She was recently on the board of the Institute for the Advancement of Journalism. Her research focuses on the negotiation of media policy in South Africa as well as issues of media, citizenship and identity. The Coalition is committed to, and campaigns for, broadcasting in the public interest. Collen Chambwera, University of Johnnesburg. My current research interests include news production, financial journalism, social media and journalism practice, and media policy in relation to media freedom and freedom of expression in the age of heightened audience participation.
Email: cchambwera gmail. She started as a tutor with the Wits University Media studies department and worked as a contractor for Varsity College, Sandton teaching Business Studies and Public Relations She is currently a Juniour Lecturer for the public relations and media studies streams within the Department of Communication Science at the University of South Africa. Her field of academic research and interests range from media representation and identity, to social media activism, popular culture, with a passion for decolonial studies.
As an emerging scholar, who is also a first-generation graduate, her ethos on scholarship and education extends beyond the confines of the classroom.
Recently, she started a podcast that facilitates unconventional and nuanced conversations about the socio-political, and inequality issues in South Africa. She seeks to collaborate with community-centered initiatives to build her confidence as a socially responsible researcher. She was founding co-editor of the Journal of Public Relations Researchand has written more than one hundred articles, book chapters,monographs, reviews and conference papers on public relations,activism, science writing, feminist theory, communications theoryand research.
Helectures in public relations and media marketing strategy, and iscurrently engaged on a doctoral dissertation about internationalpublic relations. He has produced many papers and articles onEuropean, cultural and sociological aspects of public relations, andcontributed to the teaching of the MA programme in EuropeanPublic Relations at the Free University of Berlin, and HogeschoolEindhoven. Prior to moving to theMMU in , he held the post of Director of Public RelationsProgrammes at the University of Stirling for some six years, where hewas responsible for the introduction of the UKs first dedicatedmasters degree in public relations.
Karl Nessmann holds a masters degree and Ph. He is responsible for two publicrelations programmes at the university: public relations studies formedia and communication students, and a post-experience public relations course for practitioners.
- Perspectives on Public Relations Research.
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Karl Nessmanns researchinterests include public relations theory, evaluation, education andfilm. He has published a number of articles and books in thesesubject fields. Elizabeth L.
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Toth, Ph. Elizabeth Toth has published over fifty articles, chapters and paperson public relations theory, gender, and public affairs. She is alsoeditor of the Journal of Public Relations Research. Dejan Veri is a partner in Pristop Communications, the leadingcommunication consultancy in Central Europe. Among his clientsare governments, domestic and international corporations and asso-ciations. He holds an M. Moss and T. Robert I. Wakefield has twenty years of experience in public relationsand has been practising, writing and lecturing on internationalcommunications for more than a decade.
The Bhopal disaster in which poor communication before, during, and after the crisis cost thousands of lives, illustrates the importance of incorporating cross-cultural communication in crisis management plans. According to American University's Trade Environmental Database Case Studies , local residents were not sure how to react to warnings of potential threats from the Union Carbide plant.
Operating manuals printed only in English is an extreme example of mismanagement but indicative of systemic barriers to information diffusion. According to Union Carbide's own chronology of the incident , a day after the crisis Union Carbide's upper management arrived in India but was unable to assist in the relief efforts because they were placed under house arrest by the Indian government. Symbolic intervention can be counter productive; a crisis management strategy can help upper management make more calculated decisions in how they should respond to disaster scenarios.
The Bhopal incident illustrates the difficulty in consistently applying management standards to multi-national operations and the blame shifting that often results from the lack of a clear management plan. These tires were mostly used on the Ford Explorer, the world's top-selling sport utility vehicle SUV.
The two companies committed three major blunders early on, say crisis experts. First, they blamed consumers for not inflating their tires properly. Then they blamed each other for faulty tires and faulty vehicle design. Then they said very little about what they were doing to solve a problem that had caused more than deaths—until they got called to Washington to testify before Congress.
The Exxon Valdez spilled millions of gallons of crude oil into the waters off Valdez, killing thousands of fish, fowl, and sea otters. Hundreds of miles of coastline were polluted and salmon spawning runs disrupted; numerous fishermen, especially Native Americans, lost their livelihoods. Exxon, by contrast, did not react quickly in terms of dealing with the media and the public; the CEO, Lawrence Rawl , did not become an active part of the public relations effort and actually shunned public involvement; the company had neither a communication plan nor a communication team in place to handle the event—in fact, the company did not appoint a public relations manager to its management team until , 4 years after the incident; Exxon established its media center in Valdez, a location too small and too remote to handle the onslaught of media attention; and the company acted defensively in its response to its publics, even laying blame, at times, on other groups such as the Coast Guard.
These responses also happened within days of the incident. One of the foremost recognized studies conducted on the impact of a catastrophe on the stock value of an organization was completed by Dr Rory Knight and Dr Deborah Pretty , Templeton College, University of Oxford - commissioned by the Sedgewick Group.
This study undertook a detailed analysis of the stock price post impact of organizations that had experienced catastrophes. The study identified organizations that recovered and even exceeded pre-catastrophe stock price, Recoverers , and those that did not recover on stock price, Non-recoverers. So the net impact on shareholder value by this stage was actually positive. One of the key conclusions of this study is that "Effective management of the consequences of catastrophes would appear to be a more significant factor than whether catastrophe insurance hedges the economic impact of the catastrophe".
While there are technical elements to this report it is highly recommended to those who wish to engage their senior management in the value of crisis management. Hilburg proffers that every crisis is an opportunity to showcase an institution's character, its commitment to its brand promise and its institutional values.
Defining Global Public Relations
To address such shareholder impact, management must move from a mindset that manages crisis to one that generates crisis leadership. James contends that most executives focus on communications and public relations as a reactive strategy. While the company's reputation with shareholders, financial well-being, and survival are all at stake, potential damage to reputation can result from the actual management of the crisis issue.
Corporate America is not the only community that is vulnerable to the perils of a crisis. Whether a school shooting, a public health crisis or a terrorist attack that leaves the public seeking comfort in the calm, steady leadership of an elected official, no sector of society is immune to crisis. In response to that reality, crisis management policies, strategies and practices have been developed and adapted across multiple disciplines. In the wake of the Columbine High School Massacre , the September 11 attacks in , and shootings on college campuses including the Virginia Tech massacre , educational institutions at all levels are now focused on crisis management.
In response the Resource Center has organized a comprehensive set of resources to aid schools is the development of crisis management plans. Crisis-management plans cover a wide variety of incidents including bomb threats, child abuse, natural disasters, suicide, drug abuse and gang activities — just to list a few. Historically, government at all levels—local, state, and national—has played a large role in crisis management.
Indeed, many political philosophers have considered this to be one of the primary roles of government. Emergency services , such as fire and police departments at the local level, and the United States National Guard at the federal level, often play integral roles in crisis situations.
To help coordinate communication during the response phase of a crisis, the U. This plan is intended to integrate public and private response by providing a common language and outlining a chain-of-command when multiple parties are mobilized. It is based on the premise that incidences should be handled at the lowest organizational level possible.
The NRP recognizes the private sector as a key partner in domestic incident management, particularly in the area of critical infrastructure protection and restoration. The NRP is a companion to the National Incidence Management System, which acts as a more general template for incident management regardless of cause, size, or complexity.
Common Alerting Protocol CAP is a relatively recent mechanism that facilitates crisis communication across different mediums and systems. CAP helps create a consistent emergency alert format to reach geographically and linguistically diverse audiences through both audio and visual mediums. A group of international psychoanalysts started in with a project to contribute to crisis management in the sense of managing conflicts between national groups. They called themselves Partners in confronting collective atrocities.
Historically, politics and crisis go hand in hand. Crisis management has become a defining feature of contemporary governance. In times of crisis, communities and members of organizations expect their public leaders to minimize the impact of the crisis at hand, while critics and bureaucratic competitors try to seize the moment to blame incumbent rulers and their policies. In this extreme environment, policymakers must somehow establish a sense of normality, and foster collective learning from the crisis experience.
In the face of crisis, leaders must deal with the strategic challenges they face, the political risks and opportunities they encounter, the errors they make, the pitfalls they need to avoid, and the paths away from crisis they may pursue. The necessity for management is even more significant with the advent of a hour news cycle and an increasingly internet -savvy audience with ever-changing technology at its fingertips.
Public leaders have a special responsibility to help safeguard society from the adverse consequences of crisis. Experts in crisis management note that leaders who take this responsibility seriously would have to concern themselves with all crisis phases: the incubation stage, the onset, and the aftermath. Crisis leadership then involves five critical tasks: sense making, decision making, meaning making, terminating, and learning. A brief description of the five facets of crisis leadership includes: .
There are a number of professional industry associations that provide advice, literature and contacts to turnaround professionals and academics. Some are:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Business administration Management of a business Accounting. Management accounting Financial accounting Financial audit. Business entities. Corporate group Conglomerate company Holding company Cooperative Corporation Joint-stock company Limited liability company Partnership Privately held company Sole proprietorship State-owned enterprise. Corporate governance.
Annual general meeting Board of directors Supervisory board Advisory board Audit committee. Corporate law. Commercial law Constitutional documents Contract Corporate crime Corporate liability Insolvency law International trade law Mergers and acquisitions. Corporate title. Commodity Public economics Labour economics Development economics International economics Mixed economy Planned economy Econometrics Environmental economics Open economy Market economy Knowledge economy Microeconomics Macroeconomics Economic development Economic statistics. Types of management. Business analysis Business ethics Business plan Business judgment rule Consumer behaviour Business operations International business Business model International trade Business process Business statistics.
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Main article: Firestone and Ford tire controversy. Timothy Journal of Management.
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Journal of Management Studies. Communication Yearbook. American Journal of Economics and Business Administration. Why the debate? Bernstein and Cindy Rakowitz Ongoing crisis communication: Planning, managing, and responding. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. The crisis manager: Facing risk and responsibility. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Spring Leadership Preview.
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Perspectives on Public Relations Research (Routledge Advances in Management and Business Studies)
Leading Under Pressure. Routledge Academic. Organization Science. Archived from the original on 4 February Retrieved 8 October Retrieved 6 October Retrieved 13 October Retrieved 7 September