Accession WRVA - Address, 4 February , by Governor J. Lindsay Almond, at ceremonies commemorating the th anniversary of the peace conference held in Washington, D. The ceremonies took place at the State Capitol, and marked the opening of the Civil War Centennial observances in Richmond. Almond discusses the history of events leading up to the peace conference, gives information about the delegates from Virginia and their positions, and offers his suggestions as to why the conference failed.
Almond, Louise Ashby. Confederate Soldiers' Home: a report. Alton, Benjamin. Letter, 2 December Letter, 2 December , from Benjamin Alton to Alonzo and Marilla King of DeKalb County, Indiana, concerning his enlistment into the 13th Indiana Regiment as a hired substitute, description of camp life and camp fortifications, and a report of the capture of a railroad south of Richmond, Virginia, by Union troops. In his letter, Alton directs mail to be sent to him in Company D, but the roster of Indiana soldiers states he served in Company A. Amelia County Va. Amelia County Militia enrollment records and unidentified cash account ledger, , , contains a militia enrollment ledger, , containing enrollment lists of persons eligible for militia service, including persons who applied for exemption from militia duty, persons applied to be detailed, persons exempt from militia duty on the basis of number of slaves owned or occupation, list of conscripts in Amelia County, and a list of free negroes.
Lists include date of enrollment, name, age, occupation, birth place, height, eye color, hair color, skin complexion, and how disposed i. Also recorded was a list of deserters and absentees in Amelia County, list of persons forwarded to Camp Lee in Petersburg; monthly reports providing lists of conscripts, persons exempt, and deserters. Loose papers include circulars requesting full accounts of all male free blacks, of all slaves impressed in the county; and a request to post notices as soon as possible.
Also a list of names with numbers beside them, possibly indicating number of slaves owned. First 10 pages of the volume is a business ledger, , possibly of Benjamin Bragg of Amelia County. Ames, Lorin J. Letter, 3 November Letter, 3 November , from Dr. Lorin J. Ames , while serving as a surgeon at a field hospital in City Point, Virginia, to his son Henry D.
Ames b. Subjects include the weather, hospital conditions, and the suffering of the wounded. Anable, Gloria H. Miscellaneous receipts, Collection of Gloria Hollister Anable containing of several receipts signed by prominent Virginia statesmen of the 18th century which were collected by Union Chaplain Reverend Philander Hatch Hollister of the 29th Connecticut Infantry following the Confederate evacuation of Richmond. According to a note by the donor, Gloria Hollister Anable, her paternal grandfather found the signatures in receipt books in the Virginia State House and sent them back home to Stamford, Connecticut.
Includes a black and white photograph of Reverend Hollister and a photograph of the original framed receipts collected by him. Ancell family. Papers, , of the Ancell family and related families of Fluvanna County, Virginia; and Ohio, containing accounts, articles of agreement, Bible records, a military commission, deeds, genealogical notes, letters, military orders, a plat, promissory notes, and receipts.
Correspondence principally concerns Ancell, Pettit and Winn family matters and business transactions and the Civil War. Includes the Civil War letters, , of John J. Ancell received from and sent to family members, friends, and other soldiers and concerning family matters, camp conditions, troop movements, and the weather. Ancell and a military commission from Governor Henry A.
Wise to John J. Collection contains Ancell family correspondence, , concerning family matters and family health and illness. There is also correspondence concerning John J. Ancell's duties as an officer of the Freemasons fraternal organization; deeds and articles of agreement, for the purchase of land and slaves; a plat for land in Flouvanna County; receipts, promissory notes, and accounts, , of the Ancell, Pettit and Winn families; and trustee accounts of William B.
Pettit for Mary E. Pettit Collection also contains Bible records and genealogical notes for the for the Bugg-Shores, Ancell, and Winn families. Anderson Seminary Petersburg, Va. Papers, , of the Anderson Seminary in Petersburg, Virginia, containing a letter from Charles Campbell giving the number of pupils in attendance during the school year and reporting the death of a student; and an account of money, , for subscriptions for purchasing shoes for enrolled students.
Anderson, Charles E. Discharge papers, Discharge papers, and , for Charles E.
2. Search Tips
Anderson b. Anderson, Charles J. Recollections, 15 May Anderson, James Patton. Autobiography, Anderson, Joseph R. Papers, of Joseph R.
Anderson consisting of insignia and the commission of Joseph R. Anderson as brigadier general, as well as letters from Robert E. Papers, , of Joseph R. Includes business correspondence regarding purchases of iron and munitions from Tredegar. Of note are letters and orders from the Confederate States Ordnance Department. Also includes correspodence with Robert A. Brock regarding the Anderson family genealogy. Anderson, Lucy London.
Letter, 1 August , from Lucy London Anderson b. Anderson, Richard Heron. Accession , Miscellaneous Reel Includes a description of the Battle of Gettysburg in Andrews, John T. Letters, Accession Letters, , from John T. He comments on the weather, conditions, and deserters from both Union and Confederate forces. Letters, , written by John T. Topics include a detailed account of the Battle of Boydton Plank Road, troop movements, skirmishes, constructing breastworks, and the bravery of the United States Colored Troops.
He also writes about his court-martial for disobeying orders, the interference of Colonel William M. Gregg on his behalf, and his eventual promotion to second lieutenant. Other subjects include the siege of Petersburg, witnessing explosions at Fort Stedman, Confederate advances, and his unit's readiness in the event of attack. There is one post-war letter written where Andrews invites his father and uncle to visit him while he is stationed in Alexandria, and he writes about the eagerness of the troops to return home.
Anthony family. Letters give detailed accounts of military life, including a tour of duty at Jamestown, Virginia. Arthur , brothers of Almira Anthony, who served in the 58th Virginia Infantry. Other letters are to or from other members of the Anthony family in Bedford County, and discuss personal and religious matters during the Civil War and Reconstruction. Accession and Letters are primarily to Charles Anthony , his daughter Callie J. Brandon , and his granddaughter Charles Anthony and discuss family news, births, marriages, and deaths in the community, farming, travel, health, and the Civil War.
Of particular note is a letter, 8 May , concerning the Monitor-Merrimac battle. Estate papers include information on the administrations of the estates of William Black, Achilles M. Douglas, John L. Subject files contain affidavits, bonds, commissions, and oaths, contracts and agreements, deeds, diplomas and certificates, depositions, an muster roll, obituaries, plats and surveys, poetry and lyrics, post office drafts, powers of attorney, promissory notes, genealogical information, school exercises, miscellaneous suit papers, summonses, and a copy of the will, , of Elizabeth Anthony.
EAD Guide. Anthony, Callie J. Letter, 5 February Letter, 5 February , to Callie J. The cousin writes that he is pleased at receiving her letter and talks about marrying in the spring. Anthony, Charles. Oath, 29 May Apperson, John S. Apperson and Black diaries, Diary, , of John S. Apperson detailing his Civil War experiences as a hospital steward in the Stonewall Brigade, transcribed by Dr. William G. Bean ; and diary, and , of Dr. Archer, Fletcher Harris. Letter, 9 July Thomas, captain of the Isle of Wight militia. Cairns regarding arms from North[? Archer, Robert P. Letter, 28 August Letter, 28 August , from Robert P.
Arlington County Va. Reverend Albert Gladwin was the first Superintendent of Contrabands and his successors kept up the register after his departure. The book records death, burial, and marriage information about freedmen and free blacks in the Alexandria area. Courts Martial Book, Military District of Alexandria, , contains general orders convening the court martial, lists of the detail for the court, special orders appointing new or additional members, and lists of the soldiers who appeared before the court.
Information recorded for each soldier includes name, company, regiment, witnesses, summons sent to appear, date case commenced, date case finished, and date case sent to headquarters. The soldiers are all from Union or United States army units. Volume also includes [Census of the Black Population of Alexandria County], Surnames Q-Y and B only, , recording name, color black, mulatto, quadroon, octoroon , sex, age, status, occupation, and number of district; as well as summaries and estimates by district numbers and "outside city" of the numbers of persons in each of these categories.
Arter family. Letters, , Arter, and mentioning the raid on Sherwood Forest and items taken. There are transcripts of both letters. Ashby, John A. Descriptive list and pay and clothing account, 19 April Descriptive list and pay and clothing account, 19 April , for Private John A. Ashby of Company A, 12th Virginia Cavalry. Ashby-Thornton-Dickerson family. In part photocopies. Genealogical notes of the Ashby, Thornton, and Dickerson families of Virginia, and includes information on the Camp, Fitzhugh, and Strother families. Collection consists of a volume compiled by Mary Ashby Camp d.
Geographic areas in which the families lived include Culpeper and Stafford Counties and Petersburg, Virginia, and England. Aspinwall, S. Letters, 14 March and 13 October , from S. Aspinwall, a Union soldier, to his sister. Atherton, Arlon S. Letter, 7 June Letter, 7 June , from Arlon S. Atkinson, Neville Lemmon. Reminiscences, Atkinson, W. Report, 17 March Atkinson, lieutenant in the Engineer Corps of the Confederate Army.
The report discusses salt deposits in Virginia, including the counties of Amherst, Bedford, Botetourt, Lee, Mecklenburg, Montgomery, Pittsylvania, and Roanoke, and in what would become West Virginia, including the counties of Mercer and Monroe. Atwood, White and Company Philadelphia, Pa.
Letter, 1 February Hopkins in Lexington, Kentucky, referring to some business matters but principally concerning the view of Pennsylvanians for Virginians at the start of the Civil War. The author writes of the friendly regard of Pennsylvanians toward their border states and their irritation toward states further from Pennsylvania.
Civil War Records
Augusta County Va. Volume of Free Negro and Slave Records, The first is a List of Quarter Masters Stores etc. Avent, Tamlin. Letter, 9 March Letter, 9 March , from Tamlin Avent b. He also writes about the effects of the Civil War on his family, his plantation, and Greensville County. There is also a typescript copy of the letter. Avery, Daisy Lester. Papers, , of Daisy Lester Avery of Richmond, Virginia, including correspondence and subject files, mainly relating to her involvement with the United Confederate Veterans and the United Daughters of the Confederacy. The collection also contains letters of her son, James Thomas Avery, Jr.
Ayre, Ellen. Letter, 19 February Letter, 19 February , from Ellen Ayre of Loudoun County, Virginia, to her friend Minnie, discussing mutual acquaintances, family news, including the financial troubles of her uncle William Benton b. Babcock, Horace G. Letters, 11 October and 20 December Letters, 11 October and 2 December , from Horace G. Babcock ca. Babcock describes military life and combat with the enemy, including nearly being wounded; worries that there are cowards in his regiment; comments on flooding back in McKean County; and states that he saw General George B.
McClellan Babcock mentions a house was taken over by the military for its use. Bagby, George W. Letters, , to George W. Bagby, Tappahannock, Virginia, from family, friends, and business associates. Include a letter, June , from his nephew, Lewis R. Boswell, prisoner at Fort Delaware, regarding his ill health, diet, and asking for help in obtaining his release and that of Jarold D. Topics of other letters include health, the estate of Nancy Radford, family, death of a family member in the war, and insurance.
Bagby, John R. Letters, 19 January April , from John R. Bagby, while serving in the Confederate Army, to his wife, Bettie P. Bagby describing camp life, the life of a soldier, battle, and family events. Bahlmann, William F. Down in the ranks. Memoirs of William F. Bahlmann entitled "Down in the ranks" detailing Bahlmann's exploits while serving as captain of Company K, 22nd Virginia Infantry. Bahlmann offers a comprehensive view of the life of the soldier in the Civil War through his description of camp life, food and supplies, death of comrades, interaction of Union and Confederate soldiers, health and medical care, and the battle of Droop Mountain.
Record is a typed transcript. In the memoirs were published in the Journal of the Greenbrier Historical Society. Baird, William. Essay, Baker, Joseph D. Letter, 9 July , from Joseph D. Baker comments on the regiment's casualties and captured. He asks his brother to get John Albin to write him and tells his brother that he should not enlist, but stay home.
Baker comments on the commanders of the regiment. Baker, Joseph W. Confederate service record, Confederate service record of Joseph W. Baker of Louisa County, Virginia, copied by his son J. Baker in from shorthand notes made in Record is of Joseph W. Baker, Josiah L. Damage claim, no date. Damage claim, no date, of Josiah L. Baker b. Includes a list of the types of damages, and the estimated value of the items destroyed.
Baldwin, Abel Seymour. Medical papers, Included are copies of letters sent by Baldwin; and account book itemizing lists and costs of supplies, especially food supplies; a case book, and a furlough book. Baldwin, Luman E. Letters, , from Luman E. Topics include troop movement, battle of Salem Church Virginia during the Chancellorsville Campaign, his parents move out west, and a visit to Richmond after the war ended. Also included is a piece of grass that Baldwin took from Richmond. Banning, Mrs. Invitation, 20 December Invitation, 20 December , to Mrs.
Van Derlip. Barclay, A. Civil War letters, Typescript copies of letters, , from A. Barclay comments on camp life and conditions and on the death of General Stonewall Jackson and the changes in organization as a result and upon the assumption of command of the Union army by Ulysses S.
Grant Barker, Moses. Barker ca. Barker describes picket duties, rations he receives, and religious services he attends. He discusses news of acquaintances in the army and asks after family and friends in Pittsylvania County. Barker offers advice concerning the education and upbringing of his children. He also mentions the battle of Big Bethel and fighting around Petersburg, Virginia. Collection includes a letter from Barker to his daughters Martha J.
Barker providing fatherly advice. Many of the letters are nearly illegible. Barker, William James. Discharge, 21 April Discharge is signed by Colonel D. Weisiger , commander of the 12th Virginia. Barnes, Thomas Rufus. Letter, 12 September Letter, 12 September , from Thomas Rufus Barnes d. Barnes also asks how the presidential contest is going in Ritchie County and adds that he is a Lincoln man.
Barry, William Farquhar. Letter, 18 April Bartlett, Chauncey Leroy. Letter, 14 September Letter, 14 September , from Chauncey Leroy Bartlett b. Bartlett writes about troop movements through Virginia, including through White Sulphur Springs and Manassas to Bull Run, burning enemy wagons and taking prisoners, skirmishes fought, and he gives his opinions concerning General Franz Sigel , slavery and abolition, and Southern independence.
Barton, William Stone. Letter, 30 May Order, 30 April Anderson at Aquia Creek requesting he return to camp with drummers and all music taken and report to officer of the day. Barton also includes instructions on drilling his men. Bates, James Allen. Correspondence, orders, passes, returns, and rolls concern the Veteran Reserve Corps at Hammond General Hospital, including the th Company. Battey, Henry L. Letters, , from Henry L. Also included is an order for medals and the names of soldiers from the 2nd Rhode Island who are to receive them. Battlefield Markers Association Richmond, Va.
Records, Photocopies, carbon copies, photographs, and photonegative. Records, , of the Battlefield Markers Association of Richmond, Virginia, consisting of a loose-leaf volume containing photographs and texts of Civil War markers erected in Richmond and the surrounding counties of Chesterfield, Hanover, and Henrico by the Rotary Club markers were verified and photographed by the Richmond Civil War Round Table in ; minutes and resolutions of the Battlefield Markers Association and lists of trustees, donors, and aldermen; lists of markers, text for markers, and sketches for placement; drawings of marker designs and photographs of dedication ceremony for the battlefield markers at Walnut Grove Church Hanover County ; certificates of incorporation for the association and receipts; clippings and program for the dedication ceremony at Walnut Grove Church; and correspondence, and , concerning the design of the markers, placement of the markers, and other matters relating to the association.
Correspondence is maily to and from J. Ambler Johnston , secretary of the association. Baugh, William Fielding. Letter, 4 December Stewart , concerning the Battle of the Crater which took place on 30 July during the seige of Petersburg. Baugh was a lieutenant in Company G, 61st Virginia Infantry.
Original of this letter is located in William Fielding Baugh papers, , accession Letters home, Accession Transcribed by Roy N. Cain in Includes a brief biography in the prologue, a few copies of letters and envelopes, and a photograph of his tombstone in Dinwiddie County, Virginia. Transcriptions published as Letters Home: Letters of Lt. Baugh CSA Co. G 61st Va. There is an updated 5th printing which contains more letters than located in this collection. Papers, bulk: Baugh records camp news, discusses family matters, and notes efforts to get leaves of absence. He comments on clothing, food, and supplies.
Collection include some letters written by family members to Baugh. Most letters are published in Letters Home: Letters of Lt. Baugh Co. Cain 5th printing. The following letters are not in the published volume: Amanda C. Baugh to William F. Baugh, 25 March ; Amanda C. Baugh, 15 January ; William F. Baugh to Amanda C. Baugh, 19 December ; Virginius N. Baugh, 12 April ; H.
Reid to William F. Baugh, 3 October The original of one of the letters dated 4 December is located at the Eleanor S. Bayless, W. Letter, 16 December Letter, 16 December , from W. Bayless of Company B, 1st Tennessee Infantry, to his mother detailing his regiment's march from home, to Staunton, Virginia, and its final destination of Strasburg, Virginia. He describes Staunton and the surrrounding countryside.
Bayless also mentions his plans to move to another regiment. Baylor, W. Papers, , of W. Baylor of Petersburg, Virginia, consistiong of: a commission, 5 February , as assistant surgeon in the Confederate army from Secretary of War Judah P. Benjamin ; oath of allegiance, 6 April , of W. Baylor; two letters, 7 September and 8 November , from George A. Otis , assistant surgeon-general, to Baylor transmitting abstracts of cases treated at the Confederate hospital in Petersburg during October and June ; and a letter, 20 April , from Charles H. Military order, 2 September Photostat negative.
Special order no. Baylor temporarily relieving him from duty at the Confederate Hospital and reassigning him to other duties immediately. Beadles, George Andrew, Jr. Papers, , Papers, , , of George Andrew Beadles, Jr. Beall, John Bramblett. He also gives a description of Lynchburg, and writes about his duties as an officer, lack of clothing and supplies, and visits with friends and news of fellow soldiers. He requests Merrell to write more, encloses poetry to her, and reminiscences about their time together. Also included is a letter concerning genealogy on the Beall family, as well as an unidentified tintype and a photograph of Beall when he was in his later years.
Bean, Thomas. Reminiscences, no date. Reminiscences, no date, of Thomas Bean b. These reminiscences were apparently dictated to, and written by, an unknown individual. They begin with his capture by Confederate soldiers during the Battle of Weldon Railroad in August , and detail his subsequent imprisonment at Belle Isle and Libby Prisons in Richmond, as well as the military prison at Salisbury, North Carolina.
They include details of the searches to which the prisoners were subjected, rations allowed, descriptions of the buildings and grounds, and the conditions which they endured. A hand-drawn map of Belle Isle prison is also included. Beard also provides information on her family during this time, stating that two brothers served in Company G, 31st Virginia Infantry. These recollections first appeared as an article in the Pocahontas Times 4 November Beard, William M. Essays, 26 July Essays, 26 July , written by William M.
Beard , Commander-in-Chief of the Sons of Confederate Veterans, and an unidentified author, on religion in the Confederacy. The essays were written in commemoration of the 91st Manassas Battlefield celebration. Topics include support of the Confederacy by various denominations, the suffering endured by their congregations, destruction to their churches, the clergy's loyal oratory and their service in the Confederate army, the spirit of piety in its troops, and the work of Archbishop Jean-Marie Odin , as well as the American Bible Society.
Beauregard, G. File copies of letters and telegrams, , of General G. Also includes an invoice of ordnance and orndance stores. Letter, 19 November Letter, 19 November , from G. Beckley, Alfred. Diary also notes some of the battles that were raging in Richmond, Virginia, Fayette and Raleigh Counties, West Virginia, and includes some personal financial information. Bell, Charles H. Letter, 12 May Letter, 12 May , from Charles H. Bell b. Bell writes about skirmishing with the enemy and the tactics used by both sides, the surrender of Confederate soldiers, and he describes the scene of thousands of Union troops waiting to cross the Rappahannock River.
A transcription of the letter is included. Bell, Miller G. Letter, 3 May Letter, 3 May , from Miller G. Bell ca. Benjamin, Judah P. Letter, 25 March Letter, 25 March , from Judah P. Benjamin , Richmond, Virginia, to A. Stuart , Staunton, Virginia, requesting that Stuart come to Richmond as soon as possible for a conference with Jefferson Davis Bennett, C. Receipts, 4 March Receipts, 4 March , of Coleman D. Receipt, 4 March Receipt, 4 March , issued by C. Bennett , sheriff of Pittsylvania County, Virginia, for the hire of Ceaser [sic] and Len, slaves of Samuel Hairston for work on fortifications in the department.
Payment ordered by Colonel W. Stevens Bennett, Edgar B. Letter, 13 November Letter, 13 November , from Edgar B. He also notes that General William Sherman has captured Atlanta, Georgia, and is moving towards Charleston, South Carolina, and adds that it is the job of the army in front of Petersburg to occupy Robert E. Lee's army so that it cannot move against Sherman. He adds that he is disappointed in the presidential election. Includes ribbon bits. Bennett, Risden Tyler. Speech, 10 May Berkeley family. Accession , Miscellaneous Reel 2.
Papers, , of the Berkeley family of Aldie, Loudoun County, Virginia, containing correspondence pertaining to the following members of the Berkeley family: Lewis Berkeley, his sons, Edmund and William N. Berkeley, and Francis L. Other correspondents include Thomas Griffin, A.
Ramsey, C. Smith, George G. Thompson, P. Thompson, Beverley Tucker, and William Waller. The letters are mostly of a personal nature, discusssing college life, family news, farming, politics, and the Civil War. Berlin, Ira, editor. Records of southern plantations from emancipation to the great migration.
Collection consists of papers and records of postbellum tobacco and cotton plantations in North Carolina and Virginia, dating and containing personal and family correspondence, store account books, rental account books, farm ledgers, legal records, cash books, and a diary. Contains information on the credit system that developed following the war, postbellum store owners and the accounts of freedmen, the Freedmen's Bureau, the southern labor system including African American wage labor, sharecroppers, the African American experience following the Civil War, African American politicians, slavery, abolitionism and abolitionists, and Civil War, Reconstruction and New South politics.
Bernard, D. Order, 2 February Copy of Special Order No. Bernard, George S. Papers, , no date. Papers, and no date, of George S. Bernard of Petersburg, Virginia, consisting of letters, , from Pattie B. Cowles of Petersburg to Bernard while serving in the Petersburg Rifles later Company E, 12th Virginia Infantry stationed in Norfolk, Virginia, describing life in Petersburg in the early days of the Civil War; providing social and family news and gossip; declaring the devotion of the women of Petersburg to the cause and to the men who have left to fight; commenting on Alabama and South Carolina troops which have passed through Petersburg; and stating that President Jefferson Davis passed through Petersburg.
Papers also include an undated speech praising the men and women of the Confederacy and their continuing contributions. Betts, Luther. Papers of Luther Betts of the 9th Virginia Cavalry Regiment, including an order, 6 March , for cavalry detail, and parole, 2 May Beverley, Jane Eliza Carter. Includes information on Civil War action in the surrounding area, and her personal recollections of General Robert E. Lee These reminiscences were transcribed by Robert Beverley Herbert b. Bevier, Isaac. Letter, 5 July Letter, 5 July , from Isaac Bevier b.
He discusses the fighting and a flag that his regiment captured as well as news of camp life, including some souvenirs he and others have picked up. Letter, 15 September Letter, 15 September , from Isaac Bevier of Company E, 44th New York Infantry, to his parents detailing the second battle of Manassas Bull Run , his wounding, and his stay in the hospital including work as a nurse.
He also comments on the campaigning leading up to the battle of Antietam. Also includes a casualty list for the 44th New York. Beville, Ella. Notebook, Hardaway d. Bidgood, Joseph Virginius. Black concerning the War of military record of Obadiah Hawkins ca. Billingsly, Joseph. Letters, December Billingsly outlines his military duties, describes the condition of his winter quarters, and discusses the weather.
Billingsly also tells of washing clothes on Christmas Day and asks about his family. Bills, George. Letter, 27 April Letter, 27 April , from George Bills d. He states that the army is raising breastworks and that sharpshooters fire at anyone who shows his head. Bills writes that soldiers often talk about when they will be heading home and that he expects they will be paid soon.
Bills also sends Calvin a power of attorney and some apple tree seeds. He asks Calvin to send a fine comb because of lice and ticks. There is also a transcript. Binford, William F. Autograph collection, Autograph collection, , of William F. Binford, Jr. Collection contains signatures of prominent Confederate and Union military figures from letters, military records, legal documents, receipts, as well as clipped signatures. Also included is published biographical information for some of the individuals. Binns family. In part, photostats. Papers include birth and marriage information; a list of slaves owned by various family members; a letter from Charles H.
Binns, Jr. Birdsong, James C. Reminiscences of Civil War service, no date. Reminiscences of Civil War service by James C. Birdsong also mentions his being a prisoner of war. Blackford, Benjamin Lewis. Sketchbook, Accession c. In part photographs and negatives. Sketchbook, , of Benjamin Lewis Blackford of Lynchburg, Virginia, containing sketches of Spotsylvania County, Virginia, the ruins of Chancellorsville, Virginia, soldiers, and other landscapes. Blackford, William Willis.
Memoirs: First and Last, or Battles in Virginia. Memoirs of William Willis Blackford entitled "First and Last, or Battles in Virginia," are a typed transcript that detail, chronologically by campaign, the exploits of Blackford while serving as a cavalry officer with the 1st Virginia Cavalry Regiment under Jeb Stuart and as an officer with the Engineer Corps. These memoirs are very anecdotal, and were published in as War Years With Jeb Stuart reprinted Blackington, R.
Letter, 4 November Letter, 4 November , from R. Blackington of Company I, 20th Maine Infantry, in Culpeper County, Virginia, to his mother Louisa Blackington detailing how the regiment stripped homes for items to use in camp, providing other news, and asking for stockings that he can sell. Blair, Luther R. Parole, 8 May Parole, 8 May , of Luther R. Fletcher, Danville, Virginia.
Blair, William B. Accession x. Letter, 9 June , from William Barrett Blair b. Blaisdell, George. Letter, 26 October Blanchard, Henry T. Letter, 9 November , from Henry T. Blanchard writes about recent battles with the enemy, including those at Brandy Station and Rappahannock Station, as well as the taking of prisoners, the location of various troops, and the cold weather.
Letter, 27 August Letter, 27 August , from Henry T. Blanchard also adds a postscript to his brother. Bland County Va. Bland County, Virginia, Pleas, Board of Military Exemption Minutes and Board of Supervisors Minute Book, bulk , document specific types of records as noted related to county court orders such as the appointments of various Constitutional officers of the county and exemption board rulings, , related to permanent bodily infirmity during the Civil War years when paper was scarce.
Pages for these two sections are not numbered. There are loose papers in this section between pages and Blanvelt, William L. Letter, 28 December Letter, 28 December , from William L. Blanvelt, Lewinsville, Fairfax County, Virginia, to his brother. Topics include a recent battle at Dranesville Fairfax County , weather, Christmas, and views on the war.
The letter was written on letterhead illustrated with a portrait of General McClellan. Bledsoe family. Papers, , of the Bledsoe family of Fentress County, Tennessee; the Hinds family of Barren County, Kentucky; and the Conlee family of Washington County, Illinois; as well as from members of the families who settled in other parts of Tennessee and Kentucky and settled in California and Iowa. Letters consist mainly of social and family news of the three families.
Of particular interest are letters, , from William M. Bledsoe to his wife Sarah Hinds Bledsoe b. Hinds and James M. Bliss, Lyman B. Letter, 16 July Letter, 16 July , from Lyman B. Bliss b. Bliss comments that he was not at the fight because of his health, which he elaborates on. He also mentions his brother Samuel ca. Board, Francis Howard. Letter, 11 February Dearing, and troop movements. Bock, Linda Wilkinson. In part Photocopies. Bock ; Bock and Wilkinson families; William L.
Includes papers of William Fanning Wilkinson concerning the Civil War and his loyalty oath, and papers concerning the Sons of Confederate Veterans. Boggs family. Includes a biographical sketch of Francis Makemie ca. Compiled by Myra Boggs with assistance from Dorothy Bonniwell. Boggs, F. Letter, 31 March Letter, 31 March , from F. Hays Otey , Captain of Otey's Artillery Company, Danville, Virginia, regarding the placement of artillery for the defenses of Danville without Boggs' orders, and that the guns are not to be positioned anywhere until there is a necessity.
Includes a note, 1 April , from Colonel R. Withers , commanding at Danville, stating that he had ordered the guns placed and they could not be moved. Boisseau, Mary Leigh. Abstracts of the proceedings of the Board of Exemption for Pittsylvania County, Virginia, in , compiled by Mary Leigh Boisseau of Danville, Virginia, in , consisting abstracts of the minutes of the Pittsylvania County Board of Exemptions concerning the evaluation of applications of soldiers for discharge from military duty.
Abstracts list the name of the soldier, application disposition approved or rejected , and cause, if approved. There are handwritten corrections made by the compiler. Tom was silent, too — there was no whistling now! I noticed his face was already blackened where a sod had already struck him.
Jack was a wild cutter. You could see the difference, plain as day. Any fool could know he was raw at the work. Although he was awkward, Jack cut as fast as my father for the first three spit. I was glad of the break because my hands were getting a bit sore and looked as if they might blister. We all washed in a boghole,. Tom broke into his whistling again, as if he were fresh as a daisy. Jack made a fire out of dry clods and twists of newspaper.
It lit grand and in no time the kettle was singing. We dangled our legs over a heathery bank and ate our fill of the sandwiches my mother had prepared. Slices of rasher between thick cuts of soda bread — greasy and lovely. I picked the fat bits off and threw them away; I noticed Tom was doing the same but my father and Jack ate like horses, all the time staring silently across the flatness. I said I would, no bother, and jumped to my feet to show my mettle.
There were a lot of men about now, mostly in twos. You could hear faint voices drifting over, like the smoke from the fires which were everywhere. It was like nothing I ever saw before, like another world. It was hard to imagine ordinary places like school ever existed. I thought grown-ups must surely have a great time.
We rested for half an hour. Nobody said much, just listened to the broad silence and gazed at the tiny, distant figures here and there. I did a bit of gazing, too, as I presumed that was the way real bogmen acted. A couple of crows came out of nowhere and hovered above us, watching for scraps.
When my father put on his cap it was time to rise. I flew in and out of the spreadground, not worrying about any sods I lost. Once, my hands slipped off the shafts and I ended up with my face buried in the damn turf. Tom let. Jack had stripped to his vest now, his balled shirt flung away into the hollow. Out of the side of my eye I noticed his muscles bulging and, soon, I got to wondering if he could be as strong as my father. Or stronger? Half laughing. When the seventh spit was cut we stopped for more tea. My father slipped a bit when he was climbing up to the bank and I gave him a hand.
He smiled kinda strangely and ruffled my hair. Talking big. The head of him! The grub tasted just as sweet as before. We polished everything off, not a crumb left, and settled to rest for a while. I noticed how Jack lay flat on his back and closed his eyes. The big sods had got the better of him, I He glanced sideways as Jack rose, smart as a hound, and again peeled off his shirt. I felt an odd tightness in the bottom of my stomach. There was hardly any talk as the eighth and ninth spits were being cut.
They were down very deep in the bog now and it was getting harder to throw the sods up. Jack was keeping a close eye on my father and I knew he was doing his level best to cut him out. I put extra sods on the barrow, piled them as high as I could, raced faster, but still he kept gaining ground. Also, he never took a second look upwards, just kept on flinging as fast as he could — the crown of his peaked cap was all I could see. Once or twice, a sod caught me hard in the face but there was another zooming up before I had time to wipe the stain away. Coming to the end of the tenth spit they were still neck and neck.
On the eleventh spit I knew for sure that my father was done. A lot of his sods hit the side of the steep bank and landed right back at his feet. The odd time he did look up at me his eyes seemed far away and almost sad. His face was pure red and his cap was twisted at an odd angle. I smiled too, forced myself. My father and Jack took bottles of beer, myself and Tom had orange juice. I think a part of him was proud of Jack.
We passed through Dunbeg at twenty past eight and finally got back on the road I knew. My father patted my head and I twisted on the hard bar, gazed up into his face. I wondered if he might have let Jack best him — surely nobody could top my father at anything? Then, as we were freewheeling down the windy brae by the graveyard, I remembered a story he had told me once, while I was picking potatoes with him.
It was about when he was young, like Jack, and his own father and himself were digging together. His exact words rang in my. I felt sad and alone for a few seconds, and I hated Jack even more, but then I remembered how my father finished that story by saying he never regretted anything as much. Martin was a native of Cloonlurg, Ballymote, and was born in He won numerous literary prizes, including the Hennessy Award for Dead Fathers.
He received an Arts Council Bursary in He was the short story editor of Force Much has been written over the years in The Corran Herald about the Taaffe family which once held the titles of baron Ballymote, viscount Corran and earl of Carlingford. When I was a schoolboy I liked to take trips on my bicycle on the byroads around Ballymote. On one such outing I came across a gate pillar at the entrance to.
In recent years I have tried to locate the sundial again, but could not find it. Ballymote Heritage Group would be interested to know if If so please contact any memory of the committee, or email the editor of The Corran Herald at stephen. In the same period, six vessels sailed from Kilrush in Co Clare to Glasgow carrying a total of 6, barrels of oats. Throughout both Indian corn and potatoes were exported from Ireland. A wide variety of other foodstuffs left Ireland apart from livestock — vegetables and pulses particularly peas, beans and onions , dairy products, fish especially salmon, oysters and herrings and even rabbits.
The butter export trade was particularly buoyant. In the first week of , for example, 4, firkins of butter a firkin equals nine gallons were exported from Ireland to Liverpool. In the following week, this had risen to 4, firkins. Large quantities of butter were exported from Cork to. Ports situated in some of the most On the subject of Famine in Ireland, there is one constant question: Why famine-stricken parts of Ireland were sending cargoes of foodstuffs did so many die in a land of plenty? When a country is full of food and exporting it, there can be no Famine.
In the first nine months of , 56, firkins of butter were exported to Bristol and 34, firkins to Liverpool. During the same period, 3, poultry were exported to Liverpool and 2, to Bristol. An Englishman himself, and born into deep poverty, he was finally forced to emigrate, and died in destitution in a squalid boarding house in Toronto in Of these, died during the passage. On arrival in Quebec, 24 died on the ship while waiting to disembark, and a further 62 died in the hospital on Grosse Ile. On 16 May, the Aldebaran arrived from Sligo with passengers. Of these, 36 died on route, were sick on arrival, and more than 80 of them subsequently died in quarantine.
The Lord Ashburton arrived in Quebec in October of with passengers aboard. Eighty seven had to be clothed by charity before they were allowed. Serving twice as Prime Minister, Palmerston was in political office almost continuously from until In the The Lady Sale disembarked in September with close to passengers.
Perley, the emigration agent at the port, reported that he had never seen such abject misery. Even worse was to come with the arrival of the Aeolus on 1 November of that year to New Brunswick. The Bay of Fundy was icebound, the streets knee deep in snow and the passengers in a state of nudity. The City of St John had to take them into care and, outraged,.
Who so tame as would not feel indignant at the outrage? What must the elephant do? Squelch it — by heavens — squelch it. The Carricks was a two-masted brig 4 of tons, built at Workington, England, in Ships like this were expressly built for the purpose of carrying Canadian lumber to England. They were then quickly refitted to carry emigrants, effectively as ballast, on the return voyage. In early , at the outbreak of the cholera epidemic in Quebec, Potts and Co were registered owners of the Carricks. She had 14 Her length was 87 feet, with a width of 26 feet. Her hull was sheathed with copper in and again in She underwent repairs and received a new deck in , and also received a new deck, top sides and new sheathing in When wrecked in she was an old vessel of 35 years of age.
On board there were passengers plus the crew members, for about in total. These passengers came from Palmerston estates all over Sligo. They included Patrick Kaveney and Sarah McDonald and their six children — five daughters aged between two and ten, and a twelve-year-old son. Many of the tragedies of that time were memorialised in verse and song by fireside poets.
He faints in anguish, his heart is broken. If they ever returned they would take the coals back home — the living flame. No priest to comfort, no friend to grieve. In a kneeling posture he was discovered On a tragic morning one Christmas Eve — Author unknown What was the voyage like aboard one of these ships? Gulf of St Lawrence. The captain, having lost his way in poor visibility, was wrecked on a reef about four miles East of Cap des Rosier at the tip of the Gaspe peninsula. Numbers of souls lost vary with different reports; however, it appears that of the passengers embarked at Sligo, nine had already died on the voyage and a further died due to the wreck, leaving 48 survivors.
Of the crew, all survived except for one boy. Among those saved by locals the Whalens and the Packwoods and who stayed and settled at Jersey Cove were Patrick Kaveney and his wife, Sarah MacDonald, and one of their sons Martin, aged Five others of their children were among those drowned in the wreck.
Local man Donald Delisle revealed at an anniversary mass celebrated in April the strange experience of Father Doolan on the night of the tragedy. Fr Doolan was parish priest for the district and based in nearby Douglastown. On the night of the tragedy he was in Grande Greve approximately ten miles from Cap des Rosier. On arriving at the horrible scene, his worst fears were confirmed and he immediately set about administering to the survivors and praying for the drowned. The good Irish priest, taking the shoes from his own feet, put them on the poor man and, walking barefooted himself, led him to a place of refuge.
Local fishermen saved 48 passengers, but 87 bodies were washed ashore in the following days and buried in a mass grave. On 8 July, 21 left aboard the Maria Julia. A week later 15 others left on the Emerald. A dozen survivors settled around Douglastown and other locations on the Gaspe Peninsula. After appealing to an official seigneurie for land, without. His wife, Sarah, gave birth to four other children between and While she was pregnant with.
Pat Ward explaining to Georges how they come to be related her fourth child, tragedy struck again. He never reached his destination. Four days later his body was found on the ice. It seems he had lost his way in a fog and became disoriented. Losing track of where the opposite shore was, he circled on the ice until it cracked beneath him. She died aged 85 in Her grave overlooks the sea that took her five daughters in the April gale in An Irish flag flies there days a year.
Ship Carricks of Whitehaven 87 are buried here. Pray for their souls. The monument serves as a reminder of the fate of these unfortunate Irish. The incident is vividly remembered and commemorated by the descendants of the survivors in Canada each year. Special events are held there every year to mark anniversaries of the sinking. Mass was celebrated by Fr Allard in the morning and attended by over people, many of them descendants of the survivors.
The choir at the church, from Douglastown, sang many Irish songs. In his sermon Fr Allard recalled the events of years After the Mass a few brave souls proceeded to the monument site. One hundred and sixty years after the event it is a wonderful and moving thing that you have not forgotten the tragedy that befell so many when the Carricks of Whitehaven, full of Sligo people fleeing from famine, was wrecked on your shores.
Your hearts were big in your generous response then, and it is very touching that the same generosity exists among your people today. Hopefully sometime in the near future our towns will be twinned — united in kinship and historic and fateful events that have brought us together. Until that time when our ties and bonds are strengthened forever I wish you hearts and hands across the water. God bless you all. After an absence of years, the francophone descendants of Patrick Kaveney and Sarah McDonald from Keash crossed the Atlantic to visit the homestead their forbears were forced to leave during the height of the Great Hunger.
This came about as part of a documentary film project funded. Patrick Kaveney and his family left Cross, near Keash, on a morning early in April , and walked the twenty miles to the port of Sligo. Now, their direct descendant, Georges Kavanagh, arrived to see for himself what remained of the culture his great-great grandparents brought with them to the New World.
A retired civil servant, Kavanagh is an amateur historian and a gifted storyteller with an astute sense of the past. Now in his seventies and a fourth-generation Quebecois of Irish origin, he has devoted over 50 years to preserving his family history — a story of diaspora that began in Sligo in April , yet one that never found its way into official narratives of the famine tragedy. On Saturday, 15 May , the Kavanaghs visited the ancestral home in Cross and later attended a music session at the Fox and Hounds pub owned by their cousin, Pat Ward.
The following day they visited the port of Sligo from where the Carricks sailed, and the old workhouse where thousands of famine victims lie buried in mass graves. However the gate was closed and no welcome, apology or expression of regret. Bodies Discovered And still the story continues. According to the Canadian newspaper the National Post, on Wednesday 27 July , over a century and a half after the wreck, the Parks Canada archaeologist Martin Perron was at Cap-des-Rosiers to monitor the moving of the Carricks monument as part of counter-erosion work.
While digging an exploratory trench, Mr Perron discovered human bones. In the weeks that followed archaeologists identified the skeletons of four adults and three children or small people Archaeologists have also identified the fragments of an eighth skeleton which appears to be that of an adult. Skeletons are placed perpendicular to the sea, feet towards the ocean. They lie between 85cm one metre deep.
Archaeologists photographed the bones and drew up surveys of the position of the bodies. They will be exhumed and shipped to the Conservation Centre and Parks Canada collection in Ottawa where bone specialists will analyse them to determine the age and sex of individuals, as well as the approximate date of burial.
Perron has dug graves and conducted investigations in Quebec and Syria. But the emotion remains, he said. His grandfather was Arthur Kavanagh, born in Mr Kavanagh lent credence to the words of his grandfather, but has long clashed with authorities who had doubts about the story. It has even been said to me that there has already been some research, and nothing was found. My personal opinion is that they were not citizens of Cap-des-Rosiers. It was not their goal, they got there by pure accident, in catastrophe. Edited by DKM Snell. The magnificent, 14th-century manuscript known as the Book of Ballymote, now preserved in the Royal Irish Academy Library in Dublin, is one of the cultural jewels of late medieval Ireland.
It was produced at Ballymote Castle around the year , and is an iconic artefact, wellknown for its striking illumination. But while many people will be familiar with the Book of Ballymote as a historical object, fewer are familiar with the actual contents of the manuscript. What exactly is written in the Book of Ballymote? Most of the texts contained within the manuscript are written in Old Irish the form of Irish used from c.
It is clear that many of the texts are much older than the manuscript itself and so they must have been copied from earlier written sources. The manuscript contains a wide range of important medieval grammatical, poetic, topographical, genealogical and historical writings. The subject of the present essay is the last of these: history, as it was understood from the perspective of 14th-century Ballymote. Biblical history The Bible provided the fundamental chronological framework within which all of history was conceived in medieval Ireland.
The Old Testament myths of Creation and the Flood, the accounts of the Jewish Exodus and Babylonian Captivity, were believed to be literally true, and gave all of world history its order and shape. Biblical history was expertly interwoven and juxtaposed with Assyrian, Persian, Greek and Roman history, along with Irish and British history, in order to form a body of.
What is striking is the outward-looking nature of this material. Many of the historical texts contained within the manuscript are somewhat dry one might even say boring! Here, for example, is a translation of a Latin text from folio 5 of the manuscript: From Adam until the Flood: years; from the Flood to Abraham: years; from Abraham to Moses: years; from Moses to Solomon and the first building of the Temple: years; from Solomon to the transmigration to Babylon which was done under Darius king of the Persians: years are reckoned.
Then from King Darius to the preaching of our Lord Jesus Christ, and to the tenth year of the rule of the Emperor Tiberius, years are completed. Thus at the same time there are from Adam to the preaching of Christ, and the tenth year of the Roman emperor Tiberius, years. Since the Passion of Christ, years have passed. Moreover, the first age of the world was from Adam to Noah; the second from Noah to Abraham; the third from Abraham to David; the fourth from David to Daniel; the fifth age until John the Baptist; the sixth from John While this is a Latin, prose text of the tenth century, the text which immediately follows it in the manuscript is in Irish, written in verse, and can be dated to the 12th century.
In spite of the differences of language and form, however, it still reflects the same interest in historical chronology. Here is the poem in English translation: Fifty-six years together on six hundred on a thousand from the creation of Adam without blemish until the Flood drowned the earth. Ninety-two years — it is no lie — on two hundred, for keeping; it is true — as I reckon — to say from the Flood until Abraham. Forty-two fair years and nine hundred years from the birth of Abraham without anger until David was made king.
Seventy-three full years on three hundred completely from when David of the rhymes was inaugurated until Jerusalem was destroyed. Three thousand years — it is no lie — fifty-two years, nine hundred until he was born — he is a full lamb — from when the world of noble aspect was created. One hundred years and a great thousand since the truly perfect king was born until this year — I have it — twenty years, six years. This last stanza dates this poem to the year , some two hundred years later than the text which precedes it, and yet the relationship between the two texts in terms of theme and content is clear.
These two texts are simple enumerations of biblical chronology, but others become far more complex as they begin to interweave the histories of various cultures. From the end of the sovereignty of the Assyrians until the first Olympic Games by the Greeks: forty-three years.
From the first Olympiad to the Captivity of the Ten Tribes: years. From the Captivity of the Ten Tribes until the burning of the Temple: thirty-six years. From the burning of the Temple until the end of the sovereignty of the Medes: thirty years. Eight kings ruled from the Medes: years for them. From the end of the sovereignty of the Medes until the release from the Babylonian Captivity and the renewing of the Temple: forty years.
From the renewing of the Temple until the end of the sovereignty of the Persians: three hundred [years]: that is, twelve kings ruled from the Persians. A page from the Book of Ballymote We can see here that the author is particularly interested in the kingship of Babylon. Kingship of Babylon was held first by the Assyrians, who were then overthrown by the Achaemenid Empire i. But the author mentions other important events from Greek and Jewish history: the Olympic Games, the building and burning and renewing of the Temple. Other historical texts in the manuscript display an interest in particular kings and emperors.
In spite of its Latin title, this work is written in Irish and was originally composed in the 11th century. An enormous hosting was ordered by Cyrus to seek the sovereignty of India, so that they happened upon the River Ganges — that is one of the great rivers of the world — and Cyrus sent a group of his. And the strength of the river overwhelmed them and they were all drowned.
His company drowning in his presence, and the fact that he could not help them, put the mind of the king into dejection. They were fasting for a period of three days and three nights on the bank of the river and the king did not speak to anyone of his hosts for that period of time, but he was examining and searching thereat, what he would do to the river that had drowned his company. There are many elements of this passage which are noteworthy. First is the Indian setting of the story, the episode taking place on the banks of the Ganges.
We might note here the error of the Irish author: we have some Classical Greek and Roman versions of a story about Cyrus and a river, but in those the event is said to have occurred at the Gyndes. Our Irish author, by stating that the river is in India and is one of the major rivers of the world, has clearly mistaken that for the similar-sounding Ganges.
Again, this is further evidence of the outward-looking, international nature of history-writing in medieval Ireland. Thus it marks a significant turning point from one powerful ancient empire to another. The beginning of Assyrian rule was marked by the reign of another significant king who, unlike Cyrus, cannot be securely identified in any reliable historical sources. This king is called Ninus son of Belus, and he seems to be more mythical than real.
The last was the first king of the world. In the eleventh year after the birth of Ninus son of Belus was the death of Cham and Iafeth. In the year after them, Ninus son of Belus assuming kingship; that is, in the twenty-first year of the kingship of Ninus, the birth of Abraham. By her the wall of Babylon was made. And she took her own son to her as a husband, that is, Ninyus, and she died after that. Aside from the mythical Ninus, the author mentions his son Ninyas, and Semiramis, who was wife to both of them medieval authors were particularly interested in the salacious detail of Ninyas marrying his own mother!
However, he is also considered, particularly in the Irish Sex aetates mundi, as having rebuilt the city of Babylon. Or, in Synchronisms B, as we have seen, his wife, Semiramis, is credited with building the wall of Babylon. In this way, Ninus, Semiramis and Nenyus are integrated into biblical history and chronology through their significant roles in the history of the city of Babylon: we might compare and contrast the treatment of Ninus with the treatment of Cyrus who, as we have seen, was also integral to the history of Babylon at the time of the Jewish captivity.
The juxtaposing of the life of Abraham — the first Jewish Patriarch — with that of Ninus — the first Assyrian emperor — is also seen in a 12th-century Irish poem about Ninus, preserved in the Book of Ballymote. This is a long poem, but a couple of verses will suffice: Twenty-one years of famous valour for Ninus at the birth of Abraham.
We remember it without deceptive fame, the books fully verifying it. The historical texts from the Book of Ballymote which I have discussed here lend legitimacy, weight and a chronological framework for other concerns within the manuscript, such as genealogy, political relationships, language and geography. But I would also suggest, in the way that the historical material is framed and articulated in the Book of Ballymote, that the scribes wished to convey a message, namely, that empires collapse, dynasties rise and fall, kingships fail, kings die, and kingdoms are destroyed. The historical texts in the manuscript remind us that the structures of earthly power are transient.
Someone like Ninus might found an empire, but in time a Cyrus would come along to destroy it and found an equally fragile dynasty of his own. As the scribes of the Book of Ballymote presented their noble patron with this magnificent object, they were also reminding him of the limitations of worldly power. Natural champions of pollution solutions! At the beginning of their project the children got together to discuss what environmental issues they would like to address and how to go about making a difference to their local environment.
All agreed that littering and other pollution was something that concerned them greatly. However, rather than focus on a negative message, the group decided to make the public more aware and appreciative of the beautiful nature of Ballymote Town Park by holding a nature event there. At the event they also decided they would show their appreciation for the people who work to make the park and the rest of the town more beautiful.
The children made willow sculptures with natural materials to be displayed in the park along with a willow dome. They also made gifts that included wool-wrapped soap. Over members of the local community turned out on 20th February for the event. Refreshments were provided before the gifts were handed out. Projects from all across the country were on display and the Nerdz had to compete against many worthy projects before being judged the All-Ireland Super-Junior Award Winners ! Amid rows of palm trees like limp flags And the euphoric emotions of sunny climes.
Strolling couples, toddlers and families Crossing out the ugliness of their lives In this hard-edged world. Novels, suntan lotion and poolside languor. The gliding birdlike, banked sharply Dark vulcanised soil beckoned seductively White sepulchred dwellings come into view Cocooned in the midday shimmering sun. A bus glides through the frenzied activities of the strip The hideous sounds of business, anger and command.
Some of my earliest memories are of my great grandfather John Fallon. I remember him a being a very kind and generous man who loved us kids. I recall some notable events such as Christmas and birthdays there. I even remember one Halloween, it must have been either or , when my great grandfather dressed up as a ghost and pretended to scare us all!
Of course then I knew nothing of his service in the First World War or how important a man he had become in his hometown of Sligo. When John died in September , he had lived a very long and eventful life. In the political and local government area he was a long-serving member of the Fine Gael party. He was also a prominent member of Sligo Corporation and Sligo County Council from until his death. He was chairman of the council for a long number of years and was twice elected mayor of Sligo, in and His interest in local matters did not end there, however. John was an Alderman on Sligo Corporation during most of his career and was also well known in.
He was later years and also devoted practically all transferred in June after training of his spare time to local charities. But north of Anzac Cove where John was the part of his life that moulded him landing. I always wondered did they and stayed with him to the day he died know at the time they were so close.
He was posted to the 5th Service was the time he spent as a Connaught Ranger fighting against the Turks and Battalion of the Connaught Rangers Germans in Gallipoli, and against the at Galway and began his training as Bulgarians and their German allies in a Ranger.
In March he appeared to have incurred the wrath of the Salonika. When the call to arms sounded in army authorities for overstaying his , John and four of his pals went leave and was sentenced to 96 hours to join the Connaught Rangers. He lied about his age, furlough from 8 February until 8 telling the recruiting staff that he March This was the time John was born in and was therefore married Margaret Forde in Sligo on 19 years and three months old. It 24 February His brother Patrick, who served in the Boer War as part of the Inniskillen Fusiliers, must have made the biggest impact on his decision to join, especially listening to his tales of involvement in the Battle of Colenso and the Relief of Ladysmith.
Patrick was a sergeant and also served in the Great War and was awarded the Military Medal. John embarked for Gallipoli on 9 July , but stopped at Mudros in Greece before the Gallipoli landings so the unit could regroup and carry out some basic manoeuvres. In August , 94 years later almost to the day, I visited the exact spot in Turkey where John and his fellow Rangers landed. It was a hot, dry and forbidding place. I examined the trench lines, some of which you can still see to this day and which in some cases were only a few yards apart. There were flies everywhere and no streams or water sources, and I could only image the conditions when thousands of men landed there in The place must have been an assault on the senses with the overcrowding on the beaches, the shelling, the sniper.
On 25 August John and the other sick troops were evacuated to Alexandria in Egypt on the hospital ship Ulysses. After he recovered he was posted to Galway in November He spent a few months there and visited Sligo, where he once again got into trouble while visiting Margaret on their first wedding anniversary. He was reprimanded by Colonel Chamier at Galway on 6 March for being absent from tattoo from 24 February to 4 March He was posted back to the 5th Connaught Rangers Battalion in August They had been transferred from Gallipoli to Salonika in Greece and were part of the allied force that were trying to halt the German and Bulgarian offensive into Greece.
And so the live ones grew very fat … we were always on edge and always under fire … I remember a time we attacked, and all lined up after a bombardment … we went over the top and the sound of bullets from enemy machine guns striking men all around me sounded like hands clapping … it was a very strange sound, and one I will never forget … I was wounded myself in the right shoulder during an offensive at Sturma on the Salonika front.
He was left to die with others who had been very badly wounded but a medical orderly, a fellow Sligonian named Patrick. McGowan from Mail Coach Road in Sligo town, happened to be going by at the time and carried him back from the front line to a hospital tent. He was very lucky. After he had recovered enough he was sent back. But he was left with very little use of his right arm or hand and was declared unfit for further service. He was then sent to Cork where he was discharged from the army on 27 November I remember my mother Margot telling me when I was young that John later taught himself to write again with his left hand, and that she used to hear him sitting on the bed in the morning coughing as his lungs never recovered after the damage of the wound.
John Fallon is third from the right on the back row wearing a bowler hat. No further information is available on other people in the photograph. When discharged he went to Glasgow where his sister lived and his wife Margaret was also working in a munitions factory there. He became a postman and lived at Queen Street, Govan, Glasgow. At the end of the war he returned to Sligo and was re-employed as a baker in McArthurs. John was one of the founding members of the Sligo Branch of the British Legion and was Secretary and Treasurer of the branch, and spent the rest of his life campaigning for the rights of ex-servicemen and their families.
Every November he organised the Remembrance Day Parade in Sligo and my mother told me that her and her aunts were recruited. He said he could set his watch by it. When John died in September , he had outlived both his brothers who had served in the war and survived. Their younger brother Tom had been too young to serve in the First World War. A plain rectangular window remains in the east wall but the west doorway no longer exists; thus potential datable features for this funerary structure are gone but one suspects that it dates to , the date on the plaque.
The crucifixion plaque there is one that I briefly published in in a twopage article, along with two similar ones in Co Roscommon and a related crucifixion in east Mayo, all by the same hand. Due to the very poor condition of the of the shale limestone Fenagh crucifixion plaque and the probability that the sunlight will not throw a shadow across the carving to reveal its details, the plaque is being illustrated in this volume, the 50th issue of The Corran Herald, in advance of the outing.
There is a structure attached to the southwest corner of the church. It has been described as a mausoleum and as a mortuary chapel; either way it was, and still is, a funerary structure. It measures internally 10ft by 12ft 8 in. The east wall slopes from 11ft to 6ft, a level just above the top of the crucifixion plaque in the south wall. The Crucifixion Plaque Prominently affixed to the outside south wall there is the stone crucifixion plaque. The monument, frame included, measures 1m by 58cm. There is a cross with three steps to the pedestal.
He has long hair and a beard. He wears a loin cloth that looks as if it is an actual piece of cloth and it flourishes to His right. Both His hands are held in blessing as they are nailed to the cross and His right foot is nailed with a single nail on top of His left one. On the left there is a three-thong lash whose thongs are armed with metal stars and a palm leaf.
On the right there is a ladder, a pillar with a rope wrapped around it and a startled cock strutting across the top. There is ample uncut space on either side where other symbols may have been intended to be fitted; Cloonshanville plaque by the same sculptor also has three square dice, a claw hammer and a pincers. The eight-line inscription in Latin is shared between two stones. The lettering on the lower stone has suffered very badly, even since I first saw it in June Despite this weathering it has been possible, from the stone itself and from earlier readings, and with the help of three people versed in Latin, to attempt to.
The Mc Granell name would be Reynolds nowadays. Discussion: The Cloonshanville plaque The Cloonshanville, Frenchpark, plaque is the one in the best condition of all these three plaques. Very significantly this, the earliest of the three plaques, was initialled by the mason, DH, on the lower left frame and is on the right of the frame. Unfortunately we do not know the name of DH as he has not shown. She reasons that many memorials were side-line products of masons whose main employment in an area was the building of gentry houses, churches, bridges and public buildings.
Michael Garvey of Ballaghaderreen recollected seeing a date stone close to the roof over the door of Dungar House, Frenchpark. This puts DH at Cloonshanville at the time Dungar was being built. Dated to it has the coats-of-arms of both families and an inscription in Latin. It is now within Ballyhaunis Augustinian Priory, having been at a grotto to the north of the building for many years following a spell over the west doorway.
The style of the carved Holywell Christ is identical to that on all three plaques, plaques with dates of , and , and so it must date to within a few years either side of The Families The minimal research for the article concentrated on the Roscommon plaques. It was near Keshcarrigan, just north of the road from Fenagh.
Meehan , , fn. The family were still active as Castlefore in historical and genealogical scholarship in the midth century and north Connacht was still a prominent centre of learning Cunningham , See also MacLysaght , for the prodigious output of this family. He then goes. They were originally based in the territory of Muintir Eolais in south Leitrim. At the time of the Composition of Connacht, , their chieftain was based at a place called Magh Nise, a name no longer in existence but believed to have been located in the south of the barony of Leitrim, presumably in the DromodMohill area.
Somewhat later, the most significant branch of the family was that located at Lough Scur, a short distance to the west of Castlefore. That branch was the one which first changed the family-name to Reynolds and consequently was known as Mag Raghnaill Gallda, the English Mag Raghnaill. See also Meehan for family detail though his article is just about in accordance with the title — the whereabouts and contents of the diary of March to May of his title remains obscure. There is a date on the adjoining stone to its right that was difficult to read when in place.
However during repair works there by Sligo County Council in I photographed the inscribed stone in better positions than when fixed erect in the wall. My decades of research on Connacht crucifixion plaques has recognised about two dozen plaques across the province, with dates between and , many having upper class Catholic family attributions. Most plaques were erected in prominent public positions without fear of retribution! Some historians of the Penal Days may find the dating of these publically displayed Connacht Catholic plaques a little difficult.
Acknowledgements I thank Gus Gannon of Boyle for discussing earlier translations of the Fenagh inscription and raising the probability that last line has been mis-translated in the past, Mary B. Herity, Michael, ed. Hynes, John, St. Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, 61, Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, 35, Dublin, Stationery Office.
Association Preservation Memorials Dead, Ireland, 4, Timoney, Martin A. Timoney, Mary B. Sligo from c. Roscommon, Roscommon, Roscommon County Council. A letter to the editor of the Sligo Independent in Sir — Will you kindly grant me space for a short personal explanation? This is a mistake, but one, however, into which your reporter very naturally fell. Not to enter into. I wished to show my respect for the deceased Bishop and my sympathy with my fellowtownsman; accordingly I adopted the only course which seemed open to me — viz to be present in the courtyard of the Cathedral when the funeral procession was entering the building.
I am, truly yours, Le Paul T. Funeral of the Late T. In this article I hope to illustrate how a small town in the north-west of Ireland was at the forefront of providing electric light for its citizens in the early s, and was well ahead of larger towns in the country. First, a word about the development of this great power source we take so much for granted these days. Early signs of the relationship between electricity and magnetism they work together to produce electricity were discovered by a Greek philosopher about BC. He noted that by rubbing together amber and fur he could attract a light object, such as a feather magnetism.
Naturally, with no internet or other means of communicating to others with a like mind, he could not proceed any further. It was only at the beginning of the s that engineers, physicists, chemists and scientists made more progress in the field. Names that stand out are Franklin lightning rod , Volta battery , Edison incandescent bulb , Tesla alternating current-AC , and George Westinghouse a businessman, who built AC generating machines.
In the s small direct current DC generating stations began to appear in the United States. One of great size was in Manhattan, operated by Thomas Edison. Ireland was not to be found wanting and soon we had a number of private electricity generating stations. There was the City of Dublin Electricity Supply. Company, Cork Tramway Co, and many other smaller units around the country. Ballymote was a fine example of a local provider of electric power. Details have been well provided in a previous issue of The Corran Herald, but these are now expanded in the following, together with the change to ESB supply in the greater Ballymote area.
Just under were taken up. Many such companies around the country were formed by local mill owners and large businesses, but Ballymote was different. Its directors and shareholders were of the town — local clergy, builders merchants, drapers, and shopkeepers. It is very likely that he had seen the advantages of this new energy source there and realised its importance in a community.
It is likely too that they had discussions with the Stewarts of Boyle, who were supplying electricity in Boyle since The generator was housed in the Market House. The engine was driven by gas, generated by burning anthracite. The Market House became known as the Power House and to this day is referred to as such by local people. By the company had upwards of customers. The cost of the unit kwh would not have been cheap — around one shilling. Street lighting and supply to residents and businesses was put in place. Any bulbs used in houses would have been of very low wattage, about 20W.
Not all rooms would have had a light. Based on these details, the family could have one light on for three hours per day at a cost of 5d for the week. The Electricity Act of meant that the Ballymote Electric Company had to obtain a permit from the ESB to continue to generate and supply electricity. The permit was renewable on a yearly basis. This was for the town only, as Rural Electrification was still a long way in the future. In late or early the ESB acquired the company. This would have entailed changing all the lighting.
The Ballymote company actually remained in existence up until it was voluntarily liquidated in This was mainly funded by the sale of the freehold premises. The 26 counties had been divided into over rural areas, based largely on the Catholic parish boundaries, distributed across ten districts. Sligo was one of the districts and covered a wide geographical area, stretching from Malin Head in North Donegal to Carrick-on-Shannon and across from Carrigallen to Belmullet. This rural area around Ballymote was called Emlaghfad.
In the district office in Sligo town there was a special unit dealing with the project around the whole district. Each area had an engineer appointed to manage the construction, administration and publicity. In those times nearly every engineer who joined the ESB spent a tour of duty in the rural electrification field. From the beginning, the ESB therefore had a close relationship with its customers on the ground — a reason the company is held in high regard, especially the reaction to loss of power by the public. Public meetings were held in the Parochial Hall in the town in October Appliances such as kettles, irons, cookers and so forth were displayed and demonstrated, as well as motors to reduce the tough labour on the farm.
A report from the meeting also pointed out that sales were slow due to low cattle prices in the area.
Agell, Charlotte (1959 - )
Competition was around too, with at least six electrical contractors selling appliances and wiring houses. A typical Blackstone engine All houses had to have internal wiring to ESB standard before connection. The wiring was normally for one socket and room lights.
The area was practically fully connected by January There would have been a special switch-on ceremony, where possibly the local parish priest would have operated the master switch to bring the power to those connected. Rural Electrification around the country continued apace until the 60s.
There was then a Post Rural Development program to connect households, who either had not taken up the initial offer or were deemed as not being economical to supply at the early stages. Eventually the whole. In the first five decades of the 20th century there is no doubt that electricity played a major part in the development of Ireland. Before the advent of the ESB, full credit must be given to those merchants and citizens of the country who had the foresight to realise how powerful electricity would be in future development of the country.
Ballymote can hold its head high in being in the vanguard of this great experience. The Sligo Champion of 8 March covering the blizzard. Special thanks to Malachy Gillen in Sligo Library for help getting this clipping It is 70 years since the worst blizzard in Irish history hammered the country continuously for almost three months. Nobody who lived through it could ever forget the hardship and suffering, and even sometimes the fun, experienced by urban and rural dwellers alike.
Those of us born shortly after the event were up-dated by almost unbelievable stories of heroism, daring, creativity, humour, generosity and community cooperation. Temperatures plummeted to previously unheard of scales: seven degrees Fahrenheit or degrees Celsius! The unusually severe frost was accompanied by a piercing east wind reaching miles per hour. The wind chill factor was estimated as being from.
Continuing over the next 50 days there were intermittent snowfalls, five of which could be described as blizzards. Rivers and lakes became frozen over, while houses and entire villages were buried and the inhabitants marooned. Some stories from The Sligo Champion and Sligo Independent of the time give an idea of the hardship, suffering and tragedy endured by so many.
The man, The neighbour gave him a bag and told him to go to their turf stack which was a few hundred yards away. When he did not return the neighbour assumed he had gone home by a different route. Two friends of his father died on their way back from the bog during the blizzard. Buses Buried in Snow On Tuesday morning 25 February the Dublin bus left Sligo as usual but only got as far as Ballymote, when it was grounded by a huge drift.
A relief bus with rescue party of 35 on board, including drivers, conductors and mechanics, all armed with shovels, was sent to dig out the bus, but it too was bogged down before ever reaching the stranded bus. Some of the passengers took two days to walk back to Sligo, making their way on the railway, bye-roads and across fields, and no doubt resting in farm houses at every opportunity.
Walking in such circumstances might have been an adventure, but carrying a coffin shoulder high must have been a nightmare. It is possible, indeed probable, that a door or flat board was used as a sleigh to pull the coffin. Mr Shiels were just unlucky! Travellers Welcomed by Farmer There are many stories of people Coffin Carried from Sligo to sharing their homes and dwindling Culfadda food-stores with stranded travellers, My brother John Higgins, who was and one such is related by John Davey ten years of age at the time of the of Knockadalteen.
John, who was 13 blizzard, vividly recalls two occasions years of age at the time, recalls that when a party of up to 20 men walked travellers provided a regular service to Sligo Hospital and carried back as pot-menders and tinsmiths. Although Patrick died of TB a dangerous, with unseen steep year later, at the young age of 47, John Sitting on the Chimney Seefin Creamery had a grocery and hardware store, owned and run by the Gallagher family, which served customers in our area for generations.
This story is incredible to us today but unbelievable or not, similar stories are repeated from almost every county in Ireland. Farm Animal Welfare Many thousands of cattle, sheep, pigs, horses, donkeys and poultry died of starvation, and many farmers perished in their efforts to rescue them.
The Irish Times of 13 March reported that three men died in the Sligo countryside on the night of the worst blizzard. The young man had apparently been driven blindly before the blizzard, and there was evidence that he moved in a circle, not knowing which way to travel, and crossed and re-crossed a tributary of the Owenmore River four times in all. The body was found near a bank of the little river, yards from his home.
The huge effort paid off and the summer of was the warmest and sunniest in memory. Sheep tend to flock together in a sheltered corner when storm or danger threatens, so it would rarely be the case of just one sheep missing, but rather the whole flock. Once located, however, carrying the fodder to feed them could be much more problematic, and in many cases the shepherd lost his life for his sheep.
Fears for harvest As the slow thaw began towards the end of March flooding became a huge problem, and large tracts of land could not be cultivated. Once conditions improved farmers worked night and day to catch up. Life Goes On The Hibernian Cinema in Ballymote continued to operate, albeit showing the same films for several weeks since all communication and deliveries were cut off. Ballymote Drama Group Despite the snow and the hardship, the local dramatic group found time to rehearse. He succeeded Dr Morrisroe. The government of the day had no emergency plan in place to help the most vulnerable, and no record was kept of the casualties.
The poor and underprivileged, particularly in cities, suffered the most. He suggested that such an event would provide a much-needed stimulus for Gaelic Games in North America. It would strengthen the bonds between Ireland and its emigrants and give thousands of exiled Irish people the opportunity to attend an All-Ireland final. There appears to have been a lot of scepticism among GAA members at home about the feasibility of playing the final in New York, however, particularly at such short notice. Before the end of April, a two-man delegation was sent to New York to make the preparatory arrangements.
They left Dublin on 15 April and travelled to. They spent three weeks in the and the Connacht Council at the time. The Polo to Grounds in the Bronx, home of the The prospect of the final in New New York Giants baseball team, was York added a new dimension to the chosen as the venue. In the transport to and from New York. Travelling by air in was Thus the scene was set for the still regarded not only as novel, but historic Polo Grounds final between dangerous.
But eventually, transport Cavan and Kerry on 13 September. Tom Kilcoyne was again gave the teams a great reception. On one of the travelling party, as was the morning of the final, the travelling A crowd of 35, attended the game, which was about 15, smaller than had been expected. Heavy overnight rain may have been part of the reason for this. Despite the rain, the pitch was rock hard and the game was played in intense heat. Colm was a native of Glenties, Co. Donegal, and had previously played for Sligo.
On coming to Sligo, he had played his football with Sligo town team, Craobh Rua, and also played on the Sligo county team before declaring for Cavan early in He partnered Phil Brady at midfield on the Cavan team and scored a point. There were tremendous celebrations at the aftermatch banquet in the Commodore Hotel, with over 1, people in attendance.