartite grappling hook at their tip.

Based on this structure the appendices were called "hami" lat. These hami represent perfectly evolved, natural mechanical nano-tools that could find applications in the growing field of nanobiotechnology.

The strange beasts that live in solid rock deep underground

Fungi are eukaryotic organisms and considered to be less adaptable to extreme environments when compared to bacteria. While there are no thermophilic microfungi in a strict sense, some fungi have adapted to life in the cold. Cold-active microfungi have been isolated from the Antarctic and their enzyme activities explored with a view to finding new candidates for industrial use. On another front, environmental pollution by petroleum products in the Antarctic has led to a search for, and the subsequent discovery of, fungal isolates capable of degrading hydrocarbons.

The work has paved the way to developing a bioremedial approach to containing this type of contamination in cold climates. Here we discuss our efforts to map the capability of Antarctic microfungi to degrade oil and also introduce a novel cold-active fungal lipase enzyme. Thermophilic microorganisms, though known since the beginning of the 20th century, were intensively studied in its last three decades. Natural terrestrial and submarine thermal environments were found to be populated by moderate, extreme and hyperthermophilic microorganisms representing diverse metabolic groups.

However, during the past few years this knowledge has been extended, and new metabolic groups of thermophilic prokaryotes described. Among these are ammonia-oxidizing archaea, thermoacidophilic methanotrophs of the phylum Verrucomicrobia , microorganisms gaining energy for growth from the disproportionation of sulfur species, and archaea and bacteria metabolizing one carbon C1 compounds.

Other novel metabolic groups, such as thermophilic anammox bacteria, nitrite-oxidizing thermophiles, and microorganisms performing anaerobic methane oxidation in thermal ecosystems, have been detected using molecular or geochemical approaches. These data will, certainly, stimulate further cultivation and isolation efforts. Cellulolytic Microorganisms from Thermal Environments. Vishnivetskaya, B. Raman, T. Phelps, M. Podar and J. Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid fuels using biological processes offers a potential solution to partially offset the world's dependence on fossil fuels for energy.

In nature, decomposition of organic plant biomass is brought about by the combined action of several interacting microorganisms existing in complex communities.

Bioprospecting in natural environments with high cellulolytic activity for example, thermal springs may yield novel cellulolytic microorganisms and enzymes with elevated rates of biomass hydrolysis for use in industrial biofuel production. In this chapter, various cellulose-degrading microorganisms in particular, thermophilic anaerobic bacteria , their hydrolytic enzymes, and recent developments in the application of biomass fermentations for production of sustainable bioenergy are reviewed.

In this context, results from ongoing research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the isolation and subsequent phylogenetic and metabolic characterization of thermophilic, anaerobic, cellulolytic bacteria from the hot springs of Yellowstone National Park are presented.

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Extreme to the 4th Power! What Secrets Can They Reveal? In the deep biosphere, extraordinary new types of microorganisms, sedimented or buried - million years ago, can be found. These organisms can be identified and characterized. The information obtained can be developed into novel tools for searching for new oil in sensitive regions like the Arctic, Antarctica and jungle areas.

Relatively few enzymes are used in large-scale industrial applications. They may furnish new incentives for the development of entirely new technical processes. These microbes provide opportunities for new technologies in second generation biofuel production.

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Several companies are working on alternative routes for the production of fuels using biomass as the raw source material. Traditional heavy oil extraction methods have major difficulties in justifying their high energy usage, CO 2 emissions and soil and environment pollution.

The first company implementing a large-scale process based on biotechnology principles in enhanced oil recovery will gain huge strategic and economic benefits. The knowledge of this huge subsurface population of diverse microorganisms provides excellent opportunities for bioprospecting. There should be a multitude of spin-offs outside the oil industry.

The world is desperately in need of new enzymes, new antibiotics, new immunosuppressant, new anticancer agents, etc. This chapter reviews just some of the areas we have been working on at Statoil. Hopefully some of these investigations could one day solve some of the problems we will face in the future. One day these extremophiles could be on the payroll of many different companies. Hyperthermophiles: Metabolic Diversity and Biotechnological Applications. The isolation and characterization of novel hyperthermophilic, microorganisms from modern hot environments have greatly increased our understanding of how microbes can live and thrive in such inhospitable environments.

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The finding that microorganisms have the ability to grow at these high temperature has implications for delimiting when and where life might have evolved on a hot, early Earth; the depth to which life exists in the Earth's subsurface; and the potential for life in hot, extraterrestrial environments. The study of hyperthermophilic microorganisms provides valuable insights into microbial respiration in a diversity of modern and ancient hydrothermal systems. In addition, it provides information about the fate of metals such as iron, uranium, technetium, and even gold.

Reduction of these metals by hyperthermophiles provides, for example, a likely explanation for a number of geologically, environmentally and economically important ore deposits. This allows us to identify geological signatures for biological processes, something that may prove instrumental in our search for life on other planets. Finally, enzymes capable of functioning at high temperatures have a number of important applications in biomass conversion, in biotechnology, and in the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries.

Microbiology of Piezophiles in Deep-sea Environments. Piezophilic microorganisms, which are defined as "pressure-loving" microorganisms, are isolated and characterized from high pressure environments.

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They grow better at high-hydrostatic pressures than at atmospheric pressures, and only exist at deeper water column environments, particularly in the deep-sea bottoms. Therefore, piezophilic microorganisms are typical deep-sea microorganisms that are well adapted to deep-sea pressure and temperature conditions.

Novel Research Results and Application