The Red Planet owes its colour to iron oxide pigments in the dust covering much of its surface and being dispersed in its atmosphere. The Martian mantle and crust are enriched in iron relative to Earth. The rovers landed in January While communication with Spirit was lost in , Opportunity is still actively exploring at the time of writing this article July The primary scientific objectives of the mission are to explore sites on Mars where water may have been present at some point in the past, to assess the environmental conditions at that time and whether they would have been suitable for life.
The Mars rover Opportunity landed at Meridiani Planum where it encountered layered, sulfur-rich sedimentary rocks. While some microorganisms on Earth have adapted to low pH conditions, they challenge prebiotic chemical reactions which might have played a role in the origin of life on Earth. The Mars rover Spirit landed in Gusev Crater on the opposite side of the planet.
Much of the crater floor is covered by a lava flow showing only very limited signs of aqueous alteration. Nili Fossae, ALH and the Columbia Hills date from the same epoch in Mars history and, therefore, imply that conditions were favourable for the formation of carbonates on a global scale at that time. The high carbonate concentration in the Columbia Hills rock is consistent with models of a warmer and wetter early Mars with CO 2 as a greenhouse gas that was subsequently, at least partially sequestered in carbonate minerals.
Carbonates generally form in water at near-neutral pH, suggesting habitable environmental conditions during the time of formation. Geological field-work. Mixed-valent green rust minerals, for example, play an important role in redox reactions in anoxic groundwater and soil horizons. They are very oxygen-sensitive and, therefore, difficult to study in the laboratory. Feder et al. To be able to measure repeatedly at the same depth but throughout the year during different seasons, a MIMOS II instrument was mounted into a Plexiglas tube.
The supply of fresh organic matter and a rising water table during autumn reinstated anoxic conditions. Art and archaeological artefacts.
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When unique pieces of art or archaeological artefacts have to be investigated for conservational reasons, for example, it is self-evident that even removing tiny amounts of sample from these objects is not desirable. Whenever possible, non-destructive techniques should be favoured. In some cases, objects cannot be taken to the laboratory for analyses or transport may be too risky.
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One example is the characterisation of iron oxide pigments used for different colours in rock paintings near Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil 30 Figure A MIMOS instrument was mounted on a tripod and pointed at different areas of colour within the paintings. MIMOS is mounted on a tripod and pointed at the different colours to be investigated.
- Introduction to Mössbauer Spectroscopy: Part 1.
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The spectra shown were recorded from a red area and an ochre area. The high brilliance and the extremely collimated beam thus allow the measuring of samples with diameters of a few micrometres in less than one hour. The time dependence of the coherently forward scattered radiation is determined by the hyperfine parameters isomer shift, electric field gradient and hyperfine field and the dynamics of the iron. For NFS coherent scattering is detected by detector 2 and for NIS incoherent scattering is detected by detector 1 adapted with permission from Reference 8. Different from infrared or Raman spectroscopy, NIS spectra depend solely on mechanical properties, i.
Top A sketch of a typical NIS spectrum. A high-resolution monochromator HRM, see inset is tuned around the nuclear resonance. Bottom The spectrum shows the intensity of the forward scattered radiation which is called the instrumental function. Surface science applications: When is a solid a solid? Stankov et al. Below film thicknesses of ten monolayer deviations result from atomic vibrations of the single atomic layers at the two boundaries of the film, while the atoms inside the film vibrate almost bulk-like. Adapted with permission from Reference Copyright by the American Physical Society.
NFS has been used extensively to study the magnetic behaviour of iron monolayers as well as thin films. An example is the exploration of the magnetisation structure during the thickness-induced spin-reorientation transition SRT for a metallic iron film grown on a W surface. NFS spectra accumulated during continuous Fe evaporation labelled with the corresponding Fe thicknesses. The theoretical analysis red curve shows the indicated spin-reorientation of the bcc iron magnetisation M[bar]. NIS on single crystals of molecular complexes.
In particular, the combination of NIS and quantum mechanical calculations DFT enables one to fully understand not only the electronic properties but also the dynamics of iron containing molecular complexes. Recently, the high- to low-spin transition of Fe II complexes at high pressures has also been studied using this technique. Orientation-dependent NIS spectra of an Fe II molecular crystal oriented with the crystallographic a-axis perpendicular a and parallel b to the direction of the synchrotron beam. The spectral features are due to molecular vibrations and very well reproduced by theoretical spectra calculated on the basis of DFT-calculations shown below.
Nitric oxide NO , plays an essential role as a signal molecule for cardiovascular regulation. A transatlantic cooperation between German, US-American and ESRF scientists has recently investigated the binding mechanism of NO to the transporter haeme protein, nitrophorin, which occurs not only in the saliva of the blood-sucking Amazon river-based kissing bug, Rhodnius prolixus, but also in the bedbug, Cimex lectularius , found worldwide. Furthermore, indications have been found that protonation of the haeme carboxyls may modulate NO capture and release.
These results are important with regard to a potential application of these types of NO carrier proteins as cardiovascular drugs. The simulations not only identify Fe—NO binding modes [Figure 20 d ], but also functionally relevant low-energy modes. Copyright American Chemical Society. Only the parts of the molecules treated with DFT are displayed. The residual parts of the protein, which were taken into account by force field calculations, are not shown. The arrows describe atom movements of the protein mode with significant Fe—NO stretching character.
Of course, the examples presented by no means give a complete overview. The miniaturised, portable MIMOS opens up many new possibilities of non-destructive, in situ investigations. The number of applications and demand for NFS and NIS grow at rapid speed and, therefore, the number of synchrotron facilities around the world with dedicated beamlines continues to increase. Skip to main content.
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Use of Mössbauer Spectroscopy in the Study of Ancient Pottery
Ahrens-Botzong, K. Janthawornpong, J. Wolny, E. Tombou, M. Rohmer, S. Krasutzsky, C. Poulter, V. Ensling and P. Morris, B. Bernhardt, D. Rodionov, P. Squyres, J. Foh, E. Kankeleit, U. Bonnes, R. Gellert, C. Linkin, E. Evlanov, B. Zubkov and O. Bernhardt, M. Blumers, I. Fleischer, D. Rodionov, J. Blumers, B.
Bernhardt, P. Lechner, G. Soltau, L. Eckhardt, J. Henkel, J. Lopez and J. Juni , Berlin, Germany. Cite this: Inorg. Article Views Altmetric -. Citations 4.
Introduction to Mossbauer Spectroscopy: Part I
Supporting Information. Cited By. This article is cited by 4 publications. Jeffrey W. Slater, Sean C. Marguet, Sabrina L. Cirino, Pearson T. Maugeri, and Hannah S. Inorganic Chemistry , 56 7 , DOI: If you want more info regarding data storage, please contact gdpr jove.
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Add to Favorites Embed Share. Instrument Setup: The general instrument setup is shown in Figure 1. Gamma Ray Generation: The source used to generate the gamma rays for the experiment needs to be of the same isotope as the atoms in the sample that are absorbing the radiation. The two peaks together are considered a single quadruple doublet, which is the result of two types of observable nuclear interactions: 1. Hyperfine Splitting: Hyperfine splitting or Zeeman splitting can also be observed in the presence of an internal or external magnetic field.
Procedure 1. Add several drops of paratone oil to the sample. Using a spatula, mix the sample and the oil into a uniform paste. Freeze the sample in liquid nitrogen. Mounting the Sample Fill the sample chamber with He gas. Unscrew the sample rod from the instrument and remove the sample rod. While mounting the sample, close the sample chamber with a cap and secure with screws.
Tighten the screw to secure the cup in the sample holder. Dust off any ice that forms before freezing the end of the sample rod in liquid nitrogen. With He flowing through the sample chamber, unscrew and remove the cap, and insert the sample rod. Secure the rod to the instrument with the screws. Turn off the He and pull the vacuum on the sample chamber. Turn off the vacuum and refill the sample chamber slightly with He to enable thermal exchange between the sample and the cold head of the instrument via the He gas.
The first screen will show the total count of gamma rays hitting the detector at a range of energies. Select the peak that includes the energy value Hit the "Send Windows" button. Open the W program. Hit the "clear channel" to begin a new data collection. After the desired resolution is reached, fit the data with a suitable program. The fit provides the values for isomer shift and quadrupole splitting if a doublet is present.
Once in the instrumentation room, freeze the sample in liquid N 2. Close the sample chamber with a cap, and close the He valve. Insert the sample rod into the chamber and fix the rod in place with screws. To watch full video, login or sign up! If your institution is subscribed to the Inorganic Chemistry. Glovebox and Impurity Sensors. Purification of Ferrocene by Sublimation. Single Crystal and Powder X-ray Diffraction. A verification has been sent to. Please check your email and follow the link to activate your 10 minute JoVE trial.
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