Seafood Processing: Technology, Quality and Safety

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All fish are individually caught and handled, allowing Gold River Seafood to implement onboard protocols to maintain superior quality from the moment they surface. Working with off loaders and processors to ensure the aesthetic quality of the catch remains intact — fish are never dropped or thrown.

All the catch is guaranteed traceable. Gold River Seafood is not only a seafood company, it also prides itself on the innovation of the fisheries it harvests. Gold River Seafood processes its catch using the most advanced technology available. Gold River Seafood works with world renowned marine biologists to get the most out of each catch, and in doing so, is an industry leader in not only sea fisheries, on-shore aquaculture and aquaponics are a part of it.

Aquaculture is an important part of ocean fisheries and Gold River Seafood has always looked at the horizon for where they are going. Gold River Seafood has the foresight to plan for the future. It is in the interest of every family that wants to feed their families the best quality seafood and the best nutrition that pleases every age group. Seafood is a healthy and easy way to keep a family happy.

The Faroese began salting fish in the late 19th century, exporting it to southern Europe.

Expertise and good quality fish ensure a continued strong position on the market for salted fish products from the Faroe Islands. The Faroese Food and Veterinary Authority is the authority responsible for monitoring, control and inspection of food safety and hygienic production of consumable products at approved plants. Approval of fish plants and on board processing vessels requires an internal control system which is in accordance with HACCP rules, in order to ensure that the provisions of the Food Act, and associated regulations, are met at all stages of production and sales.

The certification of shore-based fish processing plants stipulates that the water should be examined at least 12 times a year. Fishing vessels are only permitted to unload their catches at one of the twenty or so landing centres that have been approved by the Food and Veterinary Agency. In order to be certified to process food and additives for export to the European Union, Faroese fish plants, factory vessels and freezer vessels must be approved in line with all relevant EU directives on food safety.

The Food and Veterinary Agency provides regularly updated overviews of all certified processing plants and facilities, including vessels. The Faroese Environment Agency is responsible for monitoring environmental quality and issuing environmental approval for fish processing facilities, including salmon and trout processing plants. The aim is to minimise all possible sources of pollution from processing plants, as well as to ensure that the best available technology BAT is used, with limit values set, especially for waste water outlets.

This requires insulated containers or transport vehicles and adequate refrigeration.

Hygiene 01: Hygiene in the Seafood Industry

Modern shipping containers can combine refrigeration with a controlled atmosphere. Fish processing is also concerned with proper waste management and with adding value to fish products. There is an increasing demand for ready to eat fish products, or products that do not need much preparation. When fish are captured or harvested for commercial purposes, they need some preprocessing so they can be delivered to the next part of the marketing chain in a fresh and undamaged condition. This means, for example, that fish caught by a fishing vessel need handling so they can be stored safely until the boat lands the fish on shore.

Typical handling processes are [3]. The number and order in which these operations are undertaken varies with the fish species and the type of fishing gear used to catch it, as well as how large the fishing vessel is and how long it is at sea, and the nature of the market it is supplying. The equipment and procedures in modern industrial fisheries are designed to reduce the rough handling of fish, heavy manual lifting and unsuitable working positions which might result in injuries.

An alternative, and obvious way of keeping fish fresh is to keep them alive until they are delivered to the buyer or ready to be eaten.

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This is a common practice worldwide. Typically, the fish are placed in a container with clean water, and dead, damaged or sick fish are removed. The water temperature is then lowered and the fish are starved to reduce their metabolic rate. This decreases fouling of water with metabolic products ammonia, nitrite and carbon dioxide that become toxic and make it difficult for the fish to extract oxygen. Fish can be kept alive in floating cages, wells and fish ponds. In aquaculture , holding basins are used where the water is continuously filtered and its temperature and oxygen level are controlled.

In China, floating cages are constructed in rivers out of palm woven baskets, while in South America simple fish yards are built in the backwaters of rivers. Live fish can be transported by methods which range from simple artisanal methods where fish are placed in plastic bags with an oxygenated atmosphere, to sophisticated systems which use trucks that filter and recycle the water, and add oxygen and regulate temperature.

Introduction

Preservation techniques are needed to prevent fish spoilage and lengthen shelf life. They are designed to inhibit the activity of spoilage bacteria and the metabolic changes that result in the loss of fish quality. Spoilage bacteria are the specific bacteria that produce the unpleasant odours and flavours associated with spoiled fish.

Fish normally host many bacteria that are not spoilage bacteria, and most of the bacteria present on spoiled fish played no role in the spoilage. Preservation techniques work by interrupting one or more of these needs. Preservation techniques can be classified as follows. If the temperature is decreased, the metabolic activity in the fish from microbial or autolytic processes can be reduced or stopped.

On fishing vessels, the fish are refrigerated mechanically by circulating cold air or by packing the fish in boxes with ice. Forage fish , which are often caught in large numbers, are usually chilled with refrigerated or chilled seawater. Once chilled or frozen, the fish need further cooling to maintain the low temperature. There are key issues with fish cold store design and management, such as how large and energy efficient they are, and the way they are insulated and palletized.

Innovative Technologies in Seafood Processing: 1st Edition (Hardback) - Routledge

An effective method of preserving the freshness of fish is to chill with ice by distributing ice uniformly around the fish. It is a safe cooling method that keeps the fish moist and in an easily stored form suitable for transport. It has become widely used since the development of mechanical refrigeration , which makes ice easy and cheap to produce. Ice is produced in various shapes; crushed ice and Flake Ice , plates, tubes and blocks are commonly used to cool fish. A more recent development is pumpable ice technology.

Seafood Processing - Technology, Quality and Safety

Pumpable ice flows like water, and because it is homogeneous , it cools fish faster than fresh water solid ice methods and eliminates freeze burns. Fish cooling by pumpable ice. Ice manufactured in this ice house is delivered down the Archimedes screw into the ice hold on the boat, Pittenweem. The water activity , a w , in a fish is defined as the ratio of the water vapour pressure in the flesh of the fish to the vapour pressure of pure water at the same temperature and pressure.

It ranges between 0 and 1, and is a parameter that measures how available the water is in the flesh of the fish. Available water is necessary for the microbial and enzymatic reactions involved in spoilage. There are a number of techniques that have been or are used to tie up the available water or remove it by reducing the a w.

Traditionally, techniques such as drying , salting and smoking have been used, and have been used for thousands of years. These techniques can be very simple, for example, by using solar drying. In more recent times, freeze-drying , water binding humectants , and fully automated equipment with temperature and humidity control have been added.

Often a combination of these techniques is used. Fish barn with fish drying in the sun — Van Gogh Platforms, called fish flakes , where cod dry in the sun before being packed in salt. Reconstruction of the Roman fish-salting plant at Neapolis. Ruins of the Port Eynon Salt House — seawater was boiled to extract salt for preserving fish. Heat or ionizing irradiation can be used to kill the bacteria that cause decomposition.

Heat is applied by cooking, blanching or microwave heating in a manner that pasteurizes or sterilizes fish products. Cooking or pasteurizing does not completely inactivate microorganisms and may need to be followed with refrigeration to preserve fish products and increase their shelf life. Microbial growth and proliferation can be inhibited by a technique called biopreservation. Most bacteria stop multiplying when the pH is less than 4.



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