In addition, hydrocarbons in unconventional rocks or that have unconventional characteristics such as oil in fractured shales, kerogen in oil shale or bitumen in tar sands constitute an enormous potential domestic supply of energy. Carbon dioxide is used in oil wells for oil extraction and to maintain pressure within a formation.
There are many methods for EOR and each has differences that make it more useful based on specific reservoir challenges and other parameters. Choosing the right method by screening the reservoir and fluid properties can ultimately reduce risk by eliminating inefficiencies. The CO 2 is produced along with the oil and then recovered and re-injected to recover more oil. CO 2 injection is a technology successfully used from more than 50 years.
Miscible water-alternating-gas WAG process. Injection alternates between gas usually natural gas or CO 2 and water; the miscible gas and oil form one phase. The WAG cycles improve sweep efficiency by increasing viscosity of the combined flood front Figure CO2-EOR operation diagram. Diagram courtesy of Dakota Gasification Company.
Cyclic gas injection. When CO 2 is pumped into an oil well, it is partially dissolved into the oil, rendering it less viscous, allowing the oil to be extracted more easily from the bedrock. The CO 2 used to increase oil recovery can be naturally occurring, or an effective means of sequestering an industrial by-product. In this case, carbon dioxide, under pressure, is injected between oil wells to freeing the stranded oil.
CO 2 is a superior agent in recovering stranded oil as the CO 2 naturally reduces the surface tension that traps the liquid oil to in the oil reservoir. When the oil is recovered from the production well, CO 2 is also produced, but is easily separated from the crude oil because the CO 2 reverts back to its gaseous state when the pressure is removed.
Some fire extinguishers use CO 2 because it is denser than air. Carbon dioxide can blanket a fire, because of its heaviness. It prevents oxygen from getting to the fire and as a result, the burning material is deprived of the oxygen it needs to continue burning. When CO 2 is at suitable temperature and pressure above the critical point Figure 13 , it is called supercritical CO 2.
This state emphasises its capacity to dissolve chemicals and natural substances of similar way as do different organic solvents such as hexane, acetone or dichloromethane.
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Therefore, the first applications focused on the extraction of natural substances as an alternative to using organic solvents. Thus, removal of caffeine coffee or tea with supercritical CO 2 is the most mature application at industrial level and is also used in the extraction of hops or cocoa fat.
The dry cleaning with CO 2 is one of the most popular applications of supercritical fluids in the textile sector. This method is characterised by removing stains from the fabrics and garments where no harmful organic solvents for the average ambient, such as perchlorethylene PER , common in conventional dry cleaning processes are used and without causing discoloration or shrinkage and without leaving odour. One of the main advantages of supercritical CO 2 is that its solubility can easily be controlled suitably adjusting the pressure and temperature, allowing fractionate mixtures where all components are soluble.
Supercritical CO 2 extraction coupled with a fractional separation technique is used by producers of flavours and fragrances to separate and purify volatile flavour and fragrance concentrates.
Like any solvent, supercritical CO 2 , it allows processing chemicals by precipitation or recrystallisation, obtaining particles of controlled size and shape, without excessive fines without thermal stresses and controlling the shape of a polymorphic substance. It is, therefore, a cutting-edge technology with great potential, because it is a new way to obtain natural products; it allows the adaptation of new high quality products with appropriate value to consumer habits; enables the development of new non-polluting processes and initiate the development of a tertiary sector led to the new technology.
Liquid or solid CO 2 is used for quick freezing, surface freezing, chilling and refrigeration in the transport of foods. As it sublimates goes directly from solid to gas states , refrigeration is transferred to the product. Carbon dioxide gas is used to carbonate soft drinks, beers and wine and to prevent fungal and bacterial growth. CO 2 has an inhibitory effect on bacterial growth, especially those that cause discoloration and odours.
CO 2 has an inhibitory effect on bacterial growth, especially those that cause discoloration and odours Figure It can also be used to displace air during canning. Carbon dioxide can change the pH of water because of its slightly dissolution in water to form carbonic acid, H 2 CO 3 a weak acid , according to Equation 9 :. This chemical behaviour explains why water, which normally has a neutral pH of 7 has an acidic pH of approximately 5.
At the moment, CO 2 technology is widely introduced in treatments such as sewage water, industrial water or drinking water remineralisation. The increased requirements of drinking water in large cities becomes necessary to use sources of very soft water and because of its low salinity and pH are very aggressive and can bring on corrosion phenomena in the pipes of the pipeline, with the appearance of colour and turbidity when these pipes are made of iron, and by undermining these ones made with cement fibre by dissolving the calcium carbonate CaCO 3 , because of excessive aggressive CO 2.
The introduction of carbon dioxide in the pipes regulates a state of equilibrium between dissolved bicarbonates, calcium carbonate inlaid and the CO 2 added. Therefore, for the treatment of soft or aggressive waters, the use of CO 2 in combination with lime or calcium hydroxide is advisable to increase water hardness.
This process is called remineralisation and is meaningful in water treatment plants, because soft water is indigestible. The use of CO 2 in wastewater neutralisation, Figure 15 , offers great advantages in the operation and the environment by preventing other chemicals:. Better working conditions. Eliminate the risk of burns, toxic fumes and other injuries from handling mineral acids. Automated process. Automation avoids the handling of corrosive acids in the plant, pH control is automatic.
The alkaline waste management presents significant problems, mainly because of its volume and its geochemical properties that do not allow disposing in conventional landfills. Therefore, the accelerated carbonation of this waste is another technological uses of CO 2. Carbonate mineralisation refers to the conversion of CO 2 to solid inorganic carbonates. Naturally occurring alkaline and alkaline-earth oxides react chemically with CO 2 to produce minerals, such as calcium carbonate CaCO 3 and magnesium carbonate MgCO 3.
These minerals are highly stable and can be used in construction or disposed of without concern that the CO 2 they contain will release into the atmosphere. One problem is that these reactions tend to be slow, and unless the reactions are carried out in situ, there is a large volume of rocks to move. Carbonates can also be used as filler materials in paper and plastic products. Green plants convert carbon dioxide and water into food compounds, such as glucose and oxygen. This process is called photosynthesis Equation The reaction of photosynthesis is as follows: Biological applications are based primarily on the use of CO 2 as food for plant growth.
Therefore, this technology is also known as biomimetic transformation. There are two main ways in the biological utilisation process: greenhouses carbonic fertilisation and growth of microalgae. CO 2 is found naturally in the atmosphere and, therefore, in the greenhouse environment. It is essential for plant growth, since it represents the carbon source for organic compounds they need, in short, for compounds that constitute their biomass leaves, stems, fruits, etc. CO 2 is not the only factor involved in photosynthesis, so that for its use, other factors must be at levels that do not limit the process.
Light, temperature, amount of available nutrients and the relative humidity are other environmental factors affecting photosynthetic activity. During photosynthesis, plants capture light energy and CO 2 through the leaves, and water and nutrients through the roots. Thanks to these elements and chlorophyll leaves, plants get synthesise sugars and various organic compounds required for their development.
Photosynthesis is responsible for plant growth. Therefore, favouring photosynthesis we managed to promote the development of the plants and agriculture in our case. The target level for enrichment is typically a carbon dioxide concentration of ppm — or about two-and-a-half times the level present in the atmosphere Figure Rating combustion gases from combined cycle plants to use in vegetable crops in greenhouses, in applications in irrigation pipes to prevent clogging and to balance the pH in nutrient solutions.
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With regard to the quality of gas from CCGT, it can be recommended for direct use in greenhouses or other agricultural uses. The carbonic fertilisation allows early crop production along with a greater amount of product with better quality. Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms that can grow in diverse areas mainly in water media where the forced culture can be carried out in diverse type of reactors in concordance with its design and operation.
The advantage of this process is that microalgae are a microorganism with a high production rate some species are able to duplicate their biomass in 24 hours , and therefore with increased demand for CO 2 conventional terrestrial plants. At that time, the research focused on the possibility of obtaining biofuels from microalgae: mainly methane and hydrogen, but after the oil crisis in the s the biodiesel was also considered. However, none of the related projects have demonstrated the feasibility of the concept at a pre-industrial level.
What is more, CO 2 fixation efficiency is quite low because of the photobioreactors used in those pilot plants raceway or open-ponds Figure Microalgae culture in open system raceway and close photobioreactor Almeria University and Palmerillas Research Center.
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The current production of microalgae is mainly focused around a few species, such as Spirulina , Chlorella , Dunaliella or Haematococcus for nutritional purposes for humans and animal feed especially aquaculture. Other sectors, such as cosmetics, effluent treatment and bioenergy, have shown interest, incorporating these or other species of microalgae and cyanobacteria into commercial products. Carbon dioxide gas is used to make urea used as a fertiliser and in automobile systems and medicine , methanol, inorganic and organic carbonates, polyurethanes and sodium salicylate.
Carbon dioxide is combined with epoxides to create plastics and polymers. Corn-to-ethanol plants have been the most rapidly growing source of feed gas for CO 2 recovery. Because CO 2 is a practically inert molecule, artificial photosynthesis of CO 2 involves the use of large amounts of energy so it must use a clean source of energy such as solar radiation. Therefore, the use of catalytic agent to facilitate the process allowing even take place at ambient temperature and pressure is necessary. In this case, it is also called as photocatalysis or photoreduction.
In photocatalysis two processes occur: CO 2 reduction and oxidation of other compounds. Early works on the photocatalytic reduction of CO 2 in aqueous solution were published between and [ 19 , 20 ] , and later numerous investigators have studied the mechanism and efficiency of the process using different catalysts oxides of titanium, zinc and cadmium, cadmium sulphide, silicon carbide , and reducing water, amines, alcohols and R light sources lamps xenon, mercury, halogen. Thus, it has been shown that by using specific semiconductors and reducing agents, can be obtained a great variety of products methane, methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid, ethanol, ethane, etc.
Along with thermodynamics, catalysis is one of the core technologies for an economically interesting use of CO 2 as feedstock in chemical processes. This is one of the areas most sophisticated and complex of modern chemical research. Photocatalysis involve the production of reactions because of the incidence of light on a semiconductor material. Unlike metals, these materials have a forbidden energy band, which extends from the top of the so-called valence band to the bottom of the conduction band Figure Diagram of behaviour of a semiconductor, TiO2, in light presence and participation in the photocatalytic CO2 reduction organic products.
In general, the process of photocatalytic reduction of CO 2 requires a milder conditions and lower energy consumption than chemical reduction [ 22 ]. Large quantities are used as a raw material in the chemical process industry, especially for urea across CO 2 reaction with NH 3 and later dehydration of the formed carbamate. Urea is the product most used as agricultural fertiliser. It is used in feed for ruminants, as carbon cellulose explosives stabiliser in the manufacture of resins and also for thermosetting plastic products, among others.
Methanol production, where CO is added as additive, is very a well-known reaction. The production is carried out in two steps. The first step is to convert the feedstock natural gas into a synthesis gas stream consisting of CO, CO 2 , H 2 O and hydrogen. This is usually accomplished by the catalytic reforming of feed gas and steam. The second step is the catalytic synthesis of methanol from the synthesis gas.
If an external source of CO 2 is available, the excess hydrogen can be consumed and converted to additional methanol. CO 2 is also used, to make inorganic and organic carbonates, carboxylic acids, polyurethanes and sodium salicylate. Carbon dioxide is combined with epoxides to create plastics and polymers Figure In general, the area of CO 2 utilisation for carbon storage is relatively new and less well known compared to other storage approaches, such as geologic storage.
Thus, more exploratory technological investigations are needed to discover new applications and new reactions. Many challenges exist for achieving successful CO 2 utilisation, including the development of technologies capable of economically fixing CO 2 in stable products for indirect storage. Significant innovation and technical progress are being made across a number of utilisation technologies. The electrochemical reduction could be really attractive because it is an excellent way for renewable energy storage.
This technology uses CO 2 as a feed gas for the production of carbon products with Etogas methanation plant Figure 20 , which are reactor systems for conversion of H 2 and CO 2 to methane synthetic natural gas.
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Source: third Carbon Dioxide Utilisation Summit. DNV GL. The target is the design and development of a technical process able to produce CO 2 -based polyether polycarbonate polyols on a large scale. The first step was to convert the CO 2 in new polyols, and these polyols showed similar properties such as products already on the market and can be processed in conventional plans as well Figure Target product polyurethanes — All rounder among plastics. Source: 3rd Carbon Dioxide Utilisation Summit. Courtesy: Bayer. The CO 2 thus acts as a substitute for the petroleum production of plastics. Polyurethanes are used to produce a wide range of everyday applications.
Light weight polymers are used in the automotive industry, upholstered furniture and mattress manufacturing. In the past years, several projects have been focused in the direct use of flue gases from Combined Cycle Power Plants for developing different applications.
A project developed by Iberdrola and the University of Salamanca shows that carbonic acidification just in the moment when the larva of zebra mussel are in the adequate phase pediveliger causes a much greater lethality than inorganic acids because of the synergistic effect of the lethal hypercapnia by physiological changes in cell metabolism of the larvae. Iberdrola — Universidad de Salamanca. Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.
But this promising solution still has to demonstrate that its implementation on an industrial scale is feasible at a reasonable cost. Today, only 17 large-scale facilities are operational, injecting some 40 million tonnes of vper year. Industrial players are taking an interest in the technology as the only solution likely to enable them to significantly reduce the carbon footprint of their activities. CCS concerns industrial sources where emissions are geographically concentrated. The rapid development of renewable energies limits the scope of CCS for electricity production, which has already embraced the decarbonization process.
However, many heavy industries steel-making, cement plants, refining, chemicals and petrochemicals do not have yet access to substitution technologies enabling them to reduce their CO 2 emissions to any significant degree. CCS is not a new technology: CO 2 capture and separation techniques have been applied in industry for decades, and CO 2 injection has been used since the s for enhanced oil recovery. But for large-scale roll out to be possible, a number of challenges still need to be addressed in order to:. There are two principal methods of capturing CO 2 :. The "Chemical Looping Combustion" process This process is based on the use of metal oxides for the purposes of combustion in the absence of nitrogen.
When metal particles become oxidized, oxygen can be transferred to the combustion zone, thereby separating oxygen from nitrogen. This principle should make it possible to significantly reduce capture costs provided the associated technological challenges are overcome. At present, existing facilities are only suitable for post-combustion flue gas capture.
Chemical Looping requires design changes to facilities, representing a substantial financial investment but making it possible to obtain a very low energy penalty for CO 2 capture. CO 2 capture and separation have been applied in industry for decades. The CO 2 must then be transported to a storage facility, sometimes hundreds of kilometers away.
CO 2 transport is not particularly difficult and is already widely practiced on an industrial scale by both boat and gas pipeline. For the needs of the oil industry, it is transported in gas pipelines in supercritical state at ambient temperature and at pressures over 73 bars , which requires the appropriate compression and injection facilities. The USA has a network of 4, km of such pipelines.
The pooling of CO 2 transport and collection infrastructures in major industrial zones, particularly ports, is being considered.
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Once captured and transported, the CO2 must be injected and stored underground. Deep saline aquifers have been identified as the only geological structures presenting adequate capacities to store large quantities of CO2.
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Mozambique Basin in Mozambique region. Estimating the potential oil, gas and CO2 volumes, risk analysis and economics assessments are used, including Monte Carlos Simulation, expected monetary value EMV scenarios and decision trees. Summary of the PhD project: The use of energy in the different activities, such as oil and gas sectors, steel, cement, aluminium smelter, coal mining, power plants, manufacturing, chemical industries, and others, usually cause carbon dioxide CO2 emission that contributes to the global warming.