American Culture in Europe: Interdisciplinary Perspectives

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Baudelaire transformed Benjamin Franklin from an Enlightenment icon. Nietzsche's colleague, Jacob Burckhardt, a Schopenhauer devotee, evoked the Renaissance. Tocqueville a generation earlier. The source of European individualism, Burckhardt argued,. Burckhardt's Renaissance reflected Schopenhauer's view of the "world" in all its. Emerson's "self-reliant" man was displaced by a rival claiming to be. Reymond Nietzsche would proclaim "the experimental philosophy" to be "the philosophy of the future. Nietzsche believed "Germany's temporary political ascendancy" was not to be sustained.

Marxist historians did not question this "Eurocentric" treatment of. American market; and sharp, recurring trade wars. Europe's only hope lay in "an European Monroe Doctrine," that is, a European customs union. Handelsneid' [British trade envy] point to the same direction: America 'endangered,' Britain.

United States is the land of unlimited possibilities. In the " America debate" of , America was cast as an arbiter of Germany's fate:. After America's entrance into the war, it was not surprising that "Americanization" was. American factor, because "the land of money was bound to enter the war" Compton As an army street orator in counterrevolutionary Munich, he.

With Wilsonianism discredited,. Hitler represented the losers from Americanization Hitler was aiming at a "final solution" for both the. East, and China. The invasion of the Soviet Union allowed reversion to the argument that the United States. This "complete lack of culture," Hitler believed, disqualified Roosevelt from any right. To turn east to. Americanization as a necessary reeducation for the defeated Germans. Americanization had. Nazism was explained as the result of the.

A "hard" peace called for reeducation, a Europeanization of. The novelist Frank Thiess, claiming to speak for the "inner. The reigning view of the Adenauer era was a fatalistic acceptance of. To become "European" was to go through the. Americanization counteracted Europe's perennial fragmentation by. In academic discourse, Americanization was eschewed in.

Irving Kristol found that "over the past two decades the style of German life has. People read American books, go to. Frankfurt school, which emerged from its American exile as "left" defenders of high culture. In the world of "late capitalism,". Americanism seemed a mindless juggernaut with designs on everything in sight.

What was. West-Germanization of East Germany gave a further twist to perceptions of Americanization. Bell Daniel. In Is America Different? Bergmann Peter.

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Bergquist James M. In Germany. Leipzig: Birnbaum. Binion Rudolph. Hitler Among the Germans. University Press. Eschenburg Theodor. In Zusammenbruch oder Befreiung? Feuer Lewis. Fraenkel Ernst. Halfeld Adolf. Hamburger Fremdenblatt, May Hans-Heinz Krill. Die Rankerenaissance. Max Lenz und Erich Marcks. Berlin: Walter de. Heinzen Karl. Teutscher Radikalismus in Amerika. Krohn Claus-Dieter. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Lowenstein Steven M. Nietzsche Friedrich. Werke und Briefe: Historisch-Kritische-Gesamtausgabe. International Publishers.

Osterle Heinz D. Parsons Edward B. Historian 33 : Petzold Joachim. Pinto Diana. In The Rise and Fall of. Ross Colin. Policy in the s. Leamington Spa: Berg. Trommler Frank. In America and the. Weiberg Gerhard L. American Historical Review. Concerning the Rejection or Glorification of War". University of Chicago Press. Wittke Carl. The end of the Cold War. The political and legal changes they. Indeed, the Russian legal system as a set of political institutions and a codification of political. West has proposed in real aid and certainly much more than has been given ; 5 the spoils.

Petersburg, and Yakutsk in , 12 as well as first hand participation in the processes of. On the one. Westernization as an imperial policy objective dates back to when Peter the Great. Western style "rights" were introduced first during the nineteenth century. The copying of. One scholar calls the introduction. Because serfs were classified as "property,". During perestroika, it was the "reformers" in Russia who increasingly sought contact with the. Russian enterprises had yet become international or multinational institutions operating. Because they were the ones creating the reforms with Western help, the ultimate.

Because the contacts were based on the material gain of the. Soviet economy. The place he sought it was directly from the Bush Administration. Administration's policy in a speech to U. The major U. Department of Justice, one from the. Although Ayer framed his opening address in terms of "help we are providing" to the Soviet. Union for "genuine protection for all citizens. Two years later, the program reappeared under the direction of the U.

Information Agency. The lion's share went to privatization efforts. Cooperation focusing on potential business opportunities. The event, titled "Moscow. On the U. The order. Secretary of State under President. The distribution of the panels that followed was divided between issues of "rule of law," joint. Soviet sides; but their voice was relegated to reacting defensively. It appeared that most of that effort also directly rebounded. It was not until that the foundation first. Russia for Soviet television. Nader told those who. Instead of calling for structural reforms that.

He presented no advice on how. The Russians quickly introduced the concept of "privatization" of justice into the one. A national survey in the Soviet Union in found that the public favored "capitalism" to. Russians ridiculed the s children's rhyme about "Mister Twister," the. Leningrad and was a stereotypical rich imperialist.

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Everything had changed. The fear of talking with. In a sense, the new belief was much like the "cargo cults" of Pacific Islanders. In the Pacific,. Sell the coal, the minerals, the gold, the. Russians and Europeans, in general, were of the same "soul. The Russian belief in mutability -- that they could change into "Americans" merely with the.

This was the process of "Pepsi-Stroika" -- American influence in the restructuring of Russia. The net effect of Western policy of economic and political "reform" of the former Soviet. Izvestia, February. Times, April 17, , Section 3, p. Harold J. Esther Kingston-Mann, Berkeley, Calif.

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Current revisions of American. Paul Desruisseaux, "U. Jules: What? Vinny Vega:.

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  • It's the little differences. I mean they got the same shit there they got here but it's just there. Jules: Example? Vinny Vega: Alright. Well, you can walk into a movie. In particular, the argument developed in this chapter is an. In the context of. This development is leading to the reconstruction of canonical ways of thinking.

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    Following Lefebvre, Soja. The process of globalization encompasses transformations in all three respects. In particular,. The reorganization of perceived space. In fact, numerous commentators have illustrated the reconstruction of perceived. Soja The conceptualization of a timebased process of globalization disregards the problematic of. Perhaps the best representative of this trend is Giddens's analysis of "globalisation". The end result is that modernity and globality become closely interwoven in a.

    Giddens's interpretation disregards Foucault's 22 highly relevant observation The twentieth-century sociological enterprise of "modernization theory" involved similar. Giddens's view of nationalism as an essentially marginal and transient phenomenon. Giddens to be blind to what Billig calls "banal" nationalism -- more specifically, to the. It leads to the standardization of space in a particular format governed by. This territorialization is established in a twofold manner: first, via the standardization. It is, indeed, the lack of a direct engagement with these issues that.

    Commenting on this embrace of history with politics,. Of course, issues of. Their argument is largely derivative of earlier discussions regarding global convergence of. According to the dictionary, the term became "one of the main. Instead of monolithic standardization, then, local heterogeneity becomes the.

    Cultural, as well as institutional, homogeneity and heterogeneity are,. Bergmann's discussion Chapter 3, this volume of the spectrum of Americanization in. This assumption, however, brushes over. The dialogue from Quentin arantino Pulp Fiction near the beginning of this chapter is. As stated in the dialogue, it is the "little. Soviets and Europeans were the same -- it would be possible to find the "magic formula". Western modernity entailed the standardization of specific time-space configurations such as. The proliferation of difference is, as we. This cross-cultural emulation of organizational models has opened.

    Baudrillard's proclamation of the "end of the social" may well be. Such participation is possible even when the immigrant groups do not,. In Soja's. Inevitably, it is also a feature of those classes. The "interculturalists" have a vested. Also, we have not, in. Glocalization is essentially a refinement of the older concept of globalization.

    Glocalization refers directly to the ways in. In the course of his discussion, Tomlinson. It is, in fact, these kinds of "cultural. This does not, however, imply that the content-form relationship. For further discussion, see Roudometof. This process has fueled an entire debate on the "crisis" of the nationstate.

    For some. Iyer's descriptions of Asia could certainly be read as exemplary of the manner in. In sharp contrast to the original. Modern day cultural wars still focus on people's claims to have an exclusive relationship. In this conflict, each side claims to be the only one to have the exclusive right of. The Global Age. Arrighi Giovanni.

    International Sociology. Bhabha Homi K. In Questions of Cultural Identity, edited by. Esman Milton J. Diaspora 2 1 : Featherstone Mike. Friedman Jonathan. Gupta, Akhil and James Ferguson. Washington, D. Hall, Stuart and Paul Du Gay eds. Questions of Cultural Identity. London: Sage. Handler Richard. Harvey David. Rethinking Marxism 8 4 : Lash, Scott, and John Urry. Economies of Signs and Space. Lefebvre, Henri. Lowenthal David. In Commemorations: The Politics. Malkki Liisa. Century Capitalism. New York: Vintage. Ritzer George. Classical Sociological Theory.

    New York: McGraw-Hill. Robertson Roland. Roudometof Victor. Shapiro, Michael J. Alker eds. Challenging Boundaries. Swyngedouw Erik. Therbon Goran, In Global Modernities, edited by Mike. Tornatore Guiseppe. Cinema Paradiso. Rome: Christaldifilm. Flag for inappropriate content. Carrusel Anterior Carrusel Siguiente. Buscar dentro del documento. American Culture in Europe: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Epitropoulos, V. Epitropoulos and Victor Roudometof 1 The U. Kugel, Ruben Berrios, and Keri L.

    Epitropoulos and Victor Roudometof The diffusion of American culture across national boundaries is a hallmark of the twentieth century. The process of this diffusion and the effects of American culture on European societies is a topic of central concern to historians, anthropologists, and sociologists working in individual European countries. Although many scholars work on the "Americanization" of individual European cultures, most works on this subject focus on the presence and effects of American culture in particular European societies.

    In contrast, this volume represents an attempt to unite the efforts of a diverse group of scholars working on the diffusion of American cultural influence to bring about a more general understanding of the processes, effects, and influences of American culture in Europe. The terms "American culture" and "Europe" are contested and are utilized in this volume as shorthand expressions to convey the broad problematique of the collected chapters.

    The notion of American culture is usually employed as a synonym for commercial mass-produced culture which, in turn, is American- owned and English-speaking. As such, the attraction of being "modern" is frequently cast in terms of being or becoming American in cultural outlook. Of course, perception is not reality, and the global perception of American culture is far from being an accurate representation of American life. I saw and smelled modernity reading Life and American college catalogs at the United States Information Service library, seeing B-grade films and some A- grade ones from Hollywood at the Eros Theatre, five hundred yards from my apartment building.

    I begged my brother at Stanford in the early s to bring me back blue jeans and smelled America in his Right Guard when he returned. I gradually lost the England that I had earlier imbibed in my Victorian schoolbooks, in rumors of Rhodes scholars from my college, and in Billy Bunter and Biggles books devoured indiscriminately with books by Richmal Crompton and Enid Blyton.

    Fanny and Zooey, Holden Caulfiel, and Rabbit Angstrom slowly eroded that part of me that had been, until then, forever England. Such are the little defeats that explain how England lost the Empire in postcolonial Bombay. I did not know then that I was drifting from one sort of postcolonial subjectivity Anglophone diction, fantasies of debates in the Oxford Union, borrowed peeks at Encounter, a patrician interest in the humanities to another: the harsher, sexier, more addictive New World of Humphrey Bogart reruns, Harold Robbins, Time, and social science, American style.

    Nevertheless, within the broader global context, critics have raised the issue of the so-called American "cultural imperialism" thesis. That is, American domination of the culture industries and consumer culture from McDonalds to CNN raises the spectrum of the globe becoming increasingly homogenized -- thereby threatening human cultural variety as well as local distinct lifestyles Ritzer ; ; see also Barber [ ] for a similar, yet more nuanced, viewpoint.

    Considerable difficulties surround this concept of American cultural imperialism for critical overviews, see Tomlinson ; Ferguson ; see also Featherstone Most important, the claim that local national, cultural, ethnic, or religious differences are under siege by the American cultural industries rests on a particular view of the past in European societies especially continental. Namely, the notion of the historical past as part of the national cultural repertoire is deeply embedded in everyday life and continuously reproduced in newspapers, art, museums, and other cultural activities Home , Billig Concomitant with it is the belief in the necessity of reproducing national difference.

    Hence, the domination of American commercial culture circumscribes the ability of local cultural entrepreneurs to successfully reproduce their own cultural products. France is perhaps the paradigmatic case of such a clash between commercial modernity and revered tradition. As Denis Lacome and Jacques Rupnik describe it, The problem for a country like France is that its economic ambitions clash with its cultural identity.

    The French seek economic power in order to maintain their position in the world. This in turn requires the integration of the French economy into world markets and a truly competitive spirit. It implies becoming businessminded, willingness to spend lengthy periods abroad, a decent command of English, and so on.

    But at the same time the French want to preserve a cultural heritage which is intrinsically archaic, those vielles valeurs which are the very foundation of la France eternelle such as l'academisme, distrust of pragmatism, a passion for philosophical abstractions, and a taste for refined fashions and highbrow culture. The upshot is that the country's real or imagined economic power conflicts with the national identity of a people with uninhibited delusions of "grandeur" and a desire to set themselves as a model for the rest of the world.

    Generally speaking, then, the question of American cultural presence in Europe occupies a space strongly colored by the perception of European decline after World War II and the emergence of the United States as the hegemonic power in the modrn worldsystem. Consequently, the substitution of European cultural dominance by American commercial culture makes the issue of American cultural domination deeply important for Western and Central European countries. Nevertheless, Europe has peculiarities that warrant a differentiation of the problem of American influence in Europe from the general question of cultural imperialism as it pertains to peripheral societies.

    Europe and the United States have constructed mirror images of each other, stereotypes that have helped define not only the other but also themselves. In the nineteenth century, Alexis de Tocqueville -- the original inventor of the term "individualism" -- was responsible for promoting both the image of Americans as individualists and that of Europeans as communitarians. Broadly speaking, Europeans have used bipolar oppositions as metaphors for defining themselves in relation to the Americans: the list includes such pairs as "shallow versus sophisticated," "young or new versus old," and "materialistic versus idealistic" Kroes Underneath these classifications lie the European intellectuals' admiration for high culture and disdain for low commercial popular culture.

    In critiques of mass culture, such as The Dialectic of Enlightenment , the advent of commercial culture is viewed negatively. We all know that commercial culture is English- speaking and frequently portrayed as exclusively American. More recently, such authors as Umberto Eco and Jean Baudrillard have sought to develop a new image of America. America is viewed as the fulfillment of those promises that European culture has failed to deliver. It is the utopian land where European intellectual obsessions become irrelevant. It stands for the realization of the European project of modernity, a realization that makes obsolete the very act of dreaming about it.

    For Baudrillard "it is we [that is, the Europeans] who think that everything culminates in its transcendence and that nothing exists without first having been thought through as concept. Not only they [that is, the Americans] hardly care for that at all; they rather see the relationship in reverse. They are interested not in conceptualizing reality, but in realizing the concept and implementing the ideas" This point was accurately made when, in reaction to the French protests against Euro- Disney, Michael Eisner, Disney's director, expressed his amazement to the protesters' thesis that Euro-Disney would bring cultural devaluation.

    American culture is largely based on commercialization of or adaptation from European cultural items. This peculiar interdependence of American and European culture reinforces the necessity of taking into account the complex processes of transmission and reception across the shores of the Atlantic. Such processes take place within specific European countries, a factor that also points to the need to examine these processes within the particular cultural configuration in which they occur. Despite the attempts to institute the European Union EU as a would-be federation, national sentiment remains a strong component of the European national societies.

    In the face of increasing migration into the European countries as well as the growing accountability of the state on the basis of international human rights law, exclusionary strategies frequently take the form of claims to protect local culture and authenticity from outsiders Balibar ; Sassen The sheer mention of the EU raises the other important question, namely the extent to which Europe represents a cultural configuration with solid boundaries. In , Lord Henry Saint- John Bolingbroke, English statesman and political author, observed in a letter: The emperor [of Austria, Leopold, ] was like the others too but with this difference relative to the political system of the West: Austrian ambitions and religious fanaticism were exercised in far-off countries, whose affairs were not considered part of the same system.

    Otherwise there would have been as much reason to assist the people of Hungary and of Transylvania against the emperor as there had been formerly to assist the people of the seven United Provinces against Spain, or as had been to assist them against France. However, the ambitions and religious fanaticism of Louis XIC were exercised in the Low Countries, on the Rhine, in Italy, and in Spain, in the very center of this system, and I would say, with such success as would fail with the time to subvert the system itself.

    Struminski , emphasis added The strong belief that " Asia begins in the outskirts of Vienna" was not completely consolidated at the time. During the eighteenth century, the notion of Eastern Europe as an essentially backward region was reinforced, in many respects as part of the ideology of the Enlightenment Wolff ; cf. Stoianovich With the single exception of Greece which served as the precursor of the Western European Enlightenment the countries of Eastern Europe were depicted in a negative light.

    This division of Europe has had long lasting consequences, because, in the aftermath of the revolutions, it provides a major terrain of ideological conflict. During the late s and s, Central European intellectuals rather successfully attempted to reconceptualize Europe as exclusively Protestant and Catholic. Their arguments justify their inclusion in the EU on the basis of their Protestant or Catholic religious affiliation. Prodromou The most recent reincarnation of this divide between the Catholic and Protestant West and the Orthodox East can be found in Huntington's division of Europe along religious lines separating the Orthodox from the Catholic and Protestant countries.

    The ongoing debate concerning the boundaries of Europe represents, in an acute manner, the present inability of the EU to incorporate the countries of Eastern and southeastern Europe. This inability raises reasonable skepticism about the ultimate fate of the European project itself see Judt In order to avoid becoming entangled in this highly ideological political and cultural debate, we have chosen to employ a rather broad conception of Europe for the purposes of this volume.

    Although this choice may be contested in the context of the debate concerning the boundaries of Europe, it allows us to increase the scope of our inquiry and, thus, the viability of whatever generalizations can be advanced as a result of this research project. The chapters range from discussions of science to history of ideas to sociological and anthropological studies of European societies.

    Certainly, the notion of culture is a problematic one and has a long history within the social sciences McGrane ; Robertson As Tomlinson argues, however, the two issues are conceptually distinct -- the spread of capitalism is only identical with Americanization if one assumes that the two are inseparable. Discussion in this volume focuses on the topic of Americanization rather than the broader question of the relationship between mass media and global capitalism Mattelart The first two chapters employ network analyses to study the relative power and dynamics of scientific centers from a world-system perspective.

    They represent a good example of studying science from within a global frame of reference but with specific attention to the uneven power of European states. Luther focus on the themes of deference and influence among the central cluster of nations in world science. They identify the current central cluster as the United States, Western Europe, and Japan and discuss the nature of the relationships among and between the countries in this science triad. The key questions revolve around cooperation, competition, and emulation in scientific endeavors. Within this triad, the U. In their discussion of the relationships among the scientific core countries, the authors analyze collaboration, conference participation, and citations as indicators of the level and nature of interaction among scientists.

    Their findings indicate a high degree of emulation among centers and affirm the communal nature of scientific knowledge in spite of the protectionism that accompanies their competition. The authors note that, although Western Europe has surpassed the United States in achievement within the scientific network, the United States remains central in terms of deference, collaboration, influence, emulation, desired recognition, and professional travel.

    This interesting contradiction was revealed in the French popular press when the upscale weekly Le nouvel observateur attempted to evaluate the global force of French culture. With data from the American Citation Index, it found that French authors were widely quoted: in Foucault alone surpassed any other author with 1, citations Cochran Having established the methodology and conceptual framework in Chapter 1, Schott shifts his focus to the periphery in Chapter 2, "Peripheries in World Science: Latin America and Eastern Europe," where he is joined by Samuel A.

    From the perspective of the scientific periphery, "smallness" emerges as the key theme. That is, among the range of possible alternatives, what option will scientifically "small" countries pursue? The extremes of the range are inward self-reliance, on the one hand, and outward attachment to the center, on the other hand. Schott and colleagues find that in most small countries scientific attachment to the central cluster identified in Chapter 1 receives high priority as official policy and within the national scientific community.

    Furthermore, such attachment is endorsed and promoted by international organizations such as the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the World Bank. Empirically, scientific deference to centers often has geopolitically-determined considerations. Western Europe is found to be more central than the United States in collaboration and influence in the world scientific periphery.

    However, as far as scientific deference is concerned, the United States remains the main center. Schott's two chapters clearly illustrate the necessity of separating perception from reality in the debate on Americanization. First, they clearly illustrate that Europe is not a coherent unit in the scientific field because different countries occupy markedly different positions in the hierarchy of science. Second, they document that, although Western Europe constitutes one of the core regions of world science, Europeans still display considerable deference to the United States.

    The symbolic dominance of the United States, then, leads us into a discussion of the manner in which Europeans view the United States, an issue conceptually distinct from the actual power relations between the EU and the United States. In such a reconceptualization, Americanization constitutes a discourse of misunderstanding, a field where local European power politics interact with the broader global political environment. Political and cultural antiAmericanism has a long history in Europe. During the s, for example, the specter of Americanization has been employed by the EU in order to argue in favor of the Europeanization of the mass media market is necessary Schlesinger In the volume's third chapter, Peter Bergmann offers a rich historical analysis of one such example, namely the case history of Americanization in Germany.

    He traces the dynamic meaning of Americanization in three distinct historical periods. In the nineteenth century, Bergmann notes, Americanization was viewed as an avenue for the future, carrying the promise of democracy and progress. It meant the triumph of capitalism and the negation of anti-Semitism. Following World War I, and with the rise of nazism, America once again became the villain. In Hitler's mind, America was the real enemy. Although the German population preferred losing the war to the Western powers, Hitler's last offensive was against America.

    In the post period, Americanization provided a positive model for the development of democracy. From the s forward, U. Specifically, Bergmann chronicles the salient role of the Frankfurt School in the Americanization dynamic and the way in which Pax Americana was viewed increasingly as pax atomica. In Chapter 4, David Lempert provides an anthropologist's view of urban Russia in its recent period of sociopolitical upheaval during the late s and early s. Lempert concentrates on the transfer of U. The political economy of this transfer, Lempert notes, centered almost exclusively on property rights, not on social accountability, labor, or human rights.

    The specifics of legislation were tailored to benefit a coalition of Western capitalist interests and Russian managerial elites. Keeping in line with the comparative historical approach of the volume, Lempert discusses the evolution of the Soviet Union's embrace of Western forms, which typically had been selective, with strong centralization and control by the state.

    In the s, Mikhail Gorbachev's perestroika represented an opening for young reformers within the politico-economic system. They sought to oust the older leadership in pursuit of higher standards of living that the young reformers felt could be gained through joint ventures with the West. The same process included bilateral exchanges of corporate executives, public interest groups, legal scholars, and graduate students all aiming to establish an investor friendly Russian free market.

    Although Ralph Nader warned Russians not to imitate American culture, his words fell on deaf ears. Ultimately, Lempert portrays how Americanization was used as a shorthand expression for a process of selective appropriation of specific legal and political U. This process was marked by huge inequities in terms of wealth, justice, and access to the reform process, inequities justified and rationalized by the new post-Soviet ideology. In Chapter 5, Mike-Frank G.

    Epitropoulos and Victor Roudometof examine the generational changes in lifestyle and American-driven consumer culture that have taken place in post- World War IIGreece. These changes were the consequence of ever-increasing contact with outsiders through tourism, migration, and mass media. The authors focus on the emergence of Greek youth culture revolving around Western -- often American -- cultural artifacts and social spaces.

    During the post period, a variety of Western establishments pubs, discos, and cafes became extremely popular, attracting the overwhelming majority of their audience from the youth. In terms of rituals and modes of communication, the authors reveal both change and continuity with past leisure practices. Contrary to simplistic notions of cultural imperialism, they suggest a model of cultural syncretism wherein local and imported practices are fused with each other, thereby yielding new forms and meanings. Noting other examples of cultural syncretism, Steve Fox follows the case of blacks in German advertising in the late s through the early s.

    His chapter studies the impact of two profound period changes in Germany, namely, the xenophobic backlash and the German unification. Fox discusses the various, divergent meanings of blackness and how they are utilized in German advertising, particularly in youth magazines, billboards, and theaters.

    Consistent with the volume's commitment to a broad concept of Europe, Fox sheds light on the German people's struggle for cultural identity wherein preferences for German television programs are greater than other European ones while American television programs eclipse other European productions in popularity. In this context, Americanness is acceptable and popular while Europeanness is not. In the process, Fox spells out advertising's commodification of racial difference.

    Militant intellectual Richard Wright was centrally concerned with freedom. As a black intellectual in the s Wright found the French tolerance very appealing, moved to France, and subsequently declared that France had more freedom in one square block than did the entire United States. However, he still retained his U. His experience provides an interesting case worth juxtaposing to the well known tradition of French anti-Americanism cf. The interpersonal dynamics revealed among the French existentialists, the various political configurations, and Wright himself among other African-American expatriates demonstrate the exchange and interplay of ideas and reveal some measures of power and influence across cultures.

    Robinson makes the case that the French existentialists held ideas in higher regard than people, and that, in syncretic fashion, the French absorbed ideas from Wright selectively. The volume's final chapter is an attempt to address the problematique of American cultural presence in Europe from a theoretical point of view.

    If, as Hannerz 10 suggests, the debate on Americanization is a small part of the wider tendency toward globalization, an increasing interconnectedness of the world, then it is important to examine the function of Americanization within the general context of the ongoing process of globalization Robertson In their contribution, Roudometof and Robertson begin with a discussion of the effects of time-space compression upon social life Harvey They argue that economic, political, and cultural globalization bring about a destabilization of our understanding of time and space.

    Within the intellectual field, this restructuring entails a clash of perspectives between the proponents of time and space. As the contemporary experience of simultaneity restructures our understanding of space, it also questions the very foundations of time-based narratives.

    The current restructuring of time and space is not the first one in human history. During the nineteenth century, European modernity entailed the celebration of national symbolism and the cultural specificity of the European nations. It represented a particular understanding of timespace relations because it considered the nation-state the central actor in social life.

    European integration, the end of colonialism, and the increasing intrusion of global mass media have questioned the solidity of the European nation-state. Commercial culture becomes the hallmark of these processes -- the visible manifestation of broader changes in society and culture. For cultural purists, it offers an attractive and highly visible target of protest. Roudometof and Robertson argue that reality is more complex. As a number of chapters show, American cultural items are appropriated selectively and often reinterpreted or fused with local cultural practices or traditions.

    Hence, although cultural diffusion proceeds, the end result is not a loss of cultural diversity but rather the recreation of new hybrid cultural forms see Pieterse These forms illustrate that cultural consumers are not passive agents but active participants who integrate, appropriate, and manipulate cultural objects to represent the social relations of their own communities. Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Balibar Etienne. Barber Benjamin R. Jihad vs. New York: Ballantine Books. Baudrillard Jean. London: Verso. Billig Michael.

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    Seducing the French: The Dilemma of Americanization. Berkeley: University of California Press. The Rise and Fall of Anti-Americanism. A Century of French Perception. Lunden Rolf and Erik Asard eds. Martin Lawrence. Toronto: MacClelland and Stewart. Mattelart Armand. McGrane Bernard. Beyond Anthropology: Society and the Other. New York: Columbia University Press. Melling Phil and Jon Roper eds. Lewiston, N. Nordenstreng Kaarle and Herber I. Schiller eds.

    Beyond National Sovereignty: International Communication in the s. Norwood, N. Featherstone, S. Lash, and R. Robertson, pp. European Journal of Political Research Newbury Park, Calif. Theory, Culture, and Society 5 1 : Globalization: Social Theory and Global Culture. Rollin Roger ed. Roper Jon. Encountering America: Altered States. Losing Control? Sovereignty in An Age of Globalization. Schlesinger Philip. Media, Culture, and Society 19 3 : Schopflin George and Nancy Wood eds.

    In Search of Central Europe. Cambridge: Polity. Stoianovich Traian. New York: M. Tomlinson John. Cultural Imperialism: A Critical Introduction. Baltimore, Md. Wagnleitner Reinhold. Coca-colonization and the Cold War. Wolff Larry. The Specter of Amerikanisierung, Peter Bergmann Over the past one hundred fifty years, a specter of Amerikanisierung has haunted the German imagination with the demarcating, the s, and the s demarcating the onset of three distinct episodes.

    From the Young Hegelians through Nietzsche Americanization was a projection of a looming future; one either to be embraced or rejected with the trend ever more clearly toward repudiation. When The Communist Manifesto announced a specter was haunting Europe, the specter of Communism, an American presence was implied in that apparition, because as Marx and Engels declare in the same document, "socialism and communism did not originate in Germany, but in England, France and North America" Feuer The Young Hegelians were less critical than the Young Germans of the s who expressed a strong ambivalence about America cf.

    Weber ; see generally Moltmann Seventeen years later, Marx was still pinning hope on the American example when he announced that what had been for the European middle class the American Civil War would be for the European working class. Within a decade, however, Americanization had come to mean for Marx and Engels the paralysis of the socialist project. When Marx feared Bakunin might gain control of the future of socialism in the Old World, he orchestrated the transfer of the headquarters of the First International from Europe to America.

    Better the First International die the death of the forgotten in the New World than his rivals control its future in the Old. Marx had abandoned the hope in an American example. Radical enthusiasm for America had run its course. Nietzsche's slogan of the s, "No American future! There were political ramifications, to be sure, before, during, and after the revolution of , but as Amerikanisierung became associated with a weakening liberal tradition in Germany, the America discourse of the Bismarckian era became a distancing one. The specter of Amerikanisierung became a more immediate economic and geopolitical "danger" between the Spanish-American War and the fall of Stalingrad.

    The perception of America as a direct threat to German prospects was fostered within and without Germany. At century's end, the British journalist W. Stead bestseller, The Americanization of the World or The Trend of the Twentieth Century, popularized the new insight: "The center of resistance to American principles in Europe lies at Berlin, and the leader against and great protagonist of Americanisation is the Kaiser of Germany" Stead During World War I the German Right identified Americanism with defeatism, with the conviction that the special German historical path the Sonderweg was doomed and, consequently, Germany needed to reverse course: the Reich should no longer stave off the "American danger" but rather embrace the American example.

    World War I ended with a hoped-for Americanization of German defeat. For this reason the Nazis viewed Americanism as a long-range threat that could become an even greater menace than Bolshevism. By the fall of Hitler declared defeat on the eastern front might be absorbed, but on the western front it could only be fatal. Consequently, a critical element of ultimate victory had to be exclusion of the United States from European politics.

    In the last half century, Germans never ceased to associate Amerikanisierung with the key formula of World War II: unconditional surrender. Sign up. Publications Pages Publications Pages. Search my Subject Specializations: Select Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Poverty Dynamics: Interdisciplinary Perspectives Tony Addison, David Hulme, and Ravi Kanbur Abstract The chapters in this book provide an examination of the concepts and methods that can be used to understand poverty dynamics.

    More The chapters in this book provide an examination of the concepts and methods that can be used to understand poverty dynamics. Authors Affiliations are at time of print publication.

    American Culture in Europe_ Interdisciplinary Perspectives | Mundo occidental | Europa

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